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Kodi Zochitika mu Ufumu Wakale wa Lydia Zimatikhudza Motani?

Kodi Zochitika mu Ufumu Wakale wa Lydia Zimatikhudza Motani?

 Kodi Zochitika mu Ufumu Wakale wa Lydia Zimatikhudza Motani?

N’KUTHEKA kuti simunamvepo za ufumu wakale wa Lydia. Motero mwina mungadabwe kumva kuti zinthu zimene anazitulukira kumeneku zinasintha kwambiri mmene anthu amachitira malonda padziko lonse. Anthu amene amawerenga Baibulo nawonso angadabwe kudziwa kuti zinthu zimene anthu a ku Lydia anatulukira zimatithandiza kuzindikira ulosi wina wovuta kumvetsa wa m’Baibulo. Kodi ndi zinthu zotani zimene anthu a ku Lydia anatulukira? Tisanayankhe, tingachite bwino kuona kaye mmene moyo wa anthu unalili mu ufumu wakale kwambiri umenewu.

 Mafumu a ku Lydia ankakhala mu mzinda wa Sade, lomwe linali likulu la dzikolo. Mzinda umenewu unali cha kumadzulo kwa dera la Asia Minor, lomwe tsopano ndi dziko la Turkey. Mfumu yomaliza ya Lydia dzina lake Kolosase, anali wolemera kwambiri koma cha mu 546 B.C.E., analandidwa ufumu ndi Koresi Wamkulu, mfumu ya ku Perisiya. Patapita zaka zingapo, Koresi anadzagonjetsanso ufumu wa Babulo.

Anthu azamalonda a ku Lydia anali oyamba kugwiritsa ntchito ndalama zachitsulo. Kale kwambiri, anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito golide ndi siliva ngati ndalama. Koma chifukwa choti golide komanso silivayo ankakhala wokula mosiyanasiyana, anthuwo ankafunika kuyeza kulemera kwake pogula kapena kugulitsa zinthu. Mwachitsanzo ku Isiraeli, Yeremiya mneneri wa Mulungu atagula munda, analemba kuti: “Ndim’yesera ndalama, masekele khumi ndi asanu ndi awiri a siliva.”​—Yeremiya 32:9.

Anthu a ku Lydia omwe anakhalapo m’nthawi ya Yeremiya anatulukira njira inayake yochitira malonda. Njira imeneyi inali yogwiritsira ntchito ndalama zachitsulo zokhala ndi chidindo. Ndalama zoyambirira za ku Lydia ankazipanga ndi miyala inayake yomwe inkakhala ndi golide komanso siliva. Koma Kolosase atakhala mfumu, anathetsa ndalama zimenezi n’kuyambitsa ndalama zopangidwa ndi siliva komanso golide weniweni. Anthu a ku Lydia ndi amene anayambitsanso njira yogwiritsa ntchito ndalama zochepa mphamvu zingapo zomwe zinali zofanana ndi ndalama imodzi yamphamvu kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, ndalama za siliva 12 zinkafanana mphamvu ndi ndalama imodzi ya golide. Koma njira imeneyi inali ndi mavuto akenso chifukwa anthu ena anayamba kupanga ndalama zachinyengo. Motero anthu a zamalonda anayamba kufufuza njira yoyesera kuti aone ngati golide wa m’ndalama iliyonse anali weniweni.

Choncho anthu a ku Lydia anatulukira kuti mwala winawake wakuda unali wothandiza pothetsa vutoli. Iwo ankakhulitsa ndalamazo pa mwala umenewu womwe unkakhala wosasalala kwenikweni kuti ndalamazo zikandikekandike. Ndiyeno ankakhulitsanso zitsulo zina zokhala ndi golide yemwe kuchuluka kwake amakudziwa bwino. Kenaka ankayerekezera kaonekedwe ka golide wa m’ndalama zija ndi wam’zitsulo uja. Zimenezi zinkawathandiza kudziwa kuchuluka kwa golide yemwe anali mu ndalamazo. Motero kugwiritsira ntchito miyala yoyesera imeneyi kunathandiza kuti njira yogwiritsa ntchito ndalama zachitsulo pamalonda ikhale yodalirika. Koma kodi kudziwa za miyala yoyesera imeneyi kungatithandize bwanji kumvetsa Baibulo?

Miyala Yoyesera Yophiphiritsa ya m’Baibulo

Anthu azamalonda atayamba kugwiritsa ntchito kwambiri miyala yoyesera pofuna kudziwa kuchuluka kwa golide m’ndalama, mawu akuti “mwala woyesera” anayamba kutanthauza njira yoyesera zinthu. M’Chigiriki, chilankhulo chomwe chinagwiritsidwa ntchito polemba mbali ina ya Baibulo, mawu oti mwala woyesera amatanthauzanso kulanga anthu mwa kuwazunza.

Popeza anthu oyang’anira ndende ndi amene ankazunza kwambiri akaidi, mawu akuti “mwala woyesera” anayamba kutanthauzanso anthu oyang’anira ndende. Ndipo Baibulo limanena za fanizo la Yesu la kapolo wosayamika amene anaperekedwa kwa ‘ozunza.’ (Mateyo 18:34, Buku Lopatulika Ndilo Mau a Mulungu) Ponena za vesi limeneli, buku lina limati: “Zikuoneka kuti munthu akatsekeredwa m’ndende ‘ankazunzidwa’ (zimenezi n’zosakayikitsa), ndipo anthu ‘ozunzawo’ sanali enanso ayi, koma oyang’anira ndendewo.” (The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia) Zimenezi zikutithandiza kumvetsa vesi lina la m’Baibulo lochititsa chidwi.

Kuzindikira Tanthauzo la Mawu Ophiphiritsa

Kwa nthawi yaitali, anthu ambiri okonda kuwerenga Baibulo akhala akufunitsitsa kudziwa zimene zidzam’chitikire Satana. Baibulo limati: “Mdyerekezi,  . . . adzaponyedwa m’nyanja ya moto ndi sulufule, mmene muli kale chilombo ndi mneneri wonyenga uja. Ndipo iwo adzazunzidwa usana ndi usiku kwa muyaya ndi muyaya.” (Chivumbulutso 20:10) Ndithudi, zingakhale zotsutsana ndi chikondi komanso chilungamo cha Yehova ngati iye atapereka moyo wosatha kwa munthu winawake koma n’kumamuzunzanso. (Yeremiya 7:31) Kuwonjezera pamenepa, Baibulo limati moyo wosatha ndi mphatso, osati chilango. (Aroma 6:23) Choncho n’zoonekeratu kuti lemba la Chivumbulutso 20:10 ndi lophiphiritsa. Chilombo ndiponso nyanja yamoto n’zophiphiritsanso. (Chivumbulutso 13:2; 20:14) Nanga kodi kuzunzidwako n’kophiphiritsanso? Kodi mawu a pavesi limeneli akutanthauza chiyani?

Monga mmene taonera, mawu a Chigiriki akuti “kuzunza” anachokera ku mawu otanthauza “mwala woyesera” ndipo angatanthauze kuzunzidwa mwa kuikidwa m’ndende. Choncho, mawu akuti Satana adzazunzidwa kwa muyaya akutanthauza kuti iye adzatsekeredwa m’ndende yomwe sadzatulukamonso. Ndende imeneyi ikutanthauza imfa.

Ndipo miyala yoyesera ya ku Lydia ikutithandiza kumvetsa mfundo ina yoti Satana ‘adzazunzidwa’ kwamuyaya. Komanso mfundo imeneyi ndi yogwirizana kwambiri ndi chikondi cha Mulungu. M’zinenero zina, mawu akuti “mwala woyesera” amatanthauza njira yoyesera zinthu. Mwachitsanzo, m’Chingelezi, mawu akuti “mwala woyesera” amatanthauza “njira yodziwira ngati chinthu chili chenicheni.” Motero, ‘kuzunzidwa’ kophiphiritsira kwa Satana kukusonyeza kuti chilango chake chidzakhala ngati mwala woyesera umene ungadzagwiritsidwenso ntchito ngati ena atagalukira Mulungu. Ndipo omwe angadzagalukire ulamuliro wa Yehova sadzapatsidwanso mpata wokhalabe nthawi yaitali koma adzawonongedwa nthawi yomweyo.

Kumvetsa bwino chifukwa chimene anthu ena azamalonda anayambira kutsatira njira ya ku Lydia yogwiritsa ntchito miyala yoyesera, ndiponso kumvetsa tanthauzo la mawu ophiphiritsawa, kukutithandiza kudziwa zimene zidzam’chitikire Satana. Chilango chimene Satana adzalandire chidzakhala ngati mwala woyesera wa chiweruzo umene udzachititse kuti Mulungu asadzalorerenso kuti ena am’galukire.​—Aroma 8:20.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 23]

‘Kuzunzidwa’ kophiphiritsira kwa Satana kukusonyeza kuti chilango chake chidzakhala ngati mwala woyesera kwamuyaya

[Mapu patsamba 21]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Black Sea

LYDIA

SADE

Nyanja ya Mediterranean

[Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Mabwinja a mzinda wakale wa Sade

[Chithunzi patsamba 22]

M’nthawi za kale, anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito sikelo poyeza ndalama

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

E. Strouhal/​Werner Forman/​Art Resource, NY

[Chithunzi pamasamba 22, 23]

Njira yogwiritsa ntchito miyala yoyesera yafika mpaka m’masiku athu ano

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Coins: Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.; touchstone: Science Museum/​Science & Society Picture Library

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Electrum coin: Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.