Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Ubatizo wa Clovis Komanso Zaka 1,500 za Chikatolika ku France

Ubatizo wa Clovis Komanso Zaka 1,500 za Chikatolika ku France

 Ubatizo wa Clovis Komanso Zaka 1,500 za Chikatolika ku France

“M’DZINA la Papa phulika kuti phuu!” Ameneŵa anali mawu amene analembedwa pa bomba lomwe linapezeka m’tchalitchi china ku France chomwe Papa Yohane Paulo Wachiŵiri ankayembekezeka kukayendera mu September 1996. Chimenechi chinali chitsanzo chachikulu cha kutsutsidwa komwe anakumana nako pa ulendo wake wachisanu wokacheza m’dziko la France. Komabe chaka chimenecho, anthu pafupifupi 200,000 anafika mumzinda wa ku France wa Reims kudzakondwera pamodzi ndi papa kuti patha zaka 1,500 kuchokera pamene Mfumu yachifulanki dzina lake Clovis inatembenuka kuloŵa Chikatolika. Kodi mfumu imene ubatizo wake wakhala ukutchedwa ubatizo wa dziko la France inali ndani? Ndipo n’chifukwa chiyani kukondwerera ubatizowo kunachititsa kusiyana maganizo koteroko?

Ufumu Ukuchepa Mphamvu

Clovis anabadwa cha m’ma 466 C.E., ndipo anali mwana wa Childeric 1 yemwe anali mfumu ya Afulanki a mtundu wa Asaliani. Mtundu wachijeremani umenewu utagonjetsedwa ndi Aroma mu 358 C.E., unaloledwa kukhala m’dziko lomwe tsopano ndi Belgium pokhapokha ngati ukanamalondera m’malire ndiponso kupereka asilikali ku gulu lankhondo la Aroma. Kuyenderana pakati pa Afulanki ndi Afalansa achiroma kunachititsa kuti m’kupita kwa nthaŵi Afulanki akhale Aroma. Childeric 1 anagwirizana ndi Aroma polimbana ndi mitundu ina youkira yachijeremani monga a Visigoths ndi a Saxons. Izi zinachititsa kuti Afalansa achiroma am’thokoze kwambiri Childeric 1.

Chigawo cha Roma cha Gau chinali chachikulu kuchokera ku mtsinje wa Rhine womwe unali kumpoto, mpaka ku Pyrenees, kumwera. Komabe, Kazembe wa Roma Aetius atamwalira mu 454 C.E., m’dzikolo munalibe wolamulira. Komanso, kugonja kwa mfumu yomaliza ya Roma, dzina lake Romulus Augustulus, mu 476 C.E. ndiponso kutha kwa chigawo chakumadzulo cha Ufumu wa Roma kunabweretsa mavuto aakulu a zandale m’deralo. Motero, Gau anali ngati nkhuyu yakupsa yodikira kuthyoledwa ndi umodzi mwa mitundu yomwe inali m’malire ake. N’zosadabwitsa kuti Clovis ataloŵa ufumu m’malo mwa bambo ake, anayamba kufutukula malire a ufumu wake. Mu 486 C.E., iye anagonjetsa kazembe womaliza wa Roma ku Gau pankhondo yomwe inachitikira pafupi ndi mzinda wa Soissons. Kupambana kumeneku kunam’patsa mphamvu zolamulira chigawo chonse chapakati pa mtsinje wa Somme, womwe unali kumpoto, ndi mtsinje wa Loire, womwe unali pakati komanso kumadzulo kwa Gau.

Munthu Amene Anali Kudzakhala Mfumu

Mosiyana ndi mitundu ina yachijeremani, Afulanki anali achikunjabe. Komabe, moyo wa Clovis  unasintha kwambiri chifukwa chokwatira mfumukazi yachibuganda dzina lake Clotilda. Clotilda yemwe anali Mkatolika wachangu kwambiri anayesetsa mwakhama kuti mwamuna wake atembenuke. Mbiri yomwe inalembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 600 ndi Gregory wa ku Tours, imanena kuti, munali m’chaka cha 496 C.E., pankhondo ya ku Tolbiac (Zülpich Germany) yolimbana ndi mtundu wa Alemanni, pamene Clovis analonjeza kuti aleka chikunja ngati Mulungu wa Clotilda amuthandize kupambana nkhondoyo. Ngakhale kuti magulu ankhondo a Clovis anatsala pang’ono kugonja, mfumu ya Alemanni inaphedwa ndipo asilikali ake anagonja. Clovis anaganiza kuti Mulungu wa Clotilda ndiye wamuthandiza kupambana nkhondoyo. Malinga ndi zomwe ena amanena, Clovis akuti anabatizidwa ndi Remigius “Woyera” m’tchalitchi chachikulu cha Reims pa December 25, 496 C.E. Komabe, ena amaganiza kuti ayenera kuti anabatizidwa mu 498/9 C.E.

Zolinga za Clovis zofuna kulanda ufumu wa Abuganda womwe unali kumwera chakummaŵa zinalephereka. Koma nkhondo yake yolimbana ndi a Visigoths inapindula pamene anawagonjetsa pa nkhondo ya m’tauni ya Vouillé pafupi ndi Poitiers mu 507 C.E. Kupambana kumeneku kunam’patsa mphamvu zolamulira dera lalikulu lakumwera chakumadzulo kwa Gau. Ataona kupambana kwake, mfumu ya Ufumu Wakummaŵa wa Roma dzina lake Anastasius, inapatsa Clovis udindo waulemu kuti akhale mkulu wa oweruza. Choncho, iye anali ndi udindo wapamwamba kwambiri kuposa mafumu ena onse akumadzulo ndipo ulamuliro wake unali wovomerezeka mwalamulo ndi Afalansa achiroma.

Atayamba kulamulira dera la Afulanki lakummaŵa lomwe linali m’mphepete mwa mtsinje wa Rhine, Clovis anasandutsa Paris kukhala likulu lake. M’zaka zomalizira za moyo wake, Clovis analimbitsa ufumu wake mwa kuulembera mpambo wamalamulo wotchedwa Lex Salica ndiponso kuitanitsa bungwe la akuluakulu a tchalitchi ku Orléans kuti apange mgwirizano pakati pa Tchalitchi ndi Boma. Pamene ankamwalira, mwinamwake pa November 27, 511 C.E., n’kuti zigawo zitatu mwa zinayi za Gau akulamulira yekha.

The New Encyclopædia Britannica imanena kuti, nthaŵi yomwe Clovis anatembenuka kukhala Mkatolika inali “nthaŵi yofunika kwambiri m’mbiri yakumadzulo kwa Ulaya.” N’chifukwa chiyani kutembenuka kwa mfumu yachikunja imeneyi kunali kofunika kwambiri? Kufunika kwake kwagona poti Clovis anasankha Chikatolika osati Chiariani.

Ziphunzitso Zotsutsa za Chiariani

Cha m’ma 320 C.E., Arius yemwe anali wansembe ku Alexandria, Egypt, anayamba kufalitsa mfundo zotsutsa Utatu. Arius ankakana kuti Mwana sanali ndi ulemerero wofanana ndi Atate. Mwana sangakhale Mulungu kapena kukhala  wofanana ndi Atate chifukwa iye anali ndi chiyambi. (Akolose 1:15) Pankhani ya mzimu woyera, Arius ankakhulupirira kuti mzimu woyera ndi munthu koma wotsika poyerekezera ndi Atate ndi Mwana. Ziphunzitso zimenezi zomwe zinatchuka kwambiri zinayambitsa kutsutsana koopsa pakati pa anthu a tchalitchicho. Pamsonkhano wa ku Nicea, mu 325 C.E., Arius anam’thamangitsa m’dzikolo ndipo ziphunzitso zake zinaletsedwa. *

Komabe, zimenezi sizinathetse kusiyana maganizo komwe kunabuka. Kutsutsana pankhani ya ziphunzitso kunapitirizabe kwa zaka pafupifupi 60, ndipo mafumu ena ankagwirizana ndi mbali ina ndipo akaloŵa ena ankagwirizana ndi mbali inayo. Kenaka, mu 392 C.E., Mfumu Tedosiyasi 1 anasankha Chikatolika chokhulupirira Utatu kukhala chipembedzo cha Boma la Ufumu wa Roma. Panthaŵiyi n’kuti bishopu wachijeremani dzina lake Ulfilas atatembenuza mtundu wa Agoth kuloŵa chipembedzo cha Chiariani. Mitundu ina yachijeremani inatsatira “Chikristu” cha Chiariani mofulumira. *

Pamene Clovis ankayamba kulamulira n’kuti Tchalitchi Chakatolika ku Gau chili pa mavuto adzaoneni. A Visigoths achiariani anali kuyesetsa kupondereza Chikatolika mwa kukana kusankha mabishopu ena kuloŵa m’malo mwa amene anamwalira. Komanso, tchalitchi chinali pa vuto la magaŵano moti ansembe a magulu aŵiri otsutsana ankaphana okhaokha ku Roma. Kuwonjezera pa chipwirikiti chimenechi, olemba ena achikatolika anali atalemba kuti chaka cha 500 C.E. chidzakhala chaka cha kutha kwa dziko. Chotero, kutembenuka kwa wogonjetsa wachifulanki kuloŵa Chikatolika ankakuona kukhala chochitika chosonyeza kuyandikira kwa “zaka chikwi zatsopano za oyera mtima.”

Koma kodi zolinga za Clovis zinali zotani? Ngakhale kuti n’zoona kuti anasonkhezeredwa ndi chipembedzo koma mosakayikira iye anali ndi zolinga za ndale. Mwakusankha Chikatolika, Clovis anayanjidwa kwambiri ndi Afalansa achiroma omwe anali ochuluka komanso akuluakulu a tchalitchi amene ankakopa anthu ambiri. Zimenezi mwachionekere zinam’patsa mwayi kuthana ndi anthu amene ankatsutsana naye pa ndale. The New Encyclopædia Britannica imati, “kugonjetsa kwake chigawo cha Gau kunasanduka nkhondo yomenyera ufulu womasuka m’goli la anthu ampatuko wa Chiariani omwe ankadana nawo kwambiri.”

Kodi Clovis Kwenikweni Anali Munthu Wotani?

Chikondwerero cha mu 1996 chili pafupi kuchitika, bishopu wamkulu wa ku Reims, dzina lake Gérard Defois anafotokoza za Clovis kuti “anali chitsanzo cha munthu yemwe anatembenuka atakonzekera bwino ndiponso ataganiza bwino.”  Komabe, wolemba mbiri wina wa ku France dzina lake Ernest Lavisse ananena kuti: “Kutembenuka kwa Clovis mwachionekere sikunasinthe moyo wake mpang’ono pomwe. Khalidwe labwino la chifundo ndi mtendere za m’Mauthenga Abwino sizinam’khudze mtima.” Wolemba mbiri wina anati: “Mmalo mopempha kwa Odin [mulungu wa Norse] Clovis anapempha kwa Kristu koma sanasinthe moyo wake wakale.” Pokumbukira za khalidwe la Kositantini atachita zomwe ankati n’kutembenuka kuloŵa Chikristu, Clovis anayamba kulimbikitsa ulamuliro wake mwa kupha onse otsutsana naye. Iye anapha abale ake onse ngakhale amene chibale chake chinali chokumbira.”

Clovis atamwalira, ntchito yopeka nkhani zomukometsa kuchoka pa msilikali wankhanza kufika pa woyera mtima wotchuka inayamba. Nkhani ya Gregory wa ku Tours yomwe inalembedwa pafupifupi zaka 100 Clovis atamwalira, imaonedwa kukhala yolembedwa mochenjera pofuna kugwirizanitsa Clovis ndi Kositantini yemwe anali mfumu yoyamba ya Roma kulandira “Chikristu.” Ndipo mwakunena kuti Clovis anabatizidwa ali ndi zaka 30, Gregory akuoneka kuti ankayesa kumuyerekezera ndi Kristu.​—Luka 3:23.

Izi zinapitirizidwa m’zaka za m’ma 900 ndi Hincmar yemwe anali bishopu wa ku Reims. Panthaŵi yomwe matchalitchi akuluakulu ankalimbirana anthu odzaona malo achipembedzo, mbiri yomwe Hincmar analemba yokhudza moyo wa Remigius “Woyera” yemwe iye anamuloŵa m’malo, mwachionekere cholinga chake chinali kutchukitsa tchalitchi chake ndiponso kuwonjezera ulemerero wa tchalitchilo. M’nkhani yakeyo anati, nkhunda yoyera inabweretsa nsupa ya mafuta kudzadzoza Clovis pa ubatizo wake​—zochita kuonekeratu kuti ankanena za kudzozedwa kwa Yesu ndi mzimu woyera. (Mateyu 3:16) Motero Hincmar anagwirizanitsa Clovis, Reims, ndi boma lachifumu ndipo anayambitsa chikhulupiriro chakuti Clovis anali wodzozedwa wa Ambuye. *

Chikondwerero Choyambitsa Kusiyana Maganizo

Pulezidenti wakale wa dziko la France Charles de Gaulle nthaŵi ina anati: “Kwa ine, mbiri ya dziko la France inayamba pamene Clovis anasankhidwa kukhala mfumu ya France ndi mtundu wa Afulanki amene anapatsa dzina lawo dziko la France.” Komabe, si anthu onse amene amaganiza choncho. Chikondwerero choti patha zaka 1,500 kuchokera pamene Clovis anabatizidwa chinayambitsa kusiyana maganizo. Popeza kuti m’dzikolo Tchalitchi ndi Boma zakhala zolekana kuyambira mu 1905, anthu ambiri anadzudzula Boma chifukwa chochita nawo chikondwerero chomwe iwo ankaona kuti n’chachipembedzo. Pamene khonsolo ya mzinda wa Reims inalengeza zoti ilipira thebulo lokambirapo nkhani lomwe papa adzagwiritse ntchito pa ulendo wake wodzacheza mumzindawo, bungwe lina linakasuma ku khoti kuti zimenezo n’zosaloledwa m’malamulo a dzikolo. Ena ankaganiza kuti tchalitchi chinkayesa kukakamizanso chikhalidwe chake ndi ulamuliro womwe chinali nawo pa dziko la France. Mfundo inanso yomwe inachititsa chikondwererocho kukhala choyambitsa kusiyana maganizo ndi yokhudza kuyenerera kwa Clovis kukhala chizindikiro choimira gulu la National Front ndiponso magulu achikatolika oumirira miyambo.

Ena anadzudzula chikondwererocho chifukwa cha zomwe mbiri imanena. Iwo anati, kubatizidwa kwa Clovis sikunatembenuze dziko la France kukhala la Chikatolika chifukwa chakuti chipembedzochi chinali chitazika kale mizu pakati pa Afalansa achiroma. Ndipo iwo ananenanso kuti, kubatizidwa kwake sindiko kunali chiyambi cha dziko la France. Iwo amaganiza kuti dziko la France linayamba kalekale pamene ufumu wa Charlemagne  unagawikana mu 843 C.E., ndipo Charles Bald ndiye anali mfumu yoyamba ya dziko la France osati Clovis.

Zaka 1,500 za Chikatolika

Kodi Chikatolika chikuyenda bwanji lerolino ku France chitakwanitsa zaka 1,500 m’dziko lomwe lili “mwana woyamba wa Tchalitchi”? Dziko la France ndilo linkakhala ndi akatolika obatizidwa ambiri padziko lonse mpaka mu 1938. Lero dzikoli lili pa nambala sikisi kuposedwa ndi mayiko monga Philippines ndi United States. Ngakhale kuti ku France kuli Akatolika 45 miliyoni, 6 miliyoni okha ndiwo amapezeka pa Misa nthaŵi zonse. Kafukufuku waposachedwapa anasonyeza kuti 65 peresenti ya Akatolika achifalansa “salabadira chiphunzitso cha Tchalitchi pankhani za kugonana” ndipo 5 peresenti ya iwo, amaona Yesu kukhala “wopanda ntchito.” Maganizo oterowo ndiwo anachititsa papa paulendo wake wocheza ku France mu 1980 kufunsa kuti: “Anthu a ku France, kodi malonjezo a ubatizo wanu ali kuti?”

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 12 Onani Nsanja ya Olonda yachingelezi ya August 1, 1984, tsamba 24.

^ ndime 13 Onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya May 15, 1994, masamba 8-9.

^ ndime 19 Dzina lakuti Louis linachokera ku dzina lakuti Clovis ndipo mafumu 19 achifalansa (kuphatikizapo Louis 17 ndi Louis-Philippe) anali kutchedwa ndi dzina limeneli.

[Mapu patsamba 27]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

SAXONS

Mtsinje wa Rhine

Mtsinje wa Somme

Soissons

Reims

Paris

GAUL

Mtsinje wa Loire

Vouillé

Poitiers

PYRENEES

VISIGOTHS

Roma

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Kusonyezedwa kwa ubatizo wa Clovis m’kope lolembedwa pamanja la m’zaka za m’ma 1400

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Cliché Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Chiboliboli chosonyeza ubatizo wa Clovis (chithunzi chapakati) kunja kwa tchalitchi chachikulu cha Reims Cathedral, ku France

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Ulendo wa Papa Yohane Paulo Wachiŵiri wokacheza ku France kukakondwerera ubatizo wa Clovis unayambitsa kusiyana maganizo