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Kodi Zipembedzo N’zimene Zikusokoneza Mtendere?

Kodi Zipembedzo N’zimene Zikusokoneza Mtendere?

 Kodi Zipembedzo N’zimene Zikusokoneza Mtendere?

JONATHAN SWIFT, yemwe anali m’busa ndiponso wolemba mabuku m’zaka za m’ma 1700, anati: “Chipembedzo chimangochititsa anthu kudana, m’malo mowalimbikitsa kukondana.” Ndipo anthu ambiri akhala akunena kuti chipembedzo n’chimene chagawanitsa kwambiri anthu m’malo mowagwirizanitsa. Koma si aliyense amene akugwirizana ndi maganizo amenewa.

Mwachitsanzo, taonani zimene gulu lina lofufuza za mtendere la ku yunivesite ya Bradford m’dziko la United Kingdom, linapeza. Gululi linatumidwa ndi bungwe loulutsa mawu la BBC kuti lifufuze bwinobwino ngati zipembedzo zimayambitsa nkhondo kapena kulimbikitsa anthu kukhala mwamtendere.

Lipoti limene ochita kafukufukuwo analemba linati: “Titawerenga nkhani zosiyanasiyana zimene akatswiri pa nkhani imeneyi akhala akulemba, tinaona kuti pa zaka 100 zapitazi, ndi nkhondo zochepa kwambiri zimene zinachitika chifukwa cha chipembedzo.” Gululi linati nkhondo zina zimene “nthawi zambiri anthu ofalitsa nkhani komanso anthu ena amati ndi nkhondo zachipembedzo kapena nkhondo zimene zimayamba chifukwa cha kusiyana maganizo kwa anthu achipembedzo, kwenikweni zimachitika chifukwa cha anthu ofuna kufera dziko lawo, ofuna kulanda dera linalake, kapena ofuna kudziteteza.”

Komabe anthu ambiri amanena kuti atsogoleri a chipembedzo akhala akulekerera komanso kulimbikitsa nkhondo zambiri. Iwo achita zimenezi pothandiza asilikali kapena posadzudzula anthu amene akuchita nkhondo, monga momwe ndemanga zotsatirazi zikusonyezera.

● “Zikuoneka kuti pafupifupi kulikonse zipembedzo zimayambitsa nkhondo. . . . M’zaka zaposachedwapa, nkhondo zakhala zikuchitika pakati pa Akhristu ku United States, pakati pa Asilamu ndi Ayuda ku Middle East, pakati pa Ahindu ndi Asilamu kum’mwera kwa Asia, komanso pakati pa anthu a zipembedzo zosiyanasiyana ku Africa ndi ku Indonesia. . . . Anthu amene akhala akuchita zimenezi amazichita chifukwa cha mfundo zachipembedzo. Mfundo zachipembedzozi zimawachititsa kulowerera kwambiri pa nkhani zandale komanso kuchitira nkhanza adani awo.”—Terror in the Mind of God—The Global Rise of Religious Violence.

● “N’zodabwitsa kuti m’mayiko amene muli anthu opembedza kwambiri, ndi mmenenso mumachitika zinthu zambiri zoipa. . . . Kuchuluka kwa anthu opemphera sikunathandize kuti anthu asamachite zinthu zoipa. . . . Apa umboni ndi woonekeratu: Ngati munthu akufuna kupeza malo okhala otetezeka, abwino, olongosoka, ndiponso achitukuko, ayenera kupewa malo amene anthu ake ndi opembedza kwambiri.”—Holy Hatred.

● “Anthu a mpingo wa Baptist amadziwika kwambiri ndi kumenya nkhondo osati kulimbikitsa mtendere. . . . Pa nthawi imene ukapolo ndiponso zinthu zina zinagawanitsa anthu a zipembedzo zosiyanasiyana [ku America], kenako n’kugawanitsa dziko lonselo m’zaka za m’ma 1800, anthu a Baptist a kumpoto ndi kum’mwera kwa dzikolo ankagwirizana ndi nkhondo imene inkachitika ndipo ankati  inali nkhondo yolimbikitsa chilungamo. Ankanenanso kuti Mulungu anali kumbali yawo pa nkhondoyo. Anthu a chipembedzo cha Baptist anagwirizananso ndi dziko la America pamene linkamenyana ndi dziko la England (mu 1812), Mexico (mu 1845), ndi la Spain (mu 1898). Iwo anagwirizana kwambiri ndi nkhondo ziwiri zomalizirazi ‘makamaka chifukwa chakuti ankati zibweretsa ufulu wachipembedzo kwa anthu oponderezedwa ndiponso zitsegula malo atsopano ochitirako ntchito yaumishonale.’ Mfundo si yakuti anthu a Baptist ankakonda kwambiri nkhondo kuposa mtendere, koma kuti nthawi zambiri pakabuka nkhondo, iwo ankathandiza pa nkhondoyo ndiponso ankamenya nawo.”—Review and Expositor—A Baptist Theological Journal.

● “Akatswiri a mbiri yakale apeza kuti kwa zaka zambiri anthu a zikhalidwe zosiyanasiyana pafupifupi kulikonse padzikoli, akhala akumenya nkhondo chifukwa chotsatira mfundo za chipembedzo chawo. Iwo apezanso kuti anthu a magulu onse amene akumenyanawo amachita zimenezi. Mawu akale komanso odziwika bwino akuti ‘mulungu ali kumbali yathu,’ ndi amene ankagwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo analimbikitsa kwambiri anthu kumenya nkhondo.”—The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650—An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization.

● “Atsogoleri a chipembedzo . . . alephera kutsogolera anthu awo komanso alephera kutsatira ziphunzitso zikuluzikulu za zipembedzo zawo, ndipo iwo ayenera kuganizira bwinobwino mfundo zimenezi. . . . N’zoona kuti zipembedzo zonse zimanena kuti zimalimbikitsa anthu kukhala mwamtendere, koma n’zokayikitsa ngati zakwanitsadi kuchita zimenezo.”—Violence in God’s Name—Religion in an Age of Conflict.

M’mbiri yonse ya anthu, atsogoleri a zipembedzo zonse zikuluzikulu zachikhristu (Katolika, Orthodox, ndi Pulotesitanti) akhala akulola kuti matchalitchi awo azigwiritsidwa ntchito pa nkhondo komanso akhala akutumiza ansembe ambirimbiri kuti akalimbikitse asilikali ndi kupempherera anthu amene avulala kwambiri kapena kufa pa nkhondo. Iwo amachitira zimenezi mbali zonse zimene zikumenyanazo. Mwanjira imeneyi, zipembedzo zimalekerera nkhondo ndiponso kugwirizana ndi zochita za asilikali.

Koma anthu ena anganenebe kuti sitiyenera kuloza chala zipembedzo chifukwa cha nkhondo zimene zakhala zikuchitika. Komabe funso ndi lakuti, ‘Kodi zipembedzo zakwanitsa kugwirizanitsa anthu?’

[Bokosi patsamba 5]

“M’busa Dr. Charles A.  Eaton, wa tchalitchi cha Baptist cha ku Madison Avenue, dzulo polalikira m’tchalitchi ananena kuti aloleza kuti tchalitchicho chigwiritsiridwe ntchito ngati malo olemberapo anthu usilikali.

“M’busayo ndi mmodzi chabe mwa abusa angapo mumzindawo amene pa mapemphero a Lamlungu m’mawa analalikira zinthu zolimbikitsa nkhondo. Iwo analimbikitsa amuna ndi akazi kuti asonyeze kukhulupirika kwawo ku dziko lawo ndiponso ku demokalase podzipereka mwamsanga kuti akamenye nawo nkhondo. Mbendera zinali petupetu m’matchalitchi ambiri.”—“The New York Times,” April 16, 1917.