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Buku la John Milton Limene Linasowa

Buku la John Milton Limene Linasowa

 Buku la John Milton Limene Linasowa

NDI olemba ochepa amene zolemba zawo zinakhudza moyo wa anthu ambiri ngati John Milton, yemwe analemba ndakatulo yotchuka kwambiri ya Chingelezi yonena za Paradaiso wotayika (Paradise Lost). Munthu wina wolemba mbiri za anthu ananena kuti Milton “ankakondedwa ndi anthu ambiri, ankadedwa ndi anthu ochepa, ndipo ndi anthu owerengeka okha amene sanamvepo za iye.” Mpaka pano, zimene iye analemba zimakhudza kwambiri chikhalidwe ndi kalembedwe ka mabuku ku England.

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani John Milton anali wotchuka kwambiri chonchi? Ndipo n’chifukwa chiyani anthu ambiri sanagwirizane ndi buku lake lomaliza lonena za zikhulupiriro zachikhristu (On Christian Doctrine) moti bukulo linatha zaka 150 lisanasindikizidwe?

Kubadwa ndi Kukula Kwake

John Milton anabadwira m’banja lolemera, m’chaka cha 1608 ku London. Iye analemba kuti: “Ndili wamng’ono, bambo anga ankafuna kuti ndiphunzire luso la kalembedwe ka mabuku. Ndinkakonda kwambiri maphunzirowo moti kuyambira ndili ndi zaka 12 ndinkawerenga mpaka pakati pa usiku.” Milton ankakhoza bwino kusukulu ndipo anapatsidwa digiri yapamwamba ku yunivesite ya Cambridge mu 1632. Anapitiriza kuwerenga mabuku a mbiri yakale ndi mabuku enanso akale olembedwa ndi Agiriki ndiponso Aroma.

Milton ankafuna kukhala wolemba ndakatulo, koma panthawiyi zinthu zinali zitavuta kwambiri pankhani zandale ku England. Nyumba ya malamulo, motsogozedwa ndi Oliver Cromwell, inakhazikitsa khoti lomwe linalamula kuti Mfumu Charles yoyamba inyongedwe mu 1649. Milton analemba nkhani zoikira kumbuyo zimene khotilo linachita ndipo anakhala mneneri wa boma la Cromwell. John Milton asanakhale wolemba ndakatulo wotchuka, anali atadziwika kale ndi zolemba zake zokhudza ndale ndiponso makhalidwe.

Mafumu anayambanso kulamulira ku England pamene Charles wachiwiri anaikidwa kukhala mfumu mu 1660. Zimenezi zinaika moyo wa Milton pangozi chifukwa ankagwirizana ndi Cromwell. Choncho, Milton anathawa ndipo anapulumuka chifukwa chothandizidwa ndi anzake otchuka. Panthawi yonseyi, iye anakhalabe ndi chidwi ndi zinthu zachipembedzo.

Anayerekezera Zikhulupiriro Zake ndi Zimene Baibulo Limanena

Pofotokoza mmene anayambira kukonda zinthu zauzimu, Milton analemba kuti: “Kuyambira ndili wamng’ono, ndinkakonda kwambiri kuwerenga mabuku a Chipangano Chakale ndi Chatsopano m’zilankhulo zoyambirira zimene mabukuwo analembedwa.” Kenako, Milton anayamba kuona kuti ndi Malemba Oyera okha amene munthu angadalire pankhani ya makhalidwe ndiponso zinthu zauzimu. Koma mabuku ofala a chipembedzo amene iye anawerenga mozama sanam’thandize ngakhale pang’ono. Pambuyo pake, iye analemba kuti: “Ndinafika poona kuti mabukuwa sangandithandize pa chikhulupiriro ndiponso pachiyembekezo changa chodzapulumuka.” Anayesetsa kuyerekezera zikhulupiriro zake ndi zimene Baibulo limanena. Ndiyeno anayamba kulemba mavesi ofunika kwambiri a m’Baibulo pansi pa mitu yaikulu ndipo ankagwiritsa ntchito mavesiwo m’nkhani zimene analemba.

Masiku ano, anthu amakumbukira John Milton makamaka chifukwa cha ndakatulo yake ija yonena  za Paradaiso wotayika, yomwe imafotokoza nkhani ya m’Baibulo ya zimene zinachitika kuti anthu asakhalenso angwiro. (Genesis, chaputala 3) Ndakatuloyi, yomwe inafalitsidwa koyamba mu 1667, ndi imene inachititsa kuti Milton atchuke kwambiri m’mayiko olankhula Chingelezi. Kenako iye analemba ndakatulo ina yonena za kubwezeretsedwa kwa Paradaiso (Paradise Regained). Ndakatulo ziwirizi zimafotokoza cholinga cha Mulungu choyambirira choti anthu akhale ndi moyo wabwino padziko lapansi. Zimanenanso kuti Mulungu adzabwezeretsa Paradaiso padziko lapansi kudzera mwa Khristu. Mwachitsanzo, m’ndakatulo yonena za Paradaiso wotayika, mngelo wamkulu Mikayeli ananeneratu za nthawi imene Khristu “adzafupa anthu Ake okhulupirika n’kuwapatsa moyo wosangalala kaya kumwamba kapena padziko lapansi, chifukwa panthawiyo dziko lonse lidzakhala paradaiso. Dzikoli lidzakhala malo osangalatsa kwambiri kuposa munda wa Edene.”

Buku Lonena za Zikhulupiriro Zachikhristu

Kwa zaka zambiri, Milton ankafuna kulemba buku lofotokoza mwatsatanetsatane zikhulupiriro ndi moyo wachikhristu. Ngakhale kuti pofika chaka cha 1652, maso ake anali atasiya kuona, iye anapitirizabe kulemba bukuli mothandizidwa ndi alembi mpaka kufa kwake mu 1674. Milton anapatsa buku lake lomalizali dzina lakuti Nkhani ya Zikhulupiriro Zachikhristu Yotengedwa M’Malemba Oyera Okha. (Bukuli lili m’Chingelezi.) M’mawu ake oyamba, analemba kuti: “Olemba ambiri amene analembapo za nkhaniyi . . . anangolemba mwachidule m’mphepete mwa mabuku awo, mavesi ndi machaputala a malemba omwe ayenera kukhala maziko a zonse zimene amaphunzitsa. Koma ine, ndayesetsa kudzaza buku langa mpaka kusefukira ndi mawu otengedwa m’mbali zonse za Baibulo.” Zimene Milton ananenazi n’zoona chifukwa bukuli limatchula kapena kugwira mawu Malemba nthawi zopitirira 9,000.

Ngakhale kuti m’mbuyomo Milton sankachita mantha kufotokoza maganizo ake, sanafulumire kutulutsa buku limeneli. Chifukwa chiyani? Choyamba, ankadziwa kuti linafotokoza Malemba mosiyana kwambiri ndi zimene matchalitchi ankaphunzitsa. Chachiwiri, iye ankadziwanso kuti kuyambira pamene ulamuliro wachifumu unayambanso, boma silinali kusangalala naye. Choncho, ayenera kuti anali kudikira mpaka kutakhala bata. Kaya zinakhala bwanji, koma zimene tikudziwa n’zakuti Milton atafa, mlembi wake anapititsa bukuli, lomwe linalembedwa m’Chilatini, kwa osindikiza mabuku. Koma iwo anakana kulisindikiza. Nduna ya za m’dziko ku England inalanda bukulo n’kulibisa ndipo panadutsa zaka 150 buku la Milton limeneli lisanapezeke.

Mu 1823, kalaliki wina anapeza buku la wolemba ndakatulo wotchukayu litakutidwa bwino. Mfumu George yachinayi, yomwe inkalamulira nthawi imeneyi ku England, inalamula kuti bukuli limasuliridwe kuchokera ku Chilatini kuti anthu ambiri aliwerenge. Patapita zaka ziwiri, linafalitsidwa m’Chingelezi koma anthu ambiri monga olemba  mabuku ndi achipembedzo sanagwirizane nalo. Bukulo litangotuluka kumene, bishopu wina ananena kuti ndi labodza ndipo sanakhulupirire kuti Milton, yemwe anthu ambiri ankati ndi katswiri wolemba ndakatulo zachipembedzo ku England, akanakana choncho zikhulupiriro zopatulika za matchalitchi. Womasulira bukuli anadziwiratu kuti zimenezi zingachitike ndipo pofuna kuti anthu atsimikizire kuti Milton ndiye analembadi buku limeneli, anawonjezeramo mawu a m’munsi omwe anatchula mfundo 500 za m’bukuli zimene n’zofanana ndi mfundo za m’buku lina lija la Paradaiso wotayika. *

Zimene Milton Ankakhulupirira

Pofika nthawi ya Milton, dziko la England linali litachoka m’tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika n’kukhala la Chipulotesitanti. Apulotesitanti ankakhulupirira kuti Malemba Oyera ndiwo ali ndi mphamvu pankhani ya chikhulupiriro ndi makhalidwe osati papa ayi. Koma m’buku lake lofotokoza zikhulupiriro zachikhristu, Milton anasonyeza kuti zimene Apulotesitanti ankaphunzitsa ndi kuchita zinalinso zosemphana ndi Malemba. Chifukwa cha zimene Baibulo limanena, Milton anakana zimene John Calvin anaphunzitsa zoti Mulungu analemberatu tsogolo la anthu, ndipo Milton anati anthu ali ndi ufulu wosankha zochita. Iye ankalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu, Yehova, ndipo ankalilemba kwambiri m’mabuku ake.

Pogwiritsa ntchito Malemba, Milton anafotokoza kuti munthu alibe mzimu umene sufa. Pofotokoza Genesis 2:7, analemba kuti: “Munthu atalengedwa chonchi, malemba amati: ndipo munthuyo anakhala wamoyo. . . . Munthu si zinthu ziwiri kapena mbali ziwiri, monga mmene ambiri amaganizira, sapangidwa ndi zinthu ziwiri zosiyana, zomwe ndi thupi ndiponso mzimu. M’malo mwake, munthu ndi moyo ndipo moyo ndi munthu.” Kenako, Milton anafunsa kuti: “Kodi chimafa n’chiyani, munthu yense kapena thupi lokha?” Atatchula malemba ambiri osonyeza kuti munthu yense amafa, ananenanso kuti: “Koma mawu ogwira mtima kwambiri onena za kufa ananenedwa ndi Mulungu mwiniwake pa Ezek[ieli 18:]20 kuti: moyo wochimwawo ndiwo udzafa.” Milton anatchulanso malemba monga Luka 20:37 ndi Yohane 11:25 kusonyeza kuti chiyembekezo cha anthu akufa n’choti adzaukitsidwa ku tulo ta imfa.

Kodi n’chiyani chimene anthu anakwiya nacho kwambiri m’buku lake la zikhulupiriro zachikhristu? Anakwiya ndi mfundo yosavuta kumva koma yamphamvu yochokera m’Malemba yakuti, Mulungu Atate ndi wamkulu kuposa Khristu, Mwana Wake. Atatchula mawu a pa Yohane 17:3 ndi Yohane 20:17, Milton anafunsa kuti: “Ngati Atate ali Mulungu wa Khristu ndiponso Mulungu wathu, ndipo ngati pali Mulungu mmodzi yekha, ndaninso wina angakhale Mulungu kupatulapo Atateyo?”

Milton ananenanso kuti: “Ngakhale Mwanayo ndi atumwi ake anavomereza m’zonse zimene ananena ndiponso kulemba kuti Atate ndi wamkulu kuposa Mwana pazinthu zonse.” (Yohane 14:28) “Ndithudi, ndi Khristu amene pa Mat. 26:39 anati: Atate wanga, ngati n’kotheka, chikho ichi chindipitirire. Koma osati mwa kufuna kwanga, koma mwa kufuna kwanu. . . . Iye akanakhala Mulungu, n’chifukwa chiyani ankangopemphera kwa Atate yekha m’malo mopemphera kwa iye mwini? Akanakhala kuti iye ndi munthu ndiponso Mulungu, n’chifukwa chiyani ankapempherera zinthu zimene zili kale m’manja mwake? . . . Monga mmene Mwana ankakondera ndi kulemekezera Atate wake m’zonse, amatiphunzitsanso kuchita zomwezo.”

Zimene Milton Analakwitsa

John Milton ankafuna choonadi. Komabe monga munthu wina aliyense, analakwitsa zinthu zina ndi zina. N’zothekanso kuti mavuto amene anakumana nawo pamoyo wake anakhudza mmene ankaonera nkhani zina. Mwachitsanzo, atangokwatira kumene mkazi wake, yemwe anali mwana wa munthu wolemera amene ankagwirizana kwambiri ndi mfumu, mkaziyo anamuthawa n’kukakhala kwawo kwa zaka zitatu. Panthawi imeneyi, Milton analemba nkhani zoikira kumbuyo kusudzulana pa chifukwa chosagwirizana m’banja, osati pa chifukwa cha chigololo chokha, chimene Yesu anati ndi maziko okhawo othetsera banja. (Mateyo 19:9) Milton analembanso mfundo imeneyi m’buku lake lonena za zikhulupiriro zachikhristu.

Ngakhale kuti Milton analakwitsa zinthu zina, m’buku lakeli anafotokoza mwamphamvu zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhani zambiri zofunika. Mpaka pano, buku lake limapangitsa anthu kuyerekezera zimene amakhulupirira ndi Malemba Oyera, omwe ndi olondola nthawi zonse.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 14 Buku latsopano lomasulira buku la Milton lonena za zikhulupiriro zachikhristu linatulutsidwa mu 1973 ndi yunivesite ya Yale. Buku limeneli linamasuliridwa motsatira kwambiri buku loyamba la m’Chilatini lija.

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Milton ankakonda kwambiri kuwerenga Baibulo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Courtesy of The Early Modern Web at Oxford

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Milton anatchuka chifukwa cha ndakatulo yake yonena za Paradaiso wotayika

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Courtesy of The Early Modern Web at Oxford

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Buku la Milton lomaliza linasowa kwa zaka 150

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Image courtesy of Rare Books and Special Collections, Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Image courtesy of Rare Books and Special Collections, Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina