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Baibulo Linapulumuka Modabwitsa

Baibulo Linapulumuka Modabwitsa

KUYAMBIRA kale, Baibulo ndi buku limene lafalitsidwa kwambiri kuposa buku lina lililonse. Tikunena pano, Mabaibulo pafupifupi 5 biliyoni afalitsidwa kale. Mwachitsanzo, m’chaka cha 2007 chokha, Mabaibulo oposa 64,600,000 anasindikizidwa. M’chaka chimenechi Baibulo ndi buku limene linafalitsidwa kwambiri chifukwa buku lina lomwe amati linayenda malonda kwambiri padziko lonse, linasindikizidwa makope 12 miliyoni okha ku United States.

Kuti lifike pamenepa, Baibulo lapulumuka ku zinthu zambiri. Kuyambira kale, Baibulo lakhala likuletsedwa ndiponso kuwotchedwa. Munthu akangoyesa kumasulira Baibulo ankazunzidwa, ngakhale kuphedwa kumene. Komatu, chinthu choopsa kwambiri chimene chikanachititsa kuti Baibulo liwonongeke si kuwotchedwa kwake kapena kuzunzidwa kwa anthu amene anali nalo, koma chinali kuwonongeka kwa mapepala ake. N’chifukwa chiyani zili choncho?

Baibulo lapangidwa ndi mabuku 66. Ndipo mwa mabuku amenewa, mabuku ena analembedwa komanso kuikidwa pamodzi ndi Aisiraeli, zaka zoposa 3,000 zapitazo. Anthu amene analemba Baibulo komanso amene analikopera analilemba pazinthu zosachedwa kuwonongeka, monga pamipukutu yamapepala a gumbwa ndi zikopa. Mpaka pano, mipukutu yoyambirirayi sinapezekebe. Koma akatswiri apeza zidutswa zambirimbiri zochita kukopera za mabuku a m’Baibulo. Chidutswa chimodzi cha mabuku amenewa, ndi cha Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane, chomwe chinakopedwa patapita zaka makumi angapo, mtumwi Yohane atangomaliza kulemba bukuli.

“Anthu amene anamasulira Mabaibulo kuchokera ku Baibulo la Chiheberi [Chipangano Chakale] anamasulira molondola kwambiri kuposa amene anamasulira mabuku wamba akale kuchokera ku Chigiriki ndi Chilatini.”​—Anatero pulofesa Julio Trebolle Barrera

N’chifukwa chiyani zili zodabwitsa kuti mabuku onse a m’Baibulo anapulumuka? Nanga kodi uthenga umene uli m’Mabaibulo a masiku ano ndi wofanana ndi umene unali m’mipukutu ya Baibulo yoyambirira?

Kodi Zolembedwa Zina Zakale Zinapita Kuti?

Poganizira zimene zinachitikira zolemba za anthu amitundu ina a m’nthawi ya Aisiraeli, n’zochititsa chidwi kwambiri kuti Baibulo linapulumuka. Mwachitsanzo, m’zaka za m’ma 1000 B.C.E. anthu a ku Foinike ankakhala pafupi ndi Aisiraeli. Anthu amenewa, omwe anali amalonda, anafalitsa kalembedwe kawo kumadera onse ozungulira nyanja ya Mediterranean. Anthu a ku Foinike ankapindula kwambiri ndi malonda a mapepala a gumbwa, omwe ankachita ndi anthu a ku Iguputo ndiponso ku Girisi. Ngakhale zinali choncho, ponena za anthu a ku Foinike, magazini ina inati: “Zimene anthuwa analemba pamapepala a gumbwa, omwe sachedwa kuwonongeka, zinawola. Choncho, zimene timadziwa za anthu amenewa ndi zoipa zokhazokha zimene adani awo analemba. Ngakhale kuti anthu a ku Foinike anali ndi mabuku ambirimbiri, onse anatha kalekale.”​—National Geographic.

Nanga bwanji zimene anthu akale a ku Iguputo analemba? Zithunzi zimene anazilemba ndiponso kupenta pamakoma a akachisi komanso m’malo ena zilipo. Anthu a ku Iguputo amatchukanso kuti ndi amene anayambitsa zolemba pamapepala a gumbwa. Komabe, pofotokoza zimene anthu a ku Iguputo analemba pamapepala a gumbwa, katswiri wina wofufuza zinthu zakale za ku Iguputo, dzina lake K. A. Kitchen anati: “Zikuoneka kuti pafupifupi mapepala onse amene analembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 3000 B.C.E. mpaka nthawi ya ulamuliro wa Agiriki ndi Aroma, anawonongeka.”

 Nanga bwanji zinthu zimene Aroma analemba pamapepala a gumbwa? Taonani chitsanzo ichi: Buku lina lonena za asilikali achiroma linafotokoza kuti asilikali ankalipidwa katatu pachaka ndipo malisiti ake anali a mapepala a gumbwa. (Roman Military Records on Papyrus) Zikuoneka kuti m’zaka 300, kuyambira pamene Augustus anakhala mfumu ya Roma mu 27 B.C.E., mpaka m’nthawi ya Diocletian, amene anamaliza kulamulira mu 305 C.E., panali malisiti 225,000,000. Pamalisiti amenewa, kodi ndi angati omwe adakalipo masiku ano? Ndi awiri okha amene ali abwinobwino.

N’chifukwa chiyani zolembedwa pamapepala a gumbwa zilipo zochepa kwambiri masiku ano? Zinthu monga mapepala a gumbwa ndiponso zikopa, sizichedwa kuwola zikakhala m’malo achinyezi. Buku lina limati: “Chifukwa cha chinyezi, zikuoneka kuti mapepala a gumbwa omwe analembedwa panthawiyi [m’ma 1000 B.C.E.] ankakhala nthawi yaitali ngati asungidwa pamalo ouma, m’phanga kapena m’nyumba.”​—The Anchor Bible Dictionary.

Nanga Bwanji Baibulo?

Zikuoneka kuti mipukutu ya Baibulo yoyambirira inalembedwa pamapepala osachedwa kuwonongeka ofanana ndi amene anthu a ku Foinike, Iguputo komanso a ku Roma ankagwiritsa ntchito. Ndiyeno, kodi zinatheka bwanji kuti mabuku a m’Baibulo apulumuke, kufika pokhala buku lomwe lafalitsidwa kwambiri kuposa mabuku onse padziko lonse? Pulofesa wina dzina lake James L. Kugel anatchula chifukwa chimodzi. Iye ananena kuti mipukutu yoyambirira “inakopedwa mobwerezabwereza panthawi imene inkalembedwa.”

Kodi uthenga umene uli m’Mabaibulo a masiku ano ndi wofanana ndi umene unali m’mipukutu yoyambirirayo? Pulofesa winanso, dzina lake Julio Trebolle Barrera, yemwe anali m’gulu la akatswiri omwe anafufuza ndiponso kufalitsa za mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufa, ananena kuti: “Anthu amene anamasulira Mabaibulo kuchokera ku Baibulo la Chiheberi anamasulira molondola kwambiri kuposa amene anamasulira mabuku wamba akale kuchokera ku Chigiriki ndi Chilatini.” Komanso katswiri wina wa Baibulo wotchuka kwambiri, dzina lake F. F. Bruce anati: “Pali umboni wochuluka wakuti mabuku a Chipangano Chatsopano anamasuliridwa molondola kwambiri kuposa mabuku wamba. Komabe anthu sakayikira n’komwe zomwe zili mabuku wambawo.” Iye anapitiriza kuti: “Zikanakhala kuti Chipangano Chatsopano ndi mabuku wamba, sibwenzi anthu akukayikira kuti mabuku ake anamasuliridwa molondola.” Apa ndi zoonekeratu kuti Baibulo ndi buku lochititsa chidwi kwambiri. Ndiyeno kodi mumapeza nthawi yowerenga Baibulo tsiku lililonse?​—1 Petulo 1:24, 25.