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N’chifukwa Chiyani Muyenera Kukhulupirira Mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino a M’Baibulo?

N’chifukwa Chiyani Muyenera Kukhulupirira Mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino a M’Baibulo?

Ponena za mabuku enaake otchuka, magazini ina ya ku Brazil inati: ‘Mabuku amenewa atchuka kwambiri. Nkhani za m’mabukuwa zalimbikitsa anthu kupanga mafilimu amene awapezetsa ndalama zankhaninkhani ndiponso kulemba mabuku amene atchuka kwambiri. Magulu ena achikhristu ayamba kutsatira za m’mabuku amenewa. Komanso achititsa anthu ena kuyambitsa zipembedzo zina ndiponso mfundo zotsutsa Baibulo.’​—SUPER INTERESSANTE.

KODI ndi mabuku otani amene ankawachemerera chonchiwa? Magaziniyi inkakamba za mabuku achinyengo omwe panopo atchuka kwambiri. Mabukuwa analembedwa moyerekezera mabuku a m’Baibulo a Uthenga Wabwino, makalata a atumwi ndiponso buku la Chivumbulutso. Anafukulidwa pansi cha m’ma 1940 kumudzi wotchedwa Nag Hammadi ndi malo enanso m’dziko la Egypt. Mabuku amenewa, ndi enanso otere, analembedwa ndi anthu a gulu lina la mpatuko limene linayambika atumwi atafa. *

Kodi Panachitikadi Zachinyengo?

Masiku ano anthu ambiri amakaikira Baibulo ndiponso zipembedzo zikuluzikulu, motero mabuku achinyengowa akukondedwa kwambiri. Nkhani za m’mabuku achinyengowa zachititsa anthu ambiri kukayikira ziphunzitso za Yesu Khristu ndiponso Chikhristu. Magazini ina inati: “Masiku ano anthu ambiri ayamba kutengeka kwambiri ndi buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Tomasi ndiponso mabuku ena achinyengo owonjezera pa mabuku a m’Baibulo. Anthu amene akutengeka ndi mabukuwa ndi amene amafunitsitsa kudziwa zinthu zauzimu koma amakayikira zipembedzo zonse.” Ofufuza apeza kuti ku Brazil kokha “kuli magulu oposa 30 otsatira ziphunzitso za m’mabuku achinyengowa.”

Kupezeka kwa mabuku amenewa kwachititsa anthu ambiri kukhulupirira maganizo oti m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E., tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkafuna kubisa choonadi chokhudza Yesu. Iwo amati tchalitchichi  chinabisa zinthu zina zokhudza moyo wa Yesu zimene zikupezeka m’mabuku achinyengowa, ndipo chinasintha zinthu zina m’mabuku anayi a Uthenga Wabwino amene ali m’Mabaibulo masiku ano. Elaine Pagels, yemwe ndi pulofesa wa zachipembedzo ananena kuti: “Tsopano tazindikira kuti zikhulupiriro zonse zachikhristu zimene takhala tikuzidziwa n’zochokera pa mabuku ochepa chabe amene anasankhidwa pa mabuku ambirimbiri amene analipo kalelo.”

Akatswiri angati Pagels amakhulupirira kuti zikhulupiriro zachikhristu siziyenera kuchokera m’Baibulo basi, koma ziyenera kuchokeranso m’mabuku ena, monga mabuku owonjezera amene apezeka. Mwachitsanzo, pa pulogalamu ya Chingelezi yotchedwa Zinsinsi za Baibulo ya pa BBC, anakambirana nkhani yakuti Mariya Mmagadala Weniweni, ndipo katswiri wina ananena kuti mabuku owonjezera pa amene ali m’Baibulo amasonyeza kuti Mariya Mmagadala anali “mphunzitsi ndiponso mtsogoleri wa ophunzira ena onse pa zinthu zauzimu. Iye sanali wophunzira wamba ayi, koma anali mtumwi wa atumwi ena onse.” Pothirira ndemanga pa maganizo amenewa, Juan Arias analemba m’nyuzipepala ina ya ku Brazil kuti: “Masiku ano chilichonse chikutipangitsa kukhulupirira kuti gulu la Akhristu loyambirira, limene linayambitsidwa ndi Yesu, linkayendetsedwa kwambiri ndi akazi chifukwa matchalitchi oyambirira anali m’nyumba za akazi ndipo akaziwa ankatsogolera zinthu zonse chifukwa ankakhala ansembe ndi mabishopu.”​—O Estado de S. Paulo.

Anthu ochuluka akukhulupirira kwambiri mabuku achinyengowa kuposa Baibulo. Zimenezi zikubweretsa mafunso ofunika kuwaganizira, monga awa: Kodi mabuku achinyengowa ndi oyenereradi kuti Akhristu aziwakhulupirira n’kumatsatira mfundo zake? Ngati zimene zili m’mabukuwa zikusiyana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena, kodi tiyenera kukhulupirira chiyani pakati pa Baibulo ndi mabuku achinyengowa? Kodi ndi zoona kuti m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E., anthu ena anabisa mabukuwa kuti asadziwike ndiponso anasintha zina n’zina m’mabuku anayi a Uthenga Wabwino kuti achotse zinthu zina zofunika zokhudza Yesu, Mariya Mmagadala ndiponso anthu ena? Kuti tiyankhe mafunso amenewa tiyeni tikambirane buku limodzi la Uthenga Wabwino, lomwe ndi Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane.

Umboni Wochokera M’buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane

Mbali yofunika kwambiri ya mpukutu umene analembamo Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane inapezeka ku Egypt kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 1900 ndipo panopa umatchedwa kuti Papyrus Rylands 457 (P52). Mpukutu umenewu uli ndi mawu amene amapezeka pa Yohane 18:31-33, 37, 38, ndipo ukusungidwa kunyumba yosungira mabuku yotchedwa John Rylands Library, yomwe ili ku Manchester, m’dziko la England. Umenewu ndi mpukutu wakale pa mipukutu yonse yolembedwa pamanja imene amagwiritsira ntchito pomasulira Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu. Akatswiri ambiri amakhulupirira kuti mpukutuwu unalembedwa cha mu 125 C.E. Apa n’kuti patangodutsa zaka zoposa 25 zokha kuchokera pamene Yohane anamwalira. Koma chochititsa chidwi kwambiri n’chakuti mawu amene ali mumpukutuwu amafanana kwambiri ndi mawu amene ali m’mipukutu ina imene inalembedwa mtsogolo mwake. Izi zikusonyeza kuti mpukutu wa Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane unafika kale kwambiri ku Egypt kumene unafukulidwa. Zimenezi zikutsimikizira mfundo yakuti buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane linalembedwa chaka cha 100 C.E. chisanafike. Zikutsimikiziranso zimene Baibulo limanena kuti bukuli linalembedwa ndi Yohane mwiniwakeyo. Choncho, buku la Yohane linalembedwa ndi munthu amene anaona ndi maso ake zimene analembazo.

Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, mabuku onse achinyengo owonjezera pa mabuku a m’Baibulo anayamba kulembedwa chaka cha 100 C.E. chitadutsa kale, ndipo panali patadutsa zaka 100 kapena kuposa, kuchokera pamene zinthu zofotokozedwa m’mabukumo zinachitika. Akatswiri ena amanena kuti polemba mabuku  owonjezerawa anachita kutengera zimene zinalembedwa m’mabuku ena akale kapena zimene anthu ena akale ankafotokoza. Koma zimenezi zilibe umboni. Motero tingafunse kuti, Kodi muyenera kukhulupirira kwambiri chiyani pakati pa umboni wa anthu oona ndi maso awo ndi wa anthu amene anakhalapo patapita zaka zambiri zinthu zimene amafotokozazo zitachitika? Apa yankho lake n’lachidziwikire. *

Mpukutu wotchedwa Papyrus Rylands 457 (P52), womwe ndi mbali ya mpukutu wa buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane umene unalembedwa kumayambiriro kwa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., patangotha zaka zochepa chabe kuchokera pamene Yohane analemba buku lake.

Nanga kodi ndi zoona kuti mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino anasinthidwa pofuna kubisa nkhani zina zokhudza moyo wa Yesu? Mwachitsanzo, kodi pali umboni uliwonse wotsimikizira kuti buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane linasinthidwa m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E. pofuna kubisa zina zimene zinachitikadi? Kuti tiyankhe funso limeneli tiyenera kuganizira mfundo yakuti mpukutu umodzi wodalirika umene amagwiritsa ntchito pomasulira Mabaibulo a masiku ano ndi mpukutu wa Vatican 1209, womwe unalembedwa pamanja m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E. Ngati zinthu zina zinasinthidwa m’Baibulo cha m’ma 300 C.E., ndiye kuti mpukutu umenewu uyeneranso kuti unasinthidwa. Koma chosangalatsa n’chakuti palinso mpukutu wina umene uli ndi mbali yaikulu ya buku la Luka ndi la Yohane. Mpukutuwu umatchedwa Bodmer 14, 15 (P75), ndipo unalembedwa m’zaka zapakati pa 175 C.E. ndi 225 C.E. Akatswiri amanena kuti zimene zinalembedwa mumpukutu umenewu ndi zofanana kwambiri ndi zimene zili mumpukutu wa Vatican 1209. Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino a m’Baibulo adakali mmene analili ndithu ndipo mpukutu wa Vatican 1209 ukutsimikizira zimenezi.

Palibe umboni uliwonse wosonyeza kuti mawu a m’buku la Yohane, kapena a m’mabuku ena a m’Baibulo a Uthenga Wabwino, anasinthidwa m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E. Pulofesa wina wa pa yunivesite ya Cambridge, dzina lake Dr. Peter M. Head, anaunika bwinobwino zimene zili m’mipukutu ina ing’onoing’ono imene inafukulidwa ku Oxyrhynchus, m’dziko la Egypt. Atamaliza ntchitoyi iye anati: “Zimene zili m’mipukutu imeneyi zikusonyeza kuti zimene zinalembedwa m’mipukutu ya zilembo zikuluzikulu ndi zoona [mipukutu ya zilembo zikuluzikuluzi inalembedwa pamanja kuyambira m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E.]. Mipukutu imeneyi ndi imene imagwiritsidwa ntchito pomasulira Mabaibulo odalirika kwambiri a masiku ano. M’mipukutu imeneyi mulibe chilichonse chosiyana kwambiri ndi zimene zinalembedwa m’mipukutu yoyambirira imene inagwiritsidwa ntchito pomasulira Chipangano Chatsopano.”

Kodi Zoona Zenizeni N’zotani?

Akhristu onse amene anakhalako chisanafike chaka cha 150 C.E. ankakhulupirira zimene zili m’mabuku anayi ovomerezeka a Uthenga Wabwino, omwe ndi Mateyo, Maliko, Luka ndi Yohane. Wolemba mabuku wina wa ku Syria, dzina lake Tatian, ankakonda kugwiritsira ntchito buku lotchedwa Diatessaron (mawu achigiriki otanthauza “kuchokera mu [mabuku] anayi”). Bukuli linalembedwa m’zaka za pakati pa 160 C.E. ndi 175 C.E. Analilemba pophatikiza nkhani za m’mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino anayi okha ovomerezeka ndipo sanaikemo chilichonse cha m’mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino achinyengo amene analembedwa ndi anthu a m’gulu lampatuko limene linayamba atumwi atafa. (Onani bokosi lakuti  “Umboni Wamakedzana.”) Mfundo inanso yochititsa chidwi ndi imene inanenedwa ndi mkulu wina wa ku Asia Minor, dzina lake Irenaeus, amene anakhalapo m’zaka za ma 100 C.E. Iye ananena kuti payenera kukhala mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino anayi okha chifukwa dzikoli lili ndi ngodya zinayi ndiponso mphepo zinayi basi. Ngakhale kuti ena sangagwirizane ndi chitsanzo chimene anaperekachi, mawu akewa akutsimikizira mfundo yakuti panali mabuku anayi okha a Uthenga Wabwino amene anali ovomerezeka m’nthawi yake.

Kodi mfundo zonsezi zikusonyeza chiyani? Zikusonyeza kuti Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu, kuphatikizapo  mabuku anayi a Uthenga Wabwino amene alipo masiku ano, adakali mmene analili ndithu m’zaka zoyambira mu 100 C.E. Palibe chifukwa chomveka chokhulupirira kuti anthu ena m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E. anasintha kapena kubisa mbali inayake ya Malemba ouziridwa ndi Mulungu. N’chifukwa chake katswiri wina wa Baibulo, dzina lake Bruce Metzger, analemba kuti: “Pofika kumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., . . . panalibe kusiyana maganizo kwenikweni pa nkhani ya mabuku ambiri a m’Chipangano Chatsopano pakati pa anthu a m’mipingo yosiyanasiyana ya m’madera onse ozungulira nyanja ya Mediterranean komanso m’madera ena onse kuyambira ku Britain mpaka ku Mesopotamia.”

Mtumwi Paulo ndi mtumwi Petulo anapereka umboni wakuti Mawu a Mulungu ndi oona. Atumwi onsewa anachenjeza Akhristu kuti asamvere kapena kukhulupirira chilichonse chosemphana ndi zimene anaphunzitsidwa. Mwachitsanzo, m’kalata imene analembera Timoteyo, Paulo anati: “Ndithu Timoteyo, sunga bwino chimene unaikizidwa. Pewa nkhani zopanda pake zimene zimaipitsa zoyera. Upewenso mitsutso pa zimene ena monama amati ndiko ‘kudziwa zinthu.’ Pakuti podzionetsera kudziwa zinthu kotero, ena apatuka pa chikhulupiriro.” Petulo anatsimikizira zimenezi ponena kuti: “Ndithudi, ifeyo sitinatsatire nkhani zonama zopeka mwamachenjera pokudziwitsani za mphamvu ndi za kukhalapo kwa Ambuye wathu Yesu Khristu. Koma tinachita kuona ndi maso athu ulemerero wake.”​—1 Timoteyo 6:20, 21; 2 Petulo 1:16.

Zaka zambirimbiri kalelo Mulungu anauzira mneneri Yesaya kunena kuti: “Udzu unyala, duwa lifota, koma mawu a Mulungu wathu adzakhala nthawi zachikhalire.” (Yesaya 40:8) Ifenso sitiyenera kukayikira ngakhale pang’ono kuti Mulungu, amene anauzira Malemba Oyera, anawatetezera pa zaka zonsezi n’cholinga choti “anthu, kaya akhale a mtundu wotani, apulumuke ndi kukhala odziwa choonadi molondola.”​—1 Timoteyo 2:4.

^ ndime 3 Dzina la gulu lampatuko limeneli (Gnostic) linachokera ku mawu a Chigiriki amene angatanthauze kuti “nzeru zachinsinsi,” ndipo dzina la mabukuwo (Apocrypha) linachokera ku mawu otanthauza “zobisidwa mosamala.” Masiku ano kuli mabuku achinyengo kapena kuti osayenera kukhala m’Baibulo amene analembedwa moyerekezera mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino, buku la Machitidwe, makalata a atumwi ndiponso buku la Chivumbulutso. Ena amati mabukuwa ndi owonjezera pa Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu, koma palibe umboni wotsimikizira zimenezi.

^ ndime 11 Vuto linanso lokhudza mabuku owonjezerawa ndi lakuti amene alipo ndi ochepa kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, mbali ya buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Mariya Mmagadala imene idakalipo, ndi mipukutu iwiri ing’onoing’ono ndiponso mpukutu umodzi wokulirapo umene uli ndi theka lokha la mawu amene analembedwa poyambirira. Komanso, zimene zinalembedwa m’mipukutu imene ilipoyi zimasiyana kwambiri.