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Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira Gawo 3

Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira Gawo 3

 Buku Limene Mungathe Kulikhulupirira Gawo 3

Zimene Baibulo Limanena Zokhudza Ufumu wa Babulo

Ino ndi nkhani yachitatu pa nkhani 7 zotsatizana zimene zilembedwe m’magazini a “Galamukani!” Nkhanizi zikufotokoza za maufumu 7 otchulidwa m’Baibulo amene analamulirapo dziko lonse. Cholinga cha nkhanizi n’kusonyeza kuti Baibulo ndi lodalirika komanso kuti linauziridwa ndi Mulungu. Cholinga chinanso ndi kusonyeza kuti uthenga wa m’Baibulo umatipatsa chiyembekezo chakuti mavuto onse amene ulamuliro wa anthu wabweretsa, adzatha.

MZINDA wakale wa Babulo unamangidwa pachigwa chachonde chimene chili pa mtunda wa makilomita pafupifupi 80 kuchokera pamene pali mzinda wa Baghdad masiku ano. Mzindawu unali wogometsa kwambiri, chifukwa unali ndi mipanda iwiri ikuluikulu komanso ngalande ya madzi yomwe inazungulira mzinda wonsewo. Choncho mzindawu unkaoneka ngati wosagonjetseka. Unkatchukanso chifukwa cha akachisi ake akuluakulu, minda yake ya maluwa yosanjidwa ngati masitepe, ndiponso nsanja za akachisi ake. Mzinda wa Babulo unali umodzi mwa mizinda yakale yochititsa chidwi kwambiri.

M’Baibulo, mzindawu umatchedwa “Dona wa Maufumu” ndipo unali likulu la ufumu wachitatu pa maufumu amene analamulirapo dziko lonse otchulidwa m’Baibulo. (Yesaya 47:5) Mofanana ndi maufumu a Iguputo ndi Asuri amene analamulira m’mbuyomo, ufumu wa Babulo umatchulidwanso kwambiri m’Baibulo. Choncho, tiyeni tiyerekezere zimene Baibulo limanena zokhudza ufumuwu ndi zimene akatswiri a mbiri yakale amanena.

Mbiri Yodalirika

Buku la m’Baibulo la Danieli limatiuza kuti munthu winawake dzina lake Belisazara analamulirapo monga mfumu ya Babulo. (Danieli 5:1) Koma akatswiri ena a mbiri yakale anenapo  m’mbuyomu kuti ngakhale kuti Belisazara anali wamphamvu kwambiri, sanakhalepo mfumu. Kodi zimene Baibulo limanena n’zabodza? Akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale posachedwapa afukula mapale angapo pamabwinja a mzinda wa Uri ku Mesopotamiya. Paphale lina panalembedwa pemphero la Nabonidus, mfumu ya ku Babulo. Mawu ena a m’pempherolo anali akuti, “Bel-sar-ussur, mwana wanga wamwamuna woyamba.” Buku lina lomasulira mawu a m’Baibulo linati zinthu zina zimene ofukula pansiwo anapeza zinatsimikizira kuti Belisazara “ankalamulira m’malo mwa bambo ake kwa zaka zoposa theka la zaka zonse zimene bambo akewo anali mfumu. Pa zaka zimenezi, Belisazara ndiye amaonedwa ngati mfumu.”—New Bible Dictionary.

Mbiri yakale imasonyezanso kuti anthu a mumzinda wa Babulo anali okonda kwambiri kupembedza, ndipo ankakhulupirira kwambiri nyenyezi ndiponso kuombeza maula. Mwachitsanzo, pa Ezekieli 21:21, timawerenga kuti mfumu ya Babulo inawombeza maula kuti idziwe ngati iyenera kukaukira mzinda wa Yerusalemu kapena ayi. Baibulo limati powombezapo mfumuyo ‘inayang’ana pachiwindi cha nyama.’ N’chifukwa chiyani inayang’ana pachiwindi? Ababulo ankagwiritsa ntchito chiwindi poombeza. Buku lina linati pamalo amodzi okha mumzinda wakale wa Babulo, akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale anapezapo “mapale 32 oumbidwa ngati chiwindi, onse atalembapo” zinthu zokhudzana ndi maula.—Mesopotamian Astrology.

Katswiri wina wotchuka wofukula zinthu zakale, dzina lake Nelson Glueck, pa nthawi ina ananena kuti: “Ndakhala ndikufukula zinthu zakale kwa zaka 30. Ndikamafukula zinthuzo ndimayang’ananso zimene Baibulo linanena, ndipo ndimapeza kuti linanenadi zoona. Pa nkhani zokhudzana ndi mbiri yakale, ndapeza kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola pa chilichonse.”

Ulosi Wodalirika

Kodi mungakhulupirire munthu wina atakuuzani kuti mzinda winawake waukulu, monga Beijing, Moscow, kapena Washington, udzakhala bwinja ndipo simudzakhalanso munthu aliyense? Mwina simungakhulupirire, ndipo m’pake kutero. Komatu n’zimene zinachitikira mzinda wakale wa Babulo. Kutatsala zaka pafupifupi 200 kuti mzindawo uwonongedwe, m’chaka cha 732 B.C.E, Yehova Mulungu anauzira Yesaya, mneneri wachiyuda, kuti alembe ulosi wonena za kutha kwa ufumu wamphamvu wa Babulo. Iye analemba kuti: “Babulo, amene ndi chokongoletsera maufumu, . . . adzakhala ngati pamene Mulungu anagonjetsa Sodomu ndi Gomora. M’Babulo simudzakhalanso anthu, ndipo iye sadzakhalaponso ku mibadwomibadwo.”—Yesaya 13:19, 20.

Koma kodi n’chifukwa chiyani Mulungu ananeneratu kuti Babulo adzawonongedwa? M’chaka cha 607 B.C.E., magulu a asilikali a Babulo anawonongeratu mzinda wa Yerusalemu ndipo anagwira anthu a mumzindawo n’kupita nawo ku Babulo. Kumeneko ankawachita nkhanza kwambiri. (Salimo 137:8, 9) Mulungu ananeneratu kuti anthu ake adzazunzika kwa zaka 70 chifukwa cha zoipa zimene anachita. Kenako iye adzawapulumutsa n’kuwathandiza kubwerera kwawo.—Yeremiya 25:11; 29:10.

 Zimene Mulungu analosera zinakwaniritsidwadi. Mu 539 B.C.E., Ayuda atatha zaka pafupifupi 70 ali ku ukapolo, mzinda wa Babulo umene unkaoneka ngati wosagonjetseka unagonjetsedwa ndi asilikali a Amedi ndi Aperisiya. Patapita nthawi, mzindawo unakhala bwinja, monga momwe ulosi uja unanenera. Kunena zoona, palibe munthu amene akanatha kulosera zinthu ngati zimenezi. Maulosi ngati amenewa amasiyanitsa milungu ina yonse ndi Mulungu woona, Yehova, yemwe ndi Mlembi Wamkulu wa Baibulo.—Yesaya 46:9, 10.

Chiyembekezo Chodalirika

Palinso ulosi wina wochititsa chidwi umene ukukwaniritsidwa m’masiku athu ano. Ulosi wake ndi wokhudza chifaniziro chachikulu chimene Mfumu Nebukadinezara ya ku Babulo inalota. Thupi la chifanizirochi linali ndi mbali zisanu: Mutu, chifuwa ndi manja, mimba ndi ntchafu, miyendo, ndi mapazi. Ndipo mbali iliyonse inali yopangidwa ndi zitsulo zosiyanasiyana. (Danieli 2:31-33) Mbalizi zinkaimira maboma kapena kuti maufumu osiyanasiyana, kuyambira ndi ufumu wa Babulo mpaka kudzafika pa ufumu wapadziko lonse wa Britain ndi America, womwe ndi ufumu wa 7 wotchulidwa m’Baibulo.—Danieli 2:36-41.

Danieli ananena kuti mapazi ndi zala zakumiyendo za chifanizirocho zinapangidwa mosiyana ndi mbali zinazo. Kodi zinali zosiyana bwanji? M’malo mopangidwa ndi chinthu chimodzi, zala ndi mapaziwo zinapangidwa ndi chitsulo chosakanirana ndi dongo. Pomufotokozera Nebukadinezara, Danieli anati: “Popeza munaona chitsulo chosakanizika  ndi dongo lonyowa, mbali zake zina zidzasakanizika ndi ana a anthu koma sadzagwirizana monga mmene zilili zosatheka kuti chitsulo chisakanizike bwinobwino ndi dongo.” (Danieli 2:43) Inde, kusakaniza chitsulo ndi dongo sikungapange chinthu cholimba, kapena kuti ‘chogwirizana.’ Zimenezi zikuoneka bwino pa kusagwirizana komwe kulipo masiku ano m’mayiko ambiri pa nkhani zandale.

Danieli anafotokozanso chinthu china chochititsa chidwi. M’maloto ake, Mfumu Nebukadinezara anaona mwala umene unasemedwa m’phiri lalikulu. Mwalawu unanyamulidwa m’mwamba ndipo “unamenya chifanizirocho kumapazi ake achitsulo chosakanizika ndi dongo ndipo unawapera.” (Danieli 2:34) Kodi zimenezi zikutanthauza chiyani? Danieli ananena kuti: “M’masiku a mafumu amenewo, [mu ufumu womaliza kulamulira dziko lonse] Mulungu wakumwamba adzakhazikitsa ufumu umene sudzawonongedwa ku nthawi zonse. Ufumuwo sudzaperekedwa kwa mtundu wina uliwonse wa anthu, koma udzaphwanya ndi kuthetsa maufumu ena onsewo, ndipo udzakhalapo mpaka kalekale.” (Danieli 2:44) Ulosiwu ukunena za Ufumu umene uli wosiyana kwambiri ndi boma lina lililonse la anthu. Mfumu yake ndi Yesu Khristu, yemwe ali Mesiya. Monga momwe tinafotokozera mu nkhani zapita zija, Yesu adzaphwanya Satana ndi onse amene amamutsatira, kaya anthu kapena ziwanda zake. Zimenezi zikadzachitika, padziko lonse padzakhala bata ndi mtendere.—1 Akorinto 15:25.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 11]

“Ndakhala ndikufukula zinthu zakale kwa zaka 30. . . . Pa nkhani zokhudzana ndi mbiri yakale, ndapeza kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola pa chilichonse.”​—Nelson Glueck

[Bokosi patsamba 12]

ANAM’TCHULIRATU DZINA

Ulosi wina wochititsa chidwi kwambiri wonena za kutha kwa Babulo ndi wokhudza Mfumu Koresi ya Perisiya, yomwe inagonjetsa mzindawu. Patatsala zaka pafupifupi 200 kuti Koresi ayambe kulamulira, Yehova Mulungu anatchuliratu dzina la munthu amene adzagonjetse mzinda wa Babulo. Iye anati munthuyo dzina lake lidzakhala Koresi.

Poneneratu za mmene Koresi adzagonjetsere Babulo, Yesaya anauziridwa kulemba kuti: “Ine Yehova ndalankhula kwa wodzozedwa wanga. Ndalankhula kwa Koresi amene ndamugwira dzanja lake lamanja kuti ndigonjetse mitundu ya anthu pamaso pake, . . . kuti ndimutsegulire zitseko zokhala ziwiriziwiri, moti ngakhale zipata sizidzatsekedwa.” Mulungu ananeneratunso kuti mtsinje wa Firate udzaphwera.—Yesaya 45:1-3; Yeremiya 50:38.

Olemba mbiri achigiriki, Herodotus ndi Xenophon, anatsimikizira kuti ulosi wochititsa chidwiwu unakwaniritsidwadi. Iwo anati Koresi anapatutsa madzi a mu mtsinje wa Firate, zimene zinachititsa kuti mtsinjewo uphwere. Zimenezi zinathandiza asilikali a Koresi kuti awoloke mpaka kukafika pa zipata za mzindawo, zimene zinasiyidwa zosatseka. Monga momwe ulosi uja unanenera, ufumu wamphamvu wa Babulo unatha “mwadzidzidzi,” usiku umodzi wokha.—Yeremiya 51:8.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi pamasamba 12, 13]

BABULO WAMKULU

Buku la m’Baibulo la Chivumbulutso limatchula za hule lophiphiritsira lotchedwa “Babulo Wamkulu.” (Chivumbulutso 17:5) Kodi huleli limaimira chiyani? Umboni ukusonyeza kuti limaimira gulu la chipembedzo.

Anthu a mumzinda wakale wa Babulo anali okonda kwambiri kupembedza. Mumzindamo munali akachisi oposa 50 a milungu yosiyanasiyana. Ababulo ankapembedza milungu itatuitatu ndiponso ankakhulupirira kuti mzimu wa munthu suufa, koma munthu akafa mzimuwu umapita kumidima. Buku lina linati iwo ankakhulupirira kuti kumidimako, “anthu amakhala ndi moyo wozunzika kwambiri, wosasiyana kwenikweni ndi moyo wamavuto umene anali nawo padziko lapansi.”—Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia.

Patapita nthawi, ziphunzitso zimenezi zinafalikira padziko lonse. Masiku ano ziphunzitsozi, kapena zina zongosiyana nazo pang’ono zimapezekanso m’zipembedzo zachikhristu. Zipembedzo zonsezi pamodzi zimapanga mbali yaikulu ya gulu lachipembedzo lapadziko lonse lotchedwa Babulo Wamkulu.

[Zithunzi]

Ababulo ankalambira milungu itatuitatu. Chitsanzo chimodzi cha milungu yotereyi ndi Sin, Shamash, and Ishtar, yomwe zizindikiro zake zasonyezedwa pachithunzichi

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Both images: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Chithunzi chojambula pamanja chosonyeza mmene mzinda wakale wa Babulo unkaonekera

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Phale limene lili ndi dzina lakuti Belisazara

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Time line: Egyptian wall relief and bust of Nero: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum; Persian wall relief: Musée du Louvre, Paris