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Kodi Baibulo Lili ndi Mauthenga Obisika?

Kodi Baibulo Lili ndi Mauthenga Obisika?

 Kodi Baibulo Lili ndi Mauthenga Obisika?

PATAPITA zaka ngati ziŵiri kuchokera pamene Nduna Yaikulu ya dziko la Israyeli, a Yitzhak Rabin, anaphedwa mu 1995, mtolankhani wina ananena kuti mothandizidwa ndi makompyuta, anapeza ulosi wa chochitika chimenecho uli wobisika m’zolembedwa zoyambirira za Baibulo lachihebri. Mtolankhaniyo, Michael Drosnin, analemba kuti anayesa kuchenjeza nduna yaikuluyo nthaŵi yoposa chaka chimodzi isanaphedwe koma sinamvere.

Mabuku ndi nkhani zafalitsidwa tsopano zonena kuti mauthenga obisika amenewo ndiwo umboni wonse wofunikira wakuti Baibulo n’louziridwa ndi Mulungu. Kodi mauthenga amenewo alimodi? Kodi mauthenga obisika ndiwo ayenera kukhala maziko okhulupirira kuti Baibulo n’louziridwa ndi Mulungu?

Lingaliro Latsopano?

Lingaliro lakuti m’mawu a m’Baibulo muli mauthenga obisika si latsopano. Ndilo lingaliro lalikulu la Cabala, kapena kuti chikhulupiriro chachiyuda cha zinthu zachinsinsi. Malinga ndi ophunzitsa Cabala, matanthauzo oonekera pamwamba a mawu a m’Baibulo sindiwo matanthauzo ake enieni. Iwo amakhulupirira kuti Mulungu anagwiritsa ntchito zilembo za m’Baibulo lachihebri monga zizindikiro, zimene ngati zikutsatiridwa bwino zimavumbula choonadi chachikulu. Malinga ndi malingaliro awo, chilembo chilichonse chachihebri komanso pamalo pamene chili m’Baibulomo chinaikidwa ndi Mulungu ndi cholinga chinachake.

Malinga n’kunena kwa Jeffrey Satinover, wofufuza za mauthenga obisika a m’Baibulo, Ayuda okhulupirira zachinsinsi ameneŵa amakhulupirira kuti zilembo zachihebri zogwiritsidwa ntchito polemba nkhani ya chilengedwe m’Genesis zili ndi chinsinsi chachikulu kwabasi. Iye analemba kuti: “Mwachidule, Genesis si malongosoledwe chabe; ndicho chiŵiya chenichenicho cha kulenga kwenikweniko, njira ya kalengedwe yomwe ili m’maganizo a Mulungu yomwe yasonyezedwa monga chinthu chooneka.”

Rabi wa m’zaka za zana la 13 wokhulupirira Cabala, Bachya ben Asher wa ku Saragossa, Spain, analemba za chidziŵitso china chobisika chimene anatulukira mwa kuŵerenga chilembo chokwanitsa zilembo 42 chilichonse m’chigawo cha Genesis. Njira imeneyi yodumpha zilembo zachiŵerengero chakutichakuti pofuna kutulukira mauthenga obisika ndiyo maziko a chikhulupiriro chamakono cha mauthenga obisika a m’Baibulo.

 Makompyuta “Avumbula” Mauthengawo

Kusanakhale makompyuta, anthu sanali kutha bwinobwino kusanthula mawu a m’Baibulo m’njira imeneyi. Komabe, mu August 1994, magazini yotchedwa Statistical Science inafalitsa nkhani yomwe Eliyahu Rips wa pa Yunivesite ya Hebrew m’Yerusalemu ndi ofufuza anzake anatchulamo zinthu zodabwitsa kwambiri. Iwo anafotokoza kuti mwa kufafaniza mipata yonse yapakati pa zilembo ndi kuŵerenga modumpha chiŵerengero chimodzimodzi cha zilembo m’mawu achihebri a Genesis, iwo anapeza kuti m’mawumo muli mayina a arabi otchuka 34, pamodzinso ndi chidziŵitso china monga masiku omwe anabadwa ndi kumwalira, omwe analembedwa pafupi kwambiri ndi mayina awo. * Atafufuza mobwerezabwereza, ofufuzawo anafalitsa zomwe anatulukira kuti kuŵerengetsa zonse zomwe anapeza, n’zosatheka m’pang’ono pomwe kuti chidziŵitso chobisika cha m’Genesis chimenecho chinangolembedwa motero mwamwayi, kuti ndi umboni basi wa chidziŵitso chouziridwa chomwe chinabisidwa mwadala m’zilembozo m’buku la Genesis zaka zikwi zambiri kalelo.

Pogwiritsa ntchito njira imeneyi, mtolankhaniyo Drosnin anapanga kufufuza kwake, ndipo anafunafuna chidziŵitso chobisika m’mabuku asanu oyambirira a m’Baibulo lachihebri. Malinga n’kunena kwa Drosnin, anapeza dzina la Yitzhak Rabin lili lobisika m’zilembo za m’Baibulo mwa kuŵerenga chilembo chokwanitsa zilembo 4,772 chilichonse. Polinganiza mawu a m’Baibulo m’mizere ya zilembo 4,772 uliwonse, iye anaona kuti dzina la Rabin (kuŵerenga kuchokera pamwamba kupita munsi) linakumana ndi mzere (Deuteronomo 4:42, wochokera kulamanzere kumka kulamanja) womwe Drosnin anautembenuza kuti “wakupha munthu wandale amene adzapha.”

Kwenikweni, Deuteronomo 4:42 amanena za wakupha munthu amene wamupha mwangozi. Chotero, ambiri atsutsa njira yongofuna kudzikhutiritsa yekha ya Drosnin, akumati njira zake zautambwalizo zingagwiritsidwenso ntchito kupeza mauthenga ofananawo m’zolembedwa zina zilizonse. Koma Drosnin analimbikira mfundo yake, amvekere: “Amene akunditsutsawo akadzapeza uthenga wobisika wonena za kuphedwa kwa Nduna Yaikulu mu [buku lanthano la] Moby Dick, ndidzawakhulupirira.”

Umboni Wakuti N’louziridwa?

Pulofesa Brendan McKay, wa m’Dipatimenti ya Sayansi ya Makompyuta pa National University ku Australia, anafuna kuchita zomwe Drosnin ananenazo ndipo pogwiritsa ntchito kompyuta anafufuza buku lachingelezi la Moby Dick mozama. * Mwa kugwiritsa ntchito njira yofanana ndi imene Drosnin anafotokoza, McKay akuti anapeza “maulosi” a kuphedwa kwa Indira Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy, Abraham Lincoln, ndi enanso. Malinga ndi McKay, anapeza kuti buku la Moby Dick “linaloseranso” za kuphedwa kwa Yitzhak Rabin.

Atayesa mawu achihebri a Genesis, Pulofesa McKay ndi anzake atsutsanso zomwe Rips ndi anzake anapeza. Iwo ananena kuti zotsatirazo sizisonyeza uthenga wobisika wouziridwa koma zimangodalira pa njira yofufuzira ndi malingaliro a wofufuzayo, popeza mawuwo amalinganizidwa m’njira imene ofufuzawo akufuna. Akatswiri akadakanganabe pamfundo imeneyi.

Pakubukanso nkhani ina pamene akunena kuti mauthenga obisika amenewo anabisidwamo dala m’zolembedwa “zovomerezedwa ndi anthu onse” kapena “zoyambirira,” zachihebri zimenezo. Rips ndi anzake akunena kuti anafufuza mu “cholembedwa cha Genesis chovomerezedwa ndi anthu onse.” Drosnin analemba kuti: “Mabaibulo onse a m’Chihebri choyambiriracho amene alipo tsopano n’ngofanana lembo ndi lembo.” Koma kodi ndi mmene zilili? M’malo mwa cholembedwa “chovomerezedwa ndi anthu onse,” makope osiyanasiyana a Baibulo lachihebri akugwiritsidwa ntchito lerolino, ozikidwa pa zolembedwa pamanja zosiyanasiyana zakale. Pamene kuli kwakuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo susintha, sikuti lembo lililonse n’lofanana m’zolembedwa pamanjazi.

Mabaibulo ambiri lerolino n’ngozikidwa pa cholembedwa pamanja chotchedwa Leningrad Codex, cholembedwa pamanja chakale kwambiri cha m’Chihebri chomwe chilipo chathunthu cha Amasorete, chomwe chinajambulidwa m’chaka cha 1000 C.E. Koma Rips ndi Drosnin anagwiritsa ntchito cholembedwa china, chotchedwa Koren. Shlomo Sternberg, rabi wa m’tchalitchi cha Orthodox  komanso katswiri wa masamu pa Yunivesite ya Harvard, anafotokoza kuti cholembedwa cha Leningrad Codex “n’chosiyana ndi zilembo 41 m’Deuteronomo mokha pochiyerekeza ndi cholembedwa cha Koren chimene Drosnin anagwiritsa ntchito.” Mipukutu yotchedwa Dead Sea Scrolls ili ndi zigawo za malemba a m’Baibulo omwe anajambulidwa zaka zoposa 2,000 zapitazo. Nthaŵi zambiri kalembedwe ka mawu m’mipukutu imeneyi kamasiyana kwambiri ndi zolembedwa za Amasorete zapambuyo pake. M’mipukutu ina, zilembo zambiri zinawonjezedwamo pofuna kusonyeza katchulidwe ka zilembo za mawu, popeza kuti zilembo za mawu kunalibeko panthaŵiyo. M’mipukutu ina, zilembo zocheperapo zinagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kuyerekeza zolembedwa pamanja za Baibulo zonse zomwe zilipo kumasonyeza kuti tanthauzo la mawu a m’Baibulo silinasinthe. Komabe, zimasonyezanso bwino lomwe kuti kalembedwe ka mawu ndi chiŵerengero cha zilembo n’zosiyanasiyana m’zolembedwazo.

Kufunafuna umene akuti uthenga wobisika wa m’Baibulo kumadalira kuti zilembo zonse zisasinthe m’pang’ono pomwe. Kusintha kwa chilembo chimodzi kungasokoneze kaŵerengedwe ka zilembozo, ndi uthenga wake ukanakhala kuti ulimo. Mulungu wasunga uthenga wake kudzera m’Baibulo. Koma sanasunge chilembo chilichonse kuti chisasinthe, ngati kuti amangosamala zinthu zazing’ono zimenezo monga kusintha kwa kalembedwe ka liwu m’kupita kwa zaka mazana ambiri. Kodi zimenezi sizikusonyeza kuti sanabisemo uthenga uliwonse m’Baibulo?​—Yesaya 40:8; 1 Petro 1:24, 25.

Kodi Tifunikira Uthenga Wobisika wa m’Baibulo?

Mtumwi Paulo analembatu momveka kuti “lemba lililonse adaliuzira Mulungu, ndipo lipindulitsa pa chiphunzitso, chitsutsano, chikonzero, chilangizo cha m’chilungamo.” (2 Timoteo 3:16, 17) Uthenga wosacholowana ndi wolunjika wa m’Baibulo n’ngwosavuta kumva kapena kuutsatira, koma anthu ambiri amasankha kuunyalanyaza. (Deuteronomo 30:11-14) Maulosi amene amaperekedwa poyerayera m’Baibulo amatipatsa maziko olimba okhulupirira kuti n’louziridwa. * Mosiyana ndi uthenga wobisika, maulosi a m’Baibulo sadalira pazimene munthu akulingalira, ndipo ‘sadalira pa kumasulira kwa munthu.’​—2 Petro 1:19-21, NW.

Mtumwi Petro analemba kuti “sitinatsata miyambi yachabe, pamene tinakudziŵitsani mphamvu ndi maonekedwe a Ambuye wathu Yesu Kristu.” (2 Petro 1:16) Chikhulupiriro chakuti Baibulo lili ndi zinsinsi zina chinachokera ku chikhulupiriro chachiyuda cha zinsinsi, chogwiritsa ntchito njira ‘zachabe’ zomwe zimabisa tanthauzo loonekeratu la mawu ouziridwa a m’Baibulo. Malemba achihebri enieniwo amatsutsiratu kukhulupirira zinsinsi kumeneko.​—Deuteronomo 13:1-5; 18:9-13.

Ndife achimwemwe chosanenekadi kukhala ndi uthenga wosavuta kumva wa m’Baibulo ndi malangizo ake, zimene zingatithandize kudziŵa Mulungu! Zimenezi zili bwino kwambiri kusiyana n’kuyesa kuphunzira za Mlengi wathu mwa kufunafuna mauthenga obisika amene amakhalapo chifukwa cha kumasulira kodalira pa munthu ndi malingaliro ongoyerekeza othandizidwa ndi makompyuta.​—Mateyu 7:24, 25.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 9 M’Chihebri, zilembo zimathanso kuimira manambala. Chotero, madeti ameneŵa anali olembedwa monga zilembo m’mawu achihebri ndipo osati monga manambala.

^ ndime 13 Chihebri ndi chiyankhulo chopanda zilembo za mawu. Zilembo za mawu zimaikidwamo ndi woŵerenga malinga ndi nkhani yake. Ngati nkhani yake yanyalanyazidwa, tanthauzo la liwu lingasinthiretu mwa kuikamo zilembo zina za mawu. Mawu a m’Chingelezi ali ndi zilembo zakezake za mawu, zomwe zimapangitsa kufufuza mawu koteroko kukhala kovuta kwambiri.

^ ndime 19 Ngati mukufuna kudziŵa zambiri ponena za kuuziridwa kwa Baibulo ndi maulosi ake, onani bulosha lakuti Buku la Anthu Onse, lofalitsidwa ndi Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.