Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Dikishonale Yomwe Yatha Zaka 90 Ikulembedwa

Dikishonale Yomwe Yatha Zaka 90 Ikulembedwa

M’CHAKA cha 1621, munthu wina wa ku Italy anapeza buku lina lomwe linali ndi zilembo zachilendo m’mabwinja a mzinda wa Pesepoli ku Perisiya. M’zaka za m’ma 1800, akatswiri ofukula zinthu zakale anapezanso zilembo zofanana ndi zimenezi zitalembedwa m’mapale ndi m’makoma a nyumba zachifumu ku Iraq. Zilembozo zinali za zinenero zimene mafumu a ku Mesopotamiya ankalankhula. Ena mwa mafumu amenewa anali Sarigoni Wachiwiri, Nebukadinezara Wachiwiri ndi Hammurabi. Zilembo zimenezi zimaoneka ngati zochita kugoba.

Zilembozi ndi zimene zikanathandiza kwambiri akatswiri kudziwa mmene moyo wa anthu a ku Mesopotamiya unalili. Kuti adziwe tanthauzo la zilembozo akatswiriwo anaona kuti m’pofunika kukhala ndi dikishonale ya Chiakadi, chomwe ndi chinenero chofanana ndi chimene anthu a m’madera a ku Mesopotamiya, monga ku Babulo ndi ku Asuri, ankalankhula.

Akatswiri a mu dipatimenti yofufuza ndi kusunga zinthu zakale za ku Near East, pa yunivesite ya Chicago ku United States, ndi amene anagwira ntchito yolemba dikishonaleyi. Ntchito imeneyi inayamba m’chaka cha 1921 ndipo inatha mu 2011, patatha zaka 90. Dikishonaleyi (Assyrian Dictionary) ndi yaikulu kwambiri ndipo ili ndi zigawo  26 komanso masamba 9,700. Ili ndi mawu a zinenero zosiyanasiyana zimene zinkalankhulidwa ku Iran, Iraq, Syria, ndi Turkey kuyambira m’zaka za m’ma 2000 B.C.E mpaka 100 C.E.

Dikishonaleyi ili ndi zigawo 26 ndipo ndi ya masamba 9,700

N’chifukwa chiyani dikishonale imeneyi ndi yaikulu kwambiri chonchi? N’chifukwa chiyani inatenga nthawi yaitali kuti imalizidwe? Kodi ndani amene angapindule ndi dikishonale imeneyi?

Zomwe Zili M’dikishonaleyi

Mkulu wa dipatimenti yofufuza ndi kusunga zinthu zakale za ku Middle East, pa yunivesite ya Chicago, dzina lake Gil Stein, ananena kuti: “Sikuti dikishonaleyi imangomasulira mawu basi, imafotokozanso mwatsatanetsatane kumene mawuwo anachokera komanso mmene ankawagwiritsira ntchito. Buku limeneli ndi lapadera kwambiri chifukwa limafotokoza mwatsatanetsatane za chikhalidwe cha anthu a ku Mesopotamiya, mbiri yawo, malamulo awo, zimene ankakhulupirira komanso mabuku osiyanasiyana amene ankalemba. Buku limeneli ndi lothandiza kwambiri makamaka kwa anthu amene akufuna kudziwa mbiri ya moyo wa anthu a ku Mesopotamiya.”

Anthu amene ankalembawo “akafuna kupeza tanthauzo la liwu linalake, ankafufuza m’mipukutu ina ya zilembo zakale kuti apeze pamene liwulo linagwiritsidwa ntchito pamodzi ndi mawu ena. Iwo ankachita zimenezi kuti adziwe tanthauzo lolondola komanso mmene linkagwiritsidwira ntchito.” Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti dikishonaleyi ikhale ndi mawu ambiri.

M’zaka 200 zapitazi anthu ofufuza apeza mipukutu ya zilembo zambiri zakale yofotokoza nkhani zosiyanasiyana. Komanso anthu ophunzira a ku Middle East ndi anthu a m’madera ena ankagwiritsira ntchito Chiakadi polemba mabuku, kuchita malonda, kuphunzira masamu, zakuthambo, zamatsenga, kukhazikitsa malamulo, kuphunzira ntchito komanso kupembedza. N’chifukwa chake mipukutu imene akatswiri anapeza inali ndi mawu ambiri ofotokoza zinthu zosiyanasiyana.

Mawu amene ali m’mipukutu imeneyi si achilendo. Mwachitsanzo, pulofesa wina wa pa yunivesite ya Chicago, dzina lake Matthew Stolper, anagwira nawo modukizadukiza ntchito yolemba dikishonaleyi kwa zaka 30. Iye anati: “M’dikishonaleyi muli zinthu zambiri zimene zimachitika masiku ano. Mwachitsanzo, analembamo zinthu zosonyeza kuti anthu ankachita mantha, kukwiya komanso kunena mawu a chikondi. M’mipukutuyi mulinso mawu odzitamandira omwe mafumu ena ananena. Mulinso mawu a anthu ena omwe ankatsutsa zomwe mafumuwo analemba.” Palinso mpukutu wina womwe unapezeka ku Nuzi, dera lomwe lili ku Iraq. Mpukutuwu umafotokoza za malamulo akale kwambiri a zaka 3,500 zapitazo okhudza chuma cha masiye, minda komanso okhudza kubwereka bulu.

Kodi Ntchito Yolemba Dikishonaleyi Inatha?

Akatswiri ofufuza zinthu zakale za ku Asuri, ochokera m’mayiko osiyanasiyana, anathandiza kwambiri pa ntchito yolemba dikishonaleyi. Anthu ogwira ntchito pa yunivesite ija anatha zaka zambiri akugwira ntchito yolemba mawu pafupifupi 2,000,000 ofotokozera mmene ankawagwiritsira ntchito. Chigawo choyamba chinamalizidwa mu 1956. Pambuyo pake zigawo zina 25 zakhala zikutulutsidwa. Zigawo zonse pamodzi mtengo wake ndi madola 2,000 komabe munthu angathe kupeza kwaulere mawu onse a m’dikishonale imeneyi pa Intaneti.

Dikishonale imeneyi yatha zaka 90 ikulembedwa. Komabe anthu omwe anamasulira nawo dikishonaleyi akuona kuti ntchitoyi siinathe. Buku lina linanena kuti: “Pali mawu ena omwe omasulirawo sanadziwebe tanthauzo lake. Komanso tsiku lililonse akumatulukira zinthu zatsopano, choncho zikuoneka kuti . . . ntchito yomasulirayi idakalipo.”