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Jerusarema Rekare Rakaparadzwa Rini?—Chikamu Chokutanga

Jerusarema Rekare Rakaparadzwa Rini?—Chikamu Chokutanga

 Jerusarema Rekare Rakaparadzwa Rini?—Chikamu Chokutanga

Chinoita Kuti Zvikoshe Zvinoratidzwa Neuchapupu

Iyi inyaya yokutanga panyaya mbiri dziri mumagazini eNharireyomurindi dzinotaura nezvemibvunzo yakabvunzwa nenyanzvi nezvegore rakaparadzwa Jerusarema rekare. Nyaya mbiri idzi dzinotevedzana dzine mhinduro dzakanyatsotsvakurudzwa uye dzinobva muBhaibheri dzemibvunzo yatemesa musoro vamwe vaverengi.

“Vanyori venhoroondo dzekare uye vanoongorora zvinocherwa mumatongo vanowanzoti Jerusarema rakaparadzwa muna 586 kana kuti 587 B.C.E. * Nei Zvapupu zvaJehovha zvichiti maiva muna 607 B.C.E.? Gore iri munoritora papi?”

MUBVUNZO uyu wakabvunzwa nemumwe wevaverengi vedu. Asi nei tichida kuziva gore chairo rakaparadzwa guta reJerusarema naMambo Nebhukadhinezari II wekuBhabhironi? Chokutanga ndechokuti chiitiko chacho chinoratidza kuchinja kwemamiriro ezvinhu munhoroondo yevanhu vaMwari. Mumwe munyori wezvakaitika akati zvakakonzera “dambudziko guru zvikuru.” Gore racho ndiro rakaparara temberi yaiva muzinda wokunamata Mwari Wemasimbaose kwemakore anodarika 400. Mumwe munyori webhuku reBhaibheri raPisarema akachema-chema achiti: “Haiwa Mwari vakasvibisa tembere yenyu tsvene, Jerusarema vakariita dongo.”—Pisarema 79:1, Bhaibheri muNdimi yeUnion Shona. *

Chechipiri ndechokuti, kuziva gore chairo rakatanga “dambudziko guru” iri uye kunzwisisa kuti kunamata kwechokwadi kwakatangwazve muJerusarema kwakazadzisa sei uprofita hweBhaibheri hwakarurama, kuchawedzera chivimbo chako muShoko raMwari rakavimbika. Saka nei Zvapupu zvaJehovha zvichiomerera pagore rakasiyana nemakore 20 negore rinonzi nevakawanda ndiro chairo? Muchidimbu, chinoita kuti vadaro uchapupu huri muBhaibheri pacharo.

“Makore Makumi Manomwe” Aishanda Kuna Vanaani?

Makore akawanda Jerusarema risati raparadzwa, muprofita wechiJudha Jeremiya akataura chimwe chinhu chinokosha nezvokureba kwenguva inotaurwa muBhaibheri. Akanyevera “vose vaigara muJerusarema” achiti: “Nyika ino yose ichava dongo, uye marudzi aya achashandira mambo weBhabhironi kwemakore makumi manomwe.” (Jeremiya 25:1, 2, 11, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi) Muprofita wacho akazowedzera kuti: “Zvanzi naJehovha, ‘Kana makore makumi manomwe apera muri kuBhabhironi, ndichafunga nezvenyu, uye ndichasimbisa shoko rangu rakanaka kwamuri ndichikudzosai kunzvimbo ino.’” (Jeremiya 29:10) “Makore makumi manomwe” airevei? Uye nguva iyi inotibatsira sei kuziva gore rakaparadzwa Jerusarema?

 Pane kutaura kuti makore 70 “kuBhabhironi,” maBhaibheri akawanda anoti “eBhabhironi.” (Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi) Saka vamwe vanyori venhoroondo dzekare vanoti nguva iyi yemakore 70 inoshanda kuUmambo hweBhabhironi. Maererano nokuverenga nguva kunoitwa nevamwe vanhu, vaBhabhironi vakatonga nyika yekare yeJudha neJerusarema kwemakore 70, kubva munenge muna 609 B.C.E. kusvika muna 539 B.C.E., pakazokundwa guta guru reBhabhironi.

Zvisinei, Bhaibheri rinoratidza kuti makore 70 aizova nguva yokurangwa naMwari kwakasimba kwainyanyonanga vanhu veJudha neJerusarema, vaiva musungano yaida kuti vamuteerere. (Eksodho 19:3-6) Pavakaramba kusiya nzira dzavo dzakaipa, Mwari akati: “Ndichadana . . . Nebhukadhinezari mambo weBhabhironi . . . kuzorwa nenyika ino navanogaramo uye nendudzi dzose dzakavapoteredza.” (Jeremiya 25:4, 5, 8, 9, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi) Kunyange zvazvo marudzi aiva pedyo aizonetsekawo nezvaizoitwa neBhabhironi, kuparadzwa kweJerusarema uye kutapwa kwaizoitwa vanhu kwemakore 70 kwakanzi naJeremiya “kurangwa kwavanhu vangu,” nokuti Jerusarema “rakatadza zvikuru kwazvo.”—Mariro 1:8; 3:42; 4:6, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi.

Saka maererano neBhaibheri, makore 70 aiva nguva yokurangwa kwakaipisisa kwevaJudha, uye Mwari akashandisa vaBhabhironi senzira yokupa nayo chirango ichi chakasimba. Asi Mwari akaudza vaJudha kuti: “Panopera makore makumi manomwe, . . . ndichakudzoserai kunzvimbo ino,” kunyika yeJudha neJerusarema.—Jeremiya 29:10, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi.

“Makore Makumi Manomwe” Anotangira Papi?

Ezra, munyori akafuridzirwa wezvakaitika kare uyo akararama pashure pokuzadzika kweuprofita hwaJeremiya hwemakore 70, akanyora nezvaMambo Nebhukadhinezari achiti: “Akatakura vose vakanga vasara muutapwa avo vakanga vapunyuka kubva pamunondo uye vakava varanda vake nevevanakomana vake kusvikira pakutanga umambo hwePezhia kutonga. Nyika yakava namaSabata ayo ezororo; panguva yose yokuparadzwa kwayo yakazorora, kusvikira makore makumi manomwe apera kuti Shoko raJehovha rakataurwa naJeremia rizadziswe.”—2 Makoronike 36:20, 21, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi.

Nokudaro, makore 70 inguva yokuti nyika yeJudha neJerusarema dzaizova ‘nemasabata okuzorora.’ Izvi zvaireva kuti nyika yacho yaisazorimwa, vaisazodyara mbeu kana kuti kuchekerera minda yemizambiringa. (Revhitiko 25:1-5, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi) Pamusana pokusateerera kwevanhu vaMwari, avo vaiva nezvivi zvingave zvaisanganisira kukundikana kuchengeta makore ose eSabata, chirango chacho chaiva chokuti nyika yavo yaizogara isingarimwi uye iri dongo kwemakore 70.—Revhitiko 26:27, 32-35, 42, 43.

Nyika yeJudha yakava dongo rini? Zvakaitika ndezvokuti, vaBhabhironi vachitungamirirwa naNebhukadhinezari vakakomba Jerusarema kaviri mumakore akasiyana. Makore 70 akatanga rini? Zviri pachena kuti haana kutangira panguva yakakombwa Jerusarema kokutanga naNebhukadhinezari. Nei tichidaro? Kunyange zvazvo panguva iyoyo Nebhukadhinezari akatapa vanhu vakawanda kubva kuJerusarema achienda navo kuBhabhironi, akasiya vamwe munyika yacho. Haanawo kuparadza guta racho. Kwemakore akawanda pashure pokutapa uku kwokutanga, vaya vakasara vari muJudha, “vanhu vakaderera,” vakaramba vari munyika yacho. (2 Madzimambo 24:8-17) Asi zvinhu zvakabva zvachinja zvikuru.

Kupandukira kwevaJudha kwakaita kuti vaBhabhironi vadzoke kuJerusarema. (2 Madzimambo 24:20; 25:8-10) Vakaparadza guta racho pamwe chete netemberi yaro tsvene, vachibva vatora vaJudha vakawanda senhapwa vakaenda navo kuBhabhironi. Mumwedzi miviri chete, “vanhu vose [vakanga vasara munyika yacho] kubva kuvadiki kusvika kuvakuru navakuru vehondo pamwe chete vakatizira kuIjipiti, vachitya vaBhabhironi.” (2 Madzimambo 25:25, 26, Bhaibheri Dzvene muChishona Chanhasi) Mumwedzi wechinomwe wechiJudha, Tishri (September/October), wegore iroro ndipo pazvinogona kunzi nyika yacho, iyo yakanga yava dongo uye isingarimwi, yakatanga kuva nemaSabata ayo ezororo. Achishandisa Jeremiya, Mwari akaudza vapoteri vechiJudha vaiva muIjipiti kuti: “Makaona zvakaipa zvose zvandakauyisa pamusoro peJerusarema napamusoro pamaguta  ose aJudha, zvino tarirai, nhasi ava matongo, hapachina munhu anogaramo.” (Jeremiya 44:1, 2, Bhaibheri muNdimi yeUnion Shona) Saka zvinoita sokuti pachiitiko ichi ndipo pakatangira makore 70. Raiva gore ripi iroro? Kuti tiwane mhinduro yacho, tinofanira kuona kuti nguva iyoyo yakaguma rini.

“Makore Makumi Manomwe” Akaguma Rini?

Muprofita Dhanieri, uyo akararama kusvikira “umambo hwePezhiya hwatanga kutonga,” aiva muBhabhironi parakaparadzwa uye akaverenga kuti makore 70 aizoguma rini. Akanyora kuti: “Ini Dhanieri ndakanzwisisa mumabhuku kuti makore mangani akanga audzwa muprofita Jeremiya neshoko raJehovha kusvikira pakupera kwokuparadzwa kweJerusarema, kuti aiva makore makumi manomwe.”—Dhanieri 9:1, 2, Bhaibheri muNdimi yeUnion Shona.

Ezra akafungisisa nezvouprofita hwaJeremiya ndokunyora kuti “makore makumi manomwe akapera . . . [apo] ISHE akamutsa mwoyo waKoreshi mambo wePezhiya, zvokuti akaita kuti kushevedzera kuitwe.” (2 Makoronike 36:21, 22, NIV) VaJudha vakasunungurwa rini? Murayiro wokuti vasunungurwe wakapiwa “mugore rokutanga raKoreshi mambo wePezhiya.” (Ona bhokisi rakanzi  “Gore Rinokosha Munhoroondo.”) Saka pakazosvika chirimo cha537 B.C.E., vaJudha vakanga vadzokera kuJerusarema kuti vatangezve kunamata kwechokwadi.—Ezra 1:1-5; 2:1; 3:1-5.

Saka maererano nemaverengerwo enguva muBhaibheri, makore 70 aiva nguva chaiyo yakaguma muna 537 B.C.E. Tikaverenga makore 70 tichidzoka shure, nguva yacho yaizotangira mugore ra607 B.C.E.

Asi kana uchapupu huri muMagwaro akafuridzirwa huchinyatsoratidza kuti Jerusarema rakaparadzwa muna 607 B.C.E., nei nyanzvi dzakawanda dzichiomerera pagore ra587 B.C.E.? Dzinotora  mashoko muzvinyorwa zviviri—zvenyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzekare uye chinyorwa chaPtolemy. Zvinyorwa izvi zvinotaura chokwadi kupfuura Magwaro here? Ngationei.

Nyanzvi Dzenhoroondo Dzekare Dzakarurama Zvakadini?

Vanyori venhoroondo dzekare vakararama mumazuva okuparadzwa kweJerusarema vakataura mashoko anopesana nezvemadzimambo oUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi. * (Ona bhokisi rakanzi  “Madzimambo oUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi.”) Kutevedzana kwezviitiko zvinotaurwa nevanyori ava nenguva yavanoti zvakaitika, hazvienderani nekuverengwa kunoitwa nguva muBhaibheri. Asi zvinyorwa zvavo zvinotaura chokwadi here?

Mumwe munyori wezvakaitika kare akararama mumazuva chaiwo oUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi aiva Berossus, “mupristi waBheri” wekuBhabhironi. Bhuku raakatanga kunyora munenge muna 281 B.C.E., rinonzi Babyloniaca, harisisipo, asi mamwe mapeji aro akachengetedzwa mumabhuku evamwe vanyori venhoroondo dzekare. Berossus akati akashandisa “mabhuku akanga akanyatsochengetedzwa kuBhabhironi.”1 Asi Berossus ainyora nhoroondo dzakarurama here? Ona muenzaniso mumwe chete.

Berossus akanyora kuti Mambo Saniheribhi weAsiriya akava mambo pashure “pokutonga kwemukoma wake”; uye “akazoteverwa nemwanakomana wake [Esari-hadhoni uyo akatonga] kwemakore 8; uye pashure pacho Sammuges [Shamash-shuma-ukin] akatonga kwemakore 21.” (III, 2.1, 4) Asi zvinyorwa zveBhabhironi zvakanyorwa nguva yakararama Berossus isati yasvika zvinoti Saniheribhi akatevera baba vake Sagoni II pakutonga, kwete mukoma wake; Esari-hadhoni akatonga kwemakore 12, kwete 8; uye Shamash-shuma-ukin akatonga kwemakore 20, kwete 21. Kunyange zvazvo nyanzvi R. J. van der Spek aibvuma kuti Berossus akaongorora zvinyorwa zvechiBhabhironi, akanyora kuti: “Izvi hazvina kumutadzisa kuwedzeredza uye kutsanangura nepake.”2

Dzimwe nyanzvi dzinoona sei Berossus? “Kare Berossus aiwanzotorwa somunyori wenhoroondo dzekare,” anodaro S. M. Burstein, uyo akanyatsoongorora zvakanyorwa naBerossus. Asi akagumisa kuti: “Zvaakanyora hazvikodzeri kuti anzi munyori wenhoroondo dzekare. Kunyange zvazvo pangosara mapeji mashoma ebhuku rinonzi Babyloniaca, mapeji acho ane zvikanganiso zvakawanda zvinoshamisa panyaya dzisina kuoma . . . Hazvibvumirwi kuti munyori wezvakaitika kare aite zvikanganiso zvakadaro, asi chinangwa chaBerossus chakanga chisiri chokutaura zvakaitika kare.”3

Unofungei nezvataurwa pamusoro apa? Maverengero aiita Berossus nguva anofanira kuonekwa seakarurama ose zvawo here? Zvakadini nenyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzekare idzo dzainyanya kuverenga nguva dzichitevedzera zvakanyorwa naBerossus? Zvavakanyora zvinogona kunzi ndezvechokwadi here?

Chinyorwa chaPtolemy

Chinyorwa choUmambo chaClaudius Ptolemy, muongorori wenyeredzi wemuzana remakore rechipiri C.E., chinoshandiswawo kutsigira gore  ra587 B.C.E. Mazita emadzimambo akanyorwa naPtolemy anonzi ndiwo aishandiswa pakuverenga nguva kare, kusanganisira nguva yoUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi.

Ptolemy akanyora mazita aya makore anenge 600 pashure pokuguma kwenguva yoUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi. Saka akaziva sei gore rakatanga kutonga mambo wokutanga pane vaakanyora ava? Ptolemy akatsanangura kuti akashandisa maverengerwo anoitwa nguva nevaongorori venyeredzi, kusanganisira kuora kwemwedzi, “kuongorora nguva yakatanga kutonga Nabonassar,” mambo wokutanga pamadzimambo aya.Saka, Christopher Walker weBritish Museum anoti chinyorwa chaPtolemy chaiva “chakagadzirirwa kuti vaongorori venyeredzi vaverenge nguva zvakafanana kwete kuti chipe vanyori venhoroondo dzekare mashoko chaiwo okutanga kutonga uye okufa kwemadzimambo.”5

Leo Depuydt, mumwe wevatsigiri vakuru vaPtolemy akanyora kuti, “Kwenguva yakareba zvave zvichizivikanwa kuti Chinyorwa chacho chinogona kuvimbwa nacho kana totaura nezvekuongorora nyeredzi, asi hazvirevi hazvo kuti nhoroondo dzakaitika kare dziri imomo ndedzechokwadi.” Nezvemazita aya emadzimambo, Muzvinafundo Depuydt anowedzera kuti: “Kana totaura nezvevatongi vepakutanga [vaisanganisira madzimambo oUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi], Chinyorwa chacho chaifanira kuenzaniswa nechinyorwa checuneiform kuti nguva yakatonga mambo mumwe nomumwe izivikanwe.”6

“Chinyorwa checuneiform” ichi chinoita kuti tikwanise kuongorora kururama kwechinyorwa chaPtolemy, chii? Chinosanganisira zvinyorwa zvechiBhabhironi, mazita emadzimambo, uye mahwendefa ebhizimisi, kureva zvinyorwa zvecuneiform zvakanyorwa nevanyori vakararama mumazuva oUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi.7

Mazita akanyorwa naPtolemy akasiyana papi neari muchinyorwa checuneiform? Bhokisi rakanzi  “Chinyorwa chaPtolemy Chakasiyana Sei Nemahwendefa Ekare?” (ona bhokisi riri pasi apa), rinoratidza chikamu chechinyorwa chacho uye kusiyana kwachakaita nechinyorwa chekare checuneiform. Ona kuti Ptolemy akanyora madzimambo mana chete pakati pevatongi veBhabhironi vanoti Kandalanu naNabonidus. Asi mazita ari muchinyorwa chinonzi Uruk King List, chinova chikamu chechinyorwa checuneiform, chinoratidza kuti paiva  nemadzimambo manomwe akatonga pakati pavo. Vakatonga kwenguva pfupi zvokuti zvakanga zvisingakoshi kunyora nezvavo here? Mahwendefa ebhizimisi ecuneiform, anoratidza kuti mumwe wavo akatonga kwemakore manomwe.8

Panewo uchapupu hwakasimba muzvinyorwa zvecuneiform hwokuti Nabopolassar (mambo wokutanga woUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi) asati ava kutonga, mumwe mambo (Ashur-etel-ilani) akatonga kwemakore mana muBhabhironi. Uyewo, munyika macho makanga musina mambo kwerinopfuura gore.9 Asi zvose izvi hazvimo muchinyorwa chaPtolemy.

Nei Ptolemy asina kunyora vamwe vatongi? Zviri pachena kuti aiona sokuti havana kukodzera kuva vatongi veBhabhironi.10 Somuenzaniso, haana kunyora Labashi-Marduk, mumwe wemadzimambo oUmambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi. Asi zvinyorwa zvecuneiform zvinoti madzimambo asina kunyorwa naPtolemy akatotonga Bhabhironi.

Chinyorwa chaPtolemy chinowanzonzi chakarurama. Asi tichifunga nezvezvimwe zvachakasiya, chinofanira kushandiswa here sechakanyatsovimbika pakutsanangura zvinhu zvakaitika kare?

Mhedziso Inobva Pauchapupu Uhwu

Bhaibheri rinotaura zvakajeka kuti vanhu vakatapwa kwemakore 70. Pane uchapupu hwakasimba uye hunobvumwa nenyanzvi dzakawanda hwokuti nhapwa dzechiJudha dzakanga dzadzoka kunyika kwadzo muna 537 B.C.E. Tikaverenga makore 70 tichidzoka kumashure kubva mugore iri tinosvika mugore ra607 B.C.E. rakaparadzwa Jerusarema. Kunyange zvazvo zvakanyorwa nenyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzekare uye chinyorwa chaPtolemy zvisingabvumi kuti gore iri ndiro rakaparadzwa Jerusarema, hatina chokwadi kana zvinyorwa zvavo zvakarurama. Chokwadi, uchapupu huviri uhwu hahumbopi umboo hwakakwana hungaita kuti maverengerwo anoitwa nguva muBhaibheri anzi haana kururama.

Zvisinei, panoramba paine mimwe mibvunzo. Ichokwadi here kuti hapana uchapupu hwekare hunotsigira gore rinotaurwa muBhaibheri ra607 B.C.E.? Zvinyorwa zvecuneiform, zvakawanda zvacho zvakanyorwa nevanhu vekare vakaona zviitiko zvacho, zvinopa here uchapupu hwokuti zvinhu izvi zvakaitika rini? Tichakurukura mibvunzo iyi mumagazini yedu inotevera.

[Mashoko Omuzasi]

^ ndima 4 Pane mabhuku anotaura nezvemakore iwayo ose ari maviri. Kuti zvive nyore, tichashandisa gore ra587 B.C.E., munyaya idzi dzakatevedzana. B.C.E. zvinoreva kuti “Nguva Yavose Isati Yasvika.”

^ ndima 5 Zvapupu zvaJehovha zvakabudisa shanduro yeBhaibheri yakavimbika inozivikanwa seShanduro yeNyika Itsva yeMagwaro Matsvene. Zvisinei, kana usiri mumwe weZvapupu zvaJehovha, ungasarudza kushandisa dzimwe shanduro paunenge uchiongorora nyaya dzeBhaibheri. Nyaya ino inotora mashoko mushanduro dzeBhaibheri dzinoshandiswa nevakawanda.

^ ndima 23 Umambo Hwechipiri hweBhabhironi hwakatanga pakatanga kutonga baba vaNebhukadhinezari, Nabopolassar, uye hwakaguma nokutonga kwaNabhonidhasi. Nguva iyi inofarirwa nenyanzvi nokuti ndiyo ine chikamu chikuru chemakore 70 okuva dongo kweJerusarema.

[Bhokisi/Mifananidzo iri papeji 28]

 GORE RINOKOSHA MUNHOROONDO

Gore ra539 B.C.E, rakakundwa Bhabhironi naKoreshi II, rinowanikwa nokushandisa uchapupu hunotevera:

Zvinyorwa zvenhoroondo dzekare uye mahwendefa ecuneiform: Diodorus wekuSicily (c. 80-20 B.C.E.) akanyora kuti Koreshi akava mambo wePezhiya “mugore rokutanga remakwikwi eolympics echi55.” (Historical Library, Vhoriyumu IX, 21) Gore racho raiva 560 B.C.E. Herodotus munyori wezvakaitika kare (c. 485-425 B.C.E.) akati Koreshi akaurayiwa “pashure pokunge atonga kwemakore 29,” izvo zvinoita kuti rufu rwake ruve muna 530 B.C.E., gore rake rechi30. (Histories, Vhoriyumu I, Clio, 214) Mahwendefa ecuneiform anoratidza kuti Koreshi akatonga Bhabhironi kwemakore mapfumbamwe asati afa. Saka kana tikaverenga makore mapfumbamwe kubva mugore 530 B.C.E. raakafa tichidzoka kumashure, tinosvika mugore ra539 B.C.E., rinova ndiro rakakundwa Bhabhironi naKoreshi.

Uchapupu hunoratidzwa nehwendefa recuneiform: Rimwe hwendefa revhu rainyorwa zvenyeredzi nevaBhabhironi (BM 33066) rinosimbisa kuti Koreshi akafa muna 530 B.C.E. Kunyange zvazvo hwendefa iri riine zvikanganiso zvakati kuti panyaya yekuongorora zvenyeredzi, rine tsanangudzo dzekuora kwemwedzi kuviri uko kwarinoti kwakaitika mugore rechinomwe rekutonga kwaCambyses II, mwana waKoreshi akatonga pashure pake. Kuora kwemwedzi uku ndiko kunonzi kwakaonekwa nevaiva muBhabhironi musi waJuly 16, 523 B.C.E., uye musi waJanuary 10, 522 B.C.E., zvichiratidza kuti pakatanga gore ra523 B.C.E. ndipo pakatangawo gore rechinomwe raCambyses. Zvinobva zvaita kuti gore ra529 B.C.E. rive gore raakatanga kutonga. Saka gore rekupedzisira raKoreshi raizova 530 B.C.E., zvichiita kuti gore ra539 B.C.E. rive gore raakatanga kutonga Bhabhironi.

[Kwazvakatorwa]

Hwendefa: © The Trustees of the British Museum

[Bhokisi riri papeji 31]

PFUPISO

▪ Vanyori venhoroondo dzekare vanowanzotaura kuti Jerusarema rakaparadzwa muna 587 B.C.E.

▪ Maverengerwo anoitwa nguva muBhaibheri anoratidza kuti rakaparadzwa muna 607 B.C.E.

▪ Vanyori vezvakaitika kare vanonyanya kutora zvavanotaura pazvinyorwa zvenyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzekare uye pachinyorwa chaPtolemy.

▪ Zvinyorwa zvenyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzekare zvine zvikanganiso zvakakura uye zvinombopesana nezvakanyorwa pamahwendefa evhu.

[Bhokisi riri papeji 31]

Mamwe Mashoko

1. Babyloniaca (Chaldaeorum Historiae), Vhoriyumu 1, 1.1.

2. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society, peji 295.

3. The Babyloniaca of Berossus, peji 8.

4. Almagest, III, 7, rakashandurwa naG. J. Toomer, muPtolemy’s Almagest, rakabudiswa muna 1998, peji 166. Ptolemy aiziva kuti vanoongorora nyeredzi vokuBhabhironi vaishandisa uzivi hwemasvomhu kuti “vazive” nguva yakaitika uye yaizoitika kuora kwemwedzi nokuti vakaona kuti mwedzi waiora zvakafanana pashure pamakore 18 oga oga.—Almagest, IV, 2.

5. Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period, mapeji 17-18.

6. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vhoriyumu 47, 1995, mapeji 106-107.

7. Cuneiform manyorero aiitwa nemunyori ainyora zviratidzo zvakasiyana-siyana pahwendefa revhu nyoro achishandisa katsono kakapinza.

8. Sin-sharra-ishkun akatonga kwemakore manomwe, uye pane mahwendefa ake 57 ebhizimisi akanyorwa kubva pagore raakatanga kutonga kusvika pane rechinomwe. Ona Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vhoriyumu 35, 1983, mapeji 54-59.

9. Hwendefa rebhizimusi rakanzi C.B.M. 2152 rakanyorwa mugore rechina raAshur-etel-ilani. (Legal and Commercial Transactions Dated in the Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods—Chiefly From Nippur, naA.T. Clay, 1908, peji 74.) Uyewo muHarran Inscriptions of Nabonidus, (H1B), I, pamutsara wechi30, akanyorwa pashure chaipo paNabopolassar. (Anatolian Studies, Vhoriyumu VIII, 1958, mapeji 35, 47.) Nezvenguva yapaisava namambo, ona Nyaya 2, pamutsara wechi14, weAssyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, mapeji 87-88.

10. Dzimwe nyanzvi dzinoti mamwe madzimambo asina kunyorwa naPtolemy, uyo anonzi akanyora madzimambo eBhabhironi chete, nokuti vaidaidzwa nezita rokuti “Mambo weAsiriya.” Zvisinei, sezvauchaona pabhokisi riri papeji 30, madzimambo akawanda ari muchinyorwa chaPtolemy aidanwawo nezita rokuti “Mambo weAsiriya.” Mahwendefa ebhizimusi, tsamba dzecuneiform, uye zvimwe zvakanyorwa zvinonyatsoratidza kuti madzimambo anoti Ashur-etel-ilani, Sin-shumu-lishir, naSin-sharra-ishkun vakatonga Bhabhironi.

[Chati/Mufananidzo uri papeji 29]

 (Kana uchida mashoko azere, ona bhuku racho)

MADZIMAMBO OUMAMBO HWECHIPIRI HWEBHABHIRONI

Kana vanyori vezvakaitika kare ava vachitaura chokwadi, nei vasingabvumirani?

BEROS- POLYHIS- JOSE- PTOL-

SUS TOR PHUS EMY

c. 350-270 105-? 37-?100 c. 100-170

B.C.E. B.C.E. C.E. C.E.

Madzimambo

Nabopo-

lassar 21 20 — 21

Nebhukadhi-

nezari II 43 43 43 43

Amel-

Marduk 2 12 18 2

Neri-

glissar 4 4 40 4

Labashi-

Marduk 9 months — 9 months —

Nabhoni-

dhasi 17 17 17 17

Kureba kwenguva yakatonga mambo wacho (mumakore) maererano nenyanzvi dzenhoroondo dzekare

[Kwazvakatorwa]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Chati/Mifananidzo iri papeji 30]

 (Kana uchida mashoko azere, ona bhuku racho)

CHINYORWA CHAPTOLEMY CHAKASIYANA PAPI NEMAHWENDEFA EKARE?

Ptolemy akarega kunyora mazita emamwe madzimambo. Akazviitirei?

CHINYORWA CHAPTOLEMY

Nabonassar

Nabu-nadin-zeri (Nadinu)

Mukin-zeri uye Pul

Ululayu (Sharimaneseri V)

“Mambo weAsiriya”

Merodhaki-bharadhani

Sagoni II “Mambo weAsiriya”

Nguva Yokutanga Pasina Mambo

Bel-ibni

Ashur-nadin-shumi

Nergal-ushezib

Mushezib-Marduk

Nguva Yechipiri Pasina Mambo CHINYORWA CHINONZI URUK

Esarhaddon “Mambo weAsiriya” KING LIST SEZVINORATIDZWA

Shamash-shuma-ukin PAMAHWENDEFA EKARE

Kandalanu Kandalanu

Sin-shumu-lishir

Sin-sharra-ishkun

Nabopolassar Nabopolassar

Nebhukadhinezari Nebhukadhinezari

Amel-Marduk Amel-Marduk

Neriglissar Neriglissar

Labashi-Marduk

Nabhonidhasi Nabhonidhasi

Koreshi

Cambyses

[Mufananidzo]

Nhoroondo dzevaBhabhironi chimwe chezvinyorwa zvecuneiform zvinotibatsira kuona kana chinyorwa chaPtolemy chakarurama

[Kwazvakatorwa]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Vakatipa Mufananidzo uri papeji 31]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum