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Mabwinja a Tel Arad Amachitira Umboni Nkhani za M’Baibulo

Mabwinja a Tel Arad Amachitira Umboni Nkhani za M’Baibulo

 Mabwinja a Tel Arad Amachitira Umboni Nkhani za M’Baibulo

Akatswiri a mbiri ya zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi apeza mabwinja a mzinda wakale, kachisi ndi mapale ambirimbiri olembedwa zinthu zakale. Zinthu zonsezi zinali zitakwiririka m’chipululu cha mchenga ku Tel Arad, m’dziko la Israel.

MASIKU ano anthu ambiri okacheza ku mzinda wamakono wa Arad sausiyanitsa ndi mizinda yakale ya ku Israel. Mzindawu uli ndi anthu 27,000 ndipo uli m’chipululu cha Yudeya, kumadzulo kwa Nyanja Yakufa. Koma mabwinja a mzinda wa Tel Arad ali pamtunda wa makilomita 8, kumadzulo kwa mzinda wa Aradi wamakono. Kumalo amenewa n’kumene akatswiri aja anapeza mabwinja ndiponso mapale ambirimbiri olembedwa zinthu zakale.

M’nthawi za m’Baibulo, kulemba pamapale kunali kofala kwambiri. Mapale amene anapezeka ku mabwinja a Tel Arad akuti ndi ofunika kwambiri kuposa mapale ena onse omwe anapezeka ku Israel. Koma kodi n’chifukwa chiyani zili choncho?

Zimene apeza ku Tel Arad zikufotokoza zochitika zotchulidwa m’Baibulo kuyambira m’nthawi ya Oweruza a ku Isiraeli mpaka m’nthawi imene Ababulo anagonjetsa Ayuda mu 607 B.C.E. Motero zinthu zomwe apezazi zikutsimikizira kuti Baibulo n’lolondola. Zimathandizanso anthu kumvetsa mmene Aisiraeli ankaonera dzina la Mulungu.

Kodi Baibulo Limati Chiyani pa za Mzinda wa Arad?

N’zoona kuti Baibulo silinena zambiri zokhudza mzinda wa Arad. Komabe mumzinda wofunika kwambiri umenewu munadutsa msewu waukulu umene amalonda ankadutsamo. Motero zimene mbiri yakale imanena ndiponso zimene akatswiri apeza zokhudza mzindawu n’zosadabwitsa. Mzindawu unkalandidwa, kuwonongedwa ndi kumangidwanso mobwerezabwereza. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, n’kupita kwa nthawi unadzakhala pa chitunda kapena kuti tell.

 Baibulo linatchula koyamba za mzinda wa Arad pofotokoza zimene zinachitika chakumapeto kwa ulendo wa Aisiraeli umene anayenda m’chipululu kwa zaka 40. Aroni, yemwe anali mchimwene wa Mose atangomwalira chakumene, Aisiraeli anadutsa kufupi ndi malire akum’mwera kwa Dziko Lolonjezedwa. Mfumu yachikanani ya mzinda wa Arad inaona kuti anthuwa anali osavuta kuwagonjetsa ndipo inayamba kumenyana nawo. Koma mothandizidwa ndi Yehova Mulungu, Aisiraeli anapambana nkhondoyo, n’kuwonongeratu mzinda wa Arad ngakhale kuti anthu ena a mumzindawu anapulumuka.​—Numeri 21:1-3.

Akanani sanachedwe kumanganso mzinda wofunika kwambiriwu. Ndipo Aisiraeli, motsogozedwa ndi Yoswa, anafikanso m’derali patatha zaka zochepa kuchokera pamene anauwononga koyamba. Iwo anachokera kumpoto kwa derali n’kuyamba kugonjetsa Akanani “kumapiri,” ndipo mmodzi mwa adani amene anamenyana nawo anali ‘mfumu ya Aradi.’ (Yoswa 10:40; 12:14) Kenako mbadwa za Hobabu yemwe anali wa mtundu wachikeni ndipo anayenda limodzi ndi Aisiraeli paulendo wawo wam’chipululu, anadzakhala m’dera limeneli la Negebu.​—Oweruza 1:16.

Zimene Akatswiri Ofukula za M’mabwinja Apeza

Mabwinja a ku Tel Arad amasonyeza kuti nkhani za m’Baibulo zofotokoza zimene zinachitika Aisiraeli atakhazikika m’Dziko Lolonjezedwa n’zolondola. Mwachitsanzo, pofukula mabwinjawa akatswiri apeza zidutswa zosanjanasanjana za malinga. Zikuoneka kuti zina mwa zidutswazo ndi zakale kwambiri m’nthawi ya Mfumu Solomo, yemwe ankakonda kwambiri ntchito zomanga mizinda. (1 Mafumu 9:15-19) Chidutswa china cha malingawa chikusonyeza kuti mzindawu unachita kuwonongedwa ndi moto cha m’ma 990 B.C.E. Izi zikugwirizana ndi nthawi imene Mfumu Sisaki ya ku Iguputo inawononga mzindawu patangotha zaka zisanu Solomo atamwalira. Mu mzinda wa Karnak, kum’mwera kwa dziko la Egypt, kuli chipilala chokumbukira nkhondo imeneyi ndipo chimatchula kuti mzinda wa Arad ndi umodzi mwa mizinda yambiri imene anaigonjetsa.​—2 Mbiri 12:1-4.

N’zochititsa chidwi kwambiri kuti ambiri mwa mapale pafupifupi 200 omwe anapezeka ku mabwinjawa ali mayina a Chiheberi omwenso anatchulidwa m’Baibulo. Ena mwa mayinawa ndi Pasuri, Meremoti ndiponso ana a Kora. Chinanso chochititsa chidwi kwambiri n’chakuti ena mwa mapalewo analembedwa dzina la Mulungu. Dzinali, lomwe m’Chiheberi limaimiridwa ndi zilembo zinayi izi יהוה (YHWH), ndi la Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse basi. M’kupita kwa nthawi, zikhulupiriro zonama za Ayuda zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri aziganiza kuti kutchula kapena kulemba dzina la Mulungu ndi chipongwe chachikulu. Koma mofanana ndi mapale ena ambiri, mapale omwe anapezeka ku Tel Arad, amatsimikizira kuti m’nthawi za m’Baibulo anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu momasuka, monga popatsana moni ndiponso pofunirana zabwino. Mwachitsanzo, paphale lina panalembedwa mawu akuti: “Kwa mbuye wanga Eliyasibu. Yahweh [Yehova] akusungeni. . . . Iye akukhala mu kachisi wa Yahweh.”

Nanga bwanji za kachisi amene tam’tchula koyambirira uja? Bwinja la kachisi ameneyu ndi limene lachititsa chidwi anthu ambiri pa mabwinja a ku Tel Arad. Kachisiyu anali ndi guwa lansembe ndipo anamangidwa m’nthawi ya Ayuda. Kachisiyu anali wamng’ono kwambiri poyerekezera  ndi kachisi wa Solomo ku Yerusalemu, koma mamangidwe ake ankafanana naye kwambiri. Kodi kachisi wa ku Arad anamangidwa liti ndipo n’chifukwa chiyani? Nanga ankagwiritsidwa ntchito motani? Akatswiri a mbiri yakale ndiponso ofukula za m’mabwinja sayankha mafunsowa mogwira mtima, koma amangofotokoza maganizo awo.

Yehova ananena kuti malo okha amene iye angavomereze kuchitirako misonkhano ikuluikulu ya pachaka ndiponso kuperekerako nsembe ndi ku kachisi wa ku Yerusalemu. (Deuteronomo 12:5; 2 Mbiri 7:12) Choncho, kachisi wa ku Arad anamangidwa n’kumagwiritsidwa ntchito motsutsana ndi Malamulo a Mulungu. Mwina anamangidwa panthawi imene Aisiraeli ambiri anasiya kulambira koona n’kumapereka nsembe pamaguwa ena ndiponso kuchita miyambo yachikunja. (Ezekieli 6:13) Ngati ndi choncho, n’kutheka kuti kachisiyu anagwetsedwa panthawi yomwe Hezekiya kapena Yosiya ankawononga malo onse a kulambira konyenga mu Yuda m’zaka za m’ma 700 B.C.E. ndi m’ma 600 B.C.E.​—2 Mbiri 31:1; 34:3-5, 33.

Mwachionekere, zinthu zochepa zimene akatswiri apeza ku mabwinja a ku Arad zingatiphunzitse zinthu zofunika kwambiri. Zinthu zimenezi zikutsimikizira kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola, zikusonyeza mmene kulambira konyenga kunayambira ndiponso kutha kwake, komanso zili ndi zitsanzo za mmene anthu ankagwiritsira ntchito bwino dzina la Yehova.

[Mapu/​Chithunzi patsamba 23]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

YERUSALEMU

Nyanja Yakufa

Arad

Tel Arad

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.

[Chithunzi patsamba 24]

Zojambula zimene zili pa chipilala cha ku Karnak, ku Egypt

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.

[Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Ena mwa mawu amene ali pa phale ili ndi akuti: “Yahweh [Yehova] akusungeni”

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Photograph © Israel Museum, Jerusalem; courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority

[Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Chigawo cha kachisi wa ku Tel Arad

[Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Mmene linga la mzinda wa Tel Arad linkaonekera kuchokera kummawa

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Todd Bolen/​Bible Places.com