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BE MASO! MYANDAGARO 2015

 IKIGANIRO GIHUYE N’IBIRI KU GIPFUKISHO

Umubiri wawe utekeye amakuru menshi

Umubiri wawe utekeye amakuru menshi

MU 1953, abahinga mu bijanye n’ibinyabuzima ari bo James Watson na Francis Crick, barasohoye ikintu bari bubuye cafashije cane abahinga gutahura ibijanye n’ubuzima. Bari bubuye ukuntu intangakamere yitwa ADN imeze. * Iyo ntangakamere imeze nk’umugozi utsivye. Akenshi usanga iri mu ntimatima y’uduhimba tw’ishimikiro tugize umubiri w’ibinyabuzima vyose (utwo bita cellules). Iba itekeye amakuru menshi ku buryo utwo duhimba twogereranywa n’ububiko bw’ibitabu. Ico kintu gikomeye bubuye carafashije vyinshi mu bijanye n’icigwa c’ibinyabuzima. None ayo  makuru ari muri utwo duhimba amaze iki? Mbe hoho yashitseyo gute?

IGITUMA UTWO DUHIMBA DUKENEYE AMAKURU

Woba umaze kwibaza ingene bigenda ngo akabuto gacike igiti canke inda y’agasamo ivemwo umuntu? Woba umaze kwibaza aho wakuye kameremere ufise? Inyishu ziri mu makuru dusanga muri ADN.

Uduhimba tw’ishimikiro nka twose turafise intangakamere ADN. Iyo ntangakamere ni agahimba gato cane kameze nk’ingazi ndende ihotoye. ADN yose dusanga mu muntu, twovuga ko ari nk’ingazi ifise intambuko imiliyaridi zitatu. Abahinga bavuga ko intambuko imwimwe muri izo igizwe n’ibice bibiri, ibice vyose hamwe bikaba biri mu bwoko bune. Ivyo bice vyitirirwa indome A, C, G, na T hisunzwe indome zitangura amazina yavyo. * Mu 1957, Crick yavuze ko ukuntu izo ndome zama zikurikirana ari vyo bitekeye amakuru. Mu myaka ya 1960, abahinga baratanguye gutahura ayo makuru.

Amakuru, yaba ari amafoto, amajwi canke amajambo, arashobora kubikwa canke gutangwa mu buryo bwinshi. Nk’akarorero, orodinateri zikoresha ubuhinga bwa none (bita digital). Twa duhimba tw’ishimikiro twotwo dukoresha ubundi buhinga (bita chimie), ADN ikaba ari yo vyose bihagazeko. ADN ihanahanwa igihe utwo duhimba twigabaguye n’igihe ibinyabuzima birondoka. Abahinga bavuga ko ivyo ari vyo bituma ibinyabuzima bibaho.

None utwo duhimba dukoresha gute amakuru? Dufate ko ugomba gukora ibitumbura  bakaba bakwandikiye amakuru y’ibipimo vyose uza gukurikiza. ADN irimwo amakuru nk’ayo, mugabo yoyo ntivamwo ibitumbura ahubwo ivamwo ikintu gifise ubuzima nk’igiterwa canke igikoko. Mu bijanye n’ingene utwo duhimba dukoresha ayo makuru, vyose birikora, ukaba wumva rero ko vyovyo bihanitse.

Amakuru ari mu gahimba k’ishimikiro ka bagiteri yoja mu gitabu c’impapuro 1000

Ayo makuru arabikwa gushika igihe azoba akenewe. Nk’akarorero arakoreshwa igihe hari uduhimba tw’ishimikiro twononekaye canke turwaye dukeneye gusubirizwa n’udukomeye, canke kugira ngo ikinyabuzima kirage kameremere kaco ikigikomotseko. None ADN irimwo amakuru angana gute? Reka dufate akanyabuzima gato kurusha utundi twose bita bagiteri. Umuhinga w’Umudagi yitwa Bernd-Olaf Küppers yavuze ati: “Dufatiye ku kintu abantu bamenyereye, twovuga ko amakuru avuga ingene agahimba k’ishimikiro ka bagiteri gahingurwa yoja mu gitabu c’impapuro igihumbi.” Ntibitangaje kubona umwigisha wa shimi yitwa David Deamer yaranditse ati: “Mbere n’akanyabuzima gasanzwe karadutangaza cane.” Umubiri w’umuntu wowo utekeye amakuru angana gute? Küppers avuga ati: “Yokwuzura mu bitabu ibihumbi n’ibihumbi.”

“YANDITSWE MU BURYO DUSHOBORA GUTAHURA”

Küppers avuga ko amakuru ari muri ADN yoshobora kugereranywa n’ururimi. Avuga kandi ko nka kurya kw’izindi ndimi zose, urwo rurimi rufise amajambo rukoresha. Mu yindi mvugo, ADN irafise ico twokwita indimburo canke amategeko agenga ukuntu amakuru ari muri yo ategurwa akongera agatangwa.

Ico twokwita amajambo n’amungane yo muri ADN ni vyo bitanga amakuru yo guhingura indemamubiri be n’ibindi bintu, ivyo bikaba ari vyo bivamwo uduhimba tw’ishimikiro dutandukanye tugize umubiri. Nk’akarorero, ayo makuru yoshobora gutuma hahingurwa uduhimba tw’ishimikiro tw’amagufa, imitsi, udutsi nsozabwenge canke urukoba. Umuhinga mu bijanye n’ibinyabuzima yitwa Matt Ridley yavuze ko ADN itekeye amakuru yanditswe mu ndome zine. Yanditse ati: “Naho bigoye  kwemera, ayo makuru yanditswe mu buryo dushobora gutahura.”

Dawidi yabwiye Imana mw’isengesho ati: “Amaso yawe yarambonye nkiri inda y’agasamo, kandi mu gitabu cawe ibihimba vyanje vyose vyari vyanditswe.” (Zaburi 139:16) Ayo majambo yari nk’icese. Ariko rero ubiravye, yavuze ukuri cokimwe n’abandi bose banditse Bibiliya. Nta n’umwe muri bo yohejwe n’ibitito canke ivyiyumviro vy’abantu bo mu bihe vya kera.2 Samweli 23:1, 2; 2 Timoteyo 3:16.

Bigenda gute ngo umwana amere nk’abavyeyi biwe?

AYO MAKURU YASHITSEYO GUTE?

Nk’uko bikunda kugenda, igihe abahinga basiguye ikintu kimwe c’amayobera, gica kivyura ibindi bibazo. Ukwo ni ko vyagenze igihe batahura ibijanye na ADN. Igihe vyamenyekana ko ADN itekeye amakuru, abantu bamwebamwe baribajije bati: ‘Ayo makuru yashitseyo gute?’ Kubera ko ata muntu n’umwe yabibona igihe ADN ya mbere yahingurwa, nta nkuru y’imvaho dufise. Ariko rero amakuru yose tworonka, ntakwiye kuba ashingiye ku bintu bitagira ifatiro. Rimbura ibi bintu.

  • Mu 1999, injo za kera cane ziriko ibimenyetso bitamenyerewe zaratowe muri Pakistani. Ivyo bimenyetso n’ubu ntibaramenya ico bisobanura. Ariko nta wuharira ko vyanditswe n’abantu.

  • Haciye imyaka mikeyi Watson na Crick bubuye ingene ADN imeze, hari abahinga babiri baseruye iciyumviro c’uko boraba ko ata mihora y’iradiyo yoba ituruka ku yindi mibumbe. Ivyo vyatumye hatangura igikorwa co gusuzuma nimba hari ibinyabuzima vyoba biba ku yindi mibumbe.

None ivyo bitwereka iki? Abantu baremera ko amakuru ava ku kintu gifise ubwenge naho ayo makuru yoba agizwe n’ibimenyetso vyanditswe ku rujo canke avuye ku mihora yo mu kirere. Ivyo baravyemera n’aho bataba bazi ingene ayo makuru yatanguye. Ariko igitangaje ni uko igihe huburwa amakuru ahanitse cane ajanye na ADN, batabaye bakibona ibintu muri ubwo buryo. Bavuze ko ari ikintu ciyadukije. None ivyo wumva vyumvikana? Wumva hari aho bihuriye? Ubona bijanye n’ubuhinga? Abahinga batari bake babona ko bitajanye. Muri abo harimwo uwitwa Gene Hwang na Yan-Der Hsuuw. Ehe raba ivyo bavuga.

Gene Hwang agira ivyigwa bijanye n’ingene ibinyabuzima biraga kameremere kavyo ibibikomokako. Yahoze yemera inyigisho y’ihindagurika ariko ubushakashatsi agira bwatumye ahindura ivyiyumviro. Yabwiye ikinyamakuru Be maso! ati: “Ivyo vyigwa biratuma umuntu atahura ukuntu ubuzima bumeze, ivyo bikaba bituma ntangarira cane ubwenge Umuremyi afise.”

Yan-Der Hsuuw ni umukuru w’umugwi ugira ubushakashatsi ku bijanye n’inda z’agasamo kuri kaminuza imwe yo muri Tayiwani. Na we nyene yahoze yemera ivy’ihindagurika ariko ubushakashatsi yagize bwatumye ahindura ivyiyumviro. Ku bijanye n’ingene agahimba k’ishimikiro kigabagura  be n’ingene kamwekamwe kose gafise igikorwa cako, yavuze ati: “Hategerezwa guhingurwa uduhimba dukenewe, tugahingurwa ku rutonde kandi tugahingurirwa aho bikenewe. Utwo duhimba tubanza kuja hamwe mu nyuma tukazovamwo ibihimba vy’umubiri. Ni umuhinga uwuhe yokwubahuka kuvuga ko yotunganya ibintu gutyo? Amakuru yerekeye ukuntu umwana akurira mu nda yoyo aranditse mu buryo butomoye muri ADN. Nihweje ivyo vyose, ndemera ntakeka ko ubuzima bwashizweho n’Imana.”

Gene Hwang (ibubamfu) na Yan-Der Hsuuw

NONE HARI ICO BITWAYE?

Biragitwaye nyene! Nimba Imana ari yo yashizeho ubuzima, turakwiye rero kuyitera iteka aho gushigikira inyigisho y’ihindagurika. (Ivyahishuwe 4:11) Ikindi na co, nimba twararemwe n’Umuremyi afise ubwenge burengeye, yaturemye rero afise intumbero. Ukwo si ko vyobaye biri iyo tubaho ku gihamana. *

Emwe, abantu baripfuza kuronka inyishu zitomoye. Uwitwa Viktor Frankl yahoze ari umwigisha w’ivyerekeye ubwonko be n’indwara zo mu mutwe. Yavuze ati: “Mu buzima umuntu yama arondera gutahura ibintu.” Mu yandi majambo, turipfuza gutahura ivyerekeye Imana, ivyo tukaba tubishikako igihe gusa twemera ko ari yo yaremye ibiriho. None nimba ari yo yaturemye, yoba yaraduhaye ivyodufasha kuyimenya?

Yezu Kristu yarishuye ico kibazo. Yavuze ati: ‘Umuntu ntabeshwaho n’umukate gusa, mugabo abeshwaho n’ijambo ryose rizanana mu kanwa ka Yehova Imana.’ (Matayo 4:4) Amajambo ya Yehova dusanga muri Bibiliya yarafashije abantu amamiliyoni kumumenya, bituma ubuzima bwabo bugira intumbero baragira n’icizigiro ca kazoza. (1 Abatesalonika 2:13) Ese nawe Bibiliya yobigufashamwo. Wari ukwiye n’imiburiburi gufata akanya ugasuzuma ico gitabu kidasanzwe.

^ ing. 3 Watson na Crick bafatiye ku bushakashatsi bwari bwaragizwe ku bijanye na ADN (acide désoxyribonucléique).—Raba uruzitiro ruvuga ngo “ ADN—Amatariki nyamukuru.”

^ ing. 6 Izo ndome zerekeza kuri aya mazina: Adénine, Cytosine, Guanine na Thymine.

^ ing. 22 Ibijanye n’irema be n’ihindagurika biravugwa neza mu dutabu Cinq questions à se poser sur l’origine de la vie be na Vyoba vyararemwe? Turaboneka kuri www.jw.org.

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