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Kodi Ziphunzitso za Calvin Zakwaniritsa Chiyani pa Zaka 500 Zapitazi?

Kodi Ziphunzitso za Calvin Zakwaniritsa Chiyani pa Zaka 500 Zapitazi?

 Kodi Ziphunzitso za Calvin Zakwaniritsa Chiyani pa Zaka 500 Zapitazi?

JOHN CALVIN (Jean Cauvin) anabadwira ku France mumzinda wa Noyon m’chaka cha 1509. Iye anayambitsa ziphunzitso zachipembedzo zimene zinakhudza anthu ambiri ku Ulaya, America, South Africa ndi madera ena. Calvin amadziwika monga mmodzi wa anthu amene anasintha kwambiri zinthu m’mbiri ya tchalitchi cha Katolika ku Ulaya ndi ku America.

Ngakhale kuti papita zaka 500 kuchokera nthawi imene Calvin anabadwa, anthu akutsatirabe mfundo ndi ziphunzitso zake m’matchalitchi achipulotesitanti monga Reformed, Presbyterian, Congregational, Puritan ndi ena. Pofika mwezi wa September chaka chatha, bungwe la World Alliance of Reformed Churches linanena kuti lili ndi anthu okwanira 75 miliyoni m’mayiko 107.

Kusemphana Maganizo ndi Chikatolika

Bambo a John Calvin anali loya ndiponso mlembi wa tchalitchi cha Katolika ku Noyon. N’kutheka kuti ntchito yawo inawachititsa kuti aone khalidwe loipa la atsogoleri a tchalitchicho lomwe linali lofala kwambiri pa nthawi imeneyo. Mwina zimenezi zinawapangitsa kuti achite zinthu zosonyeza kuti sakusangalala ndi khalidwelo. Patapita nthawi, bambo a John ndi mkulu wake anawaimitsa ku tchalitchi.  Bambo a John atamwalira, zinali zovuta kwambiri kuti iye apeze mwayi woti bambo akewo aikidwe m’manda monga Mkhristu. Zimenezi ziyenera kuti zinachititsa John kukayikira kwambiri Chikatolika.

Mabuku ambiri onena za Calvin safotokoza zambiri za moyo wake ali mwana. Amangofotokoza kuti iye anali munthu wosamasuka ndi anthu ena ndiponso wosakonda kucheza. Zikuoneka kuti iye analibe anzake ambiri ngakhale pamene anali kuphunzira sukulu ku Paris, ku Orléans ndi ku Bourges. Koma Calvin anali wanzeru kwambiri ndiponso ankatha kukumbukira zinthu zambiri. Zimenezi, limodzi ndi mtima wokonda kugwira ntchito kwambiri, zinamuchititsa kuti aziwerenga kwambiri. Calvin ankachita zimenezi tsiku lililonse kuyambira 5 koloko m’mawa mpaka pakati pa usiku moti anakhala loya asanakwanitse zaka 23. Anaphunziranso Chiheberi, Chigiriki ndi Chilatini n’cholinga choti aphunzire Baibulo. Koma chinthu chimene anadziwika nacho kwambiri ndicho kugwira ntchito mwakhama nthawi zonse. Limeneli ndi khalidwe limene anthu amene amatsatira mfundo zake amadziwika nalo mpaka masiku ano.

Pa nthawi yomweyo, m’dziko loyandikana nalo la Germany, Martin Luther anali kudzudzula poyera tchalitchi cha Katolika chifukwa chochita zachinyengo ndiponso chifukwa chophunzitsa zinthu zosagwirizana ndi Baibulo. Anthu ambiri amanena kuti m’chaka cha 1517, Martin Luther analemba mfundo 95 zotsutsa tchalitchi cha Katolika n’kukazikhoma pachitseko cha tchalitchi ku Wittenberg. Mfundozo zinali zonena za zinthu zimene zinayenera kusintha m’tchalitchichi. Anthu ambiri anagwirizana naye ndipo maganizo ake osintha zinthuwo anafalikira mofulumira ku Ulaya konse. Koma m’madera ambiri anthu sanagwirizane ndi maganizo amenewa m’pang’ono pomwe ndipo amene anali kutsatira maganizo a Luther kapena kuti Apulotesitanti anazunzidwa. M’chaka cha 1533 ku Paris, mnzake wa Calvin, dzina lake Nicholas Cop, anakamba nkhani yogwirizana ndi maganizo a Luther. Popeza kuti Calvin anathandiza nawo kulemba nkhani imene Cop anakamba, iyeyo ndi Cop anathawa m’dzikolo poopa kuphedwa. Calvin sanabwererenso ku France.

Mu 1536 Calvin analemba buku lofotokoza mwatsatanetsatane mfundo za chikhulupiriro chachipulotesitanti lotchedwa Mfundo Zikuluzikulu Zachikhristu. (Institutes of the Christian Religion) Buku limeneli analembera Mfumu Francis Woyamba pofuna kuteteza Apulotesitanti amene anali m’dziko la France, omwe kenako anadzatchedwa Ayuganoti. Calvin ankatsutsa kwambiri ziphunzitso zachikatolika ndipo anali kulimbikitsa mfundo yaikulu ya chikhulupiriro chake yomwe ndi ufumu wa Mulungu. Kuwonjezera pa nkhani zachipembedzo, anthu amaona kuti buku limeneli linathandizanso pa chinenero chachifalansa ndiponso kalembedwe ka chinenerochi. Calvin ankatamandidwa monga mmodzi wa anthu amene anasintha zinthu kwambiri m’mbiri ya matchalitchi. M’kupita kwa nthawi anakakhala ku Switzerland, mumzinda wa Geneva. Kuyambira mu 1541, iye ankagwira ntchito yake mumzinda umenewu.

Kusintha Zinthu ku Geneva

Ziphunzitso za Calvin zinakhudza kwambiri anthu a ku Geneva. Buku lina linafotokoza kuti, chifukwa chakuti Calvin ankatsatira kwambiri chilungamo ndiponso mfundo za makhalidwe abwino, iye anasintha mzinda wa Geneva “womwe unkadziwika ndi makhalidwe oipa n’kukhala mzinda umene anthu ake ankatsatira kwambiri mfundo za makhalidwe abwino.” (Encyclopedia of Religion) Zinthu zinasinthanso m’njira zina. Woyang’anira malo osungirako zinthu zakale mumzinda wa Berlin ku Germany, dzina lake Dr. Sabine Witt, anafotokoza kuti: “Chifukwa cha nkhondo zachipembedzo ku France, chiwerengero cha anthu [ku Geneva] chinakwera kuwirikiza kawiri pa zaka zochepa chabe. Zinali choncho chifukwa cha Apulotesitanti ambiri  omwe anathawa kwawo ndi kudzakhala ku Geneva.” Ayuganoti omwe anali olimbikira ntchito kwambiri mofanana ndi Calvin, anachititsa kuti chuma cha mzindawu chikwere. Iwo anapangitsa kuti mumzinda wa Geneva muzisindikizidwa mabuku ambiri ndiponso azipanga mawotchi ambiri.

Anthu enanso othawa kwawo kuchokera kumadera osiyanasiyana anabwera ku Geneva. Ena anali Apulotesitanti amene anachokera kudziko la England pothawa Mfumukazi Mary Woyamba yemwe anali kuwapha. Anthu otsatira Calvin anali othawa kwawo moti nyuzipepala ina inanena kuti gulu la anthu amenewa ndi “chipembedzo cha anthu ozunzidwa.” (Christ in der Gegenwart) Mu 1560, anthu othawa kwawo amenewo anatulutsa Baibulo lotchedwa Geneva Bible. Baibulo limeneli linali loyamba m’Chingelezi kukhala ndi manambala a mavesi. Chifukwa chakuti Baibuloli linali laling’ono bwino, linathandiza anthu kuti adziwerenga okha Mawu a Mulungu. Mwina Apuritani ananyamula Baibulo limeneli pothawira ku North America mu 1620.

Koma mzinda wa Geneva sunali malo achitetezo kwa anthu ena. Munthu wina dzina lake Michael Servetus, yemwe anabadwira ku Spain, mu 1511, anaphunzira Chigiriki, Chilatini, Chiheberi ndiponso zaudokotala. Zikuoneka kuti iye anakumana ndi Calvin pamene onse anali kuphunzira ku Paris. Pamene Servetus anali kuphunzira Baibulo, anazindikira kuti chiphunzitso chakuti kuli Mulungu Atate, Mulungu Mwana ndi Mulungu Mzimu sichochokera m’Baibulo. Servetus anayesetsa kulemberana makalata ndi Calvin pa nkhani imeneyi, koma m’malo mwake Calvin anayamba kuona Servetus monga mdani wake. Kenako, Servetus anathawira ku Geneva, mzinda womwe kunali Calvin, chifukwa chozunzidwa ndi Akatolika ku France. M’malo moti alandiridwe bwinobwino, Servetus anamangidwa ndi kuzengedwa mlandu wopandukira chipembedzo. Choncho anamumangirira pamtengo n’kumuotcha m’chaka cha 1553. Katswiri wina wolemba mbiri yakale, dzina lake Friedrich Oehninger, ananena kuti: “Mpaka pano kuphedwa kwa Servetus ndi nkhani yochititsa manyazi pa mbiri ya moyo wa Calvin ngakhale kuti anasintha zinthu zambiri m’tchalitchi cha Katolika.”

Calvin anachita zinthu zambiri pamene ankasintha zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika. Anthu amati analemba mabuku oposa 100 ndiponso makalata 1,000. Komanso amati anapereka maulaliki pafupifupi 4,000 mumzinda wa Geneva. Sikuti Calvin ankangofotokoza mmene Chikhristu chiyenera kukhalira, koma analinso kuyesetsa kuthandiza Akhristu kuti azikhala mogwirizana ndi mfundo zachikhristu. Anachita zimenezi makamaka kwa Akhristu amene ankakhala mumzinda wa Geneva umene iye ankauona kuti ndi mzinda wa Mulungu. *

Kodi zimene Calvin anayesetsa kuchita mumzinda wa Geneva pa nkhani yosintha zinthu zinakwaniritsa chiyani? Bungwe lina loona za chiwerengero cha anthu (Swiss Federal Statistics Office) linafotokoza kuti m’chaka cha 2000, mumzinda wa Geneva munali anthu ochepa chabe amene anali m’chipembedzo cha Reformed (Calvinist) Church. Linafotokozanso kuti anthu ambiri mumzindawu ndi Akatolika osati anthu otsatira mfundo za Calvin.

Kusagwirizana kwa Zipembedzo Kuwonjezereka

Chifukwa cha ziphunzitso za Calvin, mayiko ndiponso mizinda yosiyanasiyana inasankha zipembedzo zimene ankafuna. Ena anasankha Chikatolika, ena chipembedzo cha Lutheran, enanso anasankha kutsatira ziphunzitso za Calvin. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti ku Ulaya anthu ambiri asamagwirizane pa nkhani yachipembedzo. Ngakhale kuti anthu osintha zinthu anali ogwirizana podzudzula tchalitchi cha Katolika, iwo anali kutsutsana okhaokha. Dr. Witt amene tamugwira mawu koyambirira uja, anati: “Ngakhale Apulotesitanti okhaokha sanali kugwirizana  pa ziphunzitso zawo.” Apulotesitanti onse ankagwirizana pa mfundo yakuti Chikhristu chiyenera kutsatira zimene zili m’Baibulo. Komabe ziphunzitso zawo zinali zosiyana kwambiri. Nkhani imene sankagwirizana kwambiri inali yokhudza tanthauzo la Mgonero wa Ambuye ndiponso kukhalapo kwa Khristu. Patapita nthawi, anthu otsatira ziphunzitso za Calvin anayambitsa chiphunzitso chimene chinautsa mapiri pachigwa. Chiphunzitsochi chimanena kuti Mulungu anakonzeratu zinthu zonse zimene zimachitika.

Anthu anali kutsutsana kwambiri pa chiphunzitsochi. Mwachitsanzo, gulu lina la anthu otsatira ziphunzitso za Calvin linkanena kuti anthu asanachimwe, Mulungu anali atakonzeratu kuti anthu ochepa ndi amene adzapulumutsidwe ndi Khristu, pamene ena onse adzawonongedwa. Choncho, gulu limeneli linkakhulupirira kuti kupulumutsidwa ndi chikonzero cha Mulungu ndipo anthu onse si ofanana. Gulu linanso lotsatira Calvin linkaona kuti anthu onse akhoza kudzapulumuka ndipo zili kwa munthu kusankha kupulumuka kapena ayi. Zimenezi zinkatanthauza kuti chipulumutso chidzadalira zimene munthu wasankha. Calvin atamwalira, anthu otsatira ziphunzitso zake ankatsutsana pa nkhani monga chikonzero cha Mulungu, ufulu wodzisankhira zochita ndiponso mwayi wofanana wochita zinthu.

Zotsatirapo Zosasangalatsa za Ziphunzitso za Calvin

Mu zaka za ma 1900, tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed Church, chimene chimatsatira ziphunzitso za Calvin, chinkalimbikitsa kusankhana mitundu m’dziko la South Africa chifukwa cha chiphunzitso chakuti Mulungu anakonzeratu zinthu zonse. Ponena za lamulo la boma loti azungu anali anthu apamwamba, Nelson Mandela, amene anadzakhala pulezidenti woyamba wachikuda wa dziko la South Africa anati: “A tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed Church ndi amene anali kulimbikitsa lamulo limeneli. Anthu amenewa amalimbikitsa kusankhana mitundu pogwiritsa ntchito mfundo zachipembedzo. Iwo ankanena kuti nzika zachizungu za ku South Africa ndi anthu osankhidwa ndi Mulungu pamene anthu akuda ndi mtundu wosafunika. Ndipo azungu omwe ndi nzika za ku South Africa amadziwa kuti tchalitchi chinkalimbikitsa kusankhana mitundu.”

M’zaka za m’ma 1990, tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed chinapepesa poyera chifukwa cholimbikitsa kusankhana mitundu. M’chikalata chimene atsogoleri a tchalitchichi analemba ku Rustenburg iwo anavomereza kuti: “Ena mwa ife tinkagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo molakwa polimbikitsa kusankhana mitundu ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri akhulupirire kuti Mulungu amavomereza kusankhana mitundu.” Zimene tchalitchichi chinkaphunzitsa pa nkhani yosankhana mitundu, zinachititsa kuti anthu ambiri avutike chifukwa cha tsankho komanso zinachititsa kuti aziganiza kuti Mulungu ndi amene anali kuchititsa zimenezo.

John Calvin anamwalira m’chaka cha 1564 ku Geneva. Chakumapeto kwa moyo wake, akuti iye anathokoza anthu omutsatira “chifukwa chomupatsa mayina ambiri aulemu pomwe sanali woyenerera dzina lililonse laulemu.” Komanso anapempha anthu kuti amukhululukire chifukwa cha makhalidwe oipa amene anali nawo omwe ndi kusaleza mtima ndi ukali. Ngakhale kuti John Calvin anali ndi makhalidwe oipa amenewa, khama ndi kugwira ntchito modzipereka kumene Apulotesitanti amachita, zimasonyeza kuti anatengera iyeyo.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 13 Kuti mudziwe zambiri, onani buku lakuti Mankind’s Search for God, masamba 321 mpaka 325, lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 21]

Chifukwa cha ziphunzitso za Calvin, mayiko ndiponso mizinda yosiyanasiyana inasankha zipembedzo zimene ankafuna. Ena anasankha Chikatolika, ena chipembedzo cha Lutheran, enanso anasankha kutsatira ziphunzitso za Calvin. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti ku Ulaya anthu ambiri asamagwirizane pa nkhani yachipembedzo.

[Mapu patsamba 18]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

SPAIN

FRANCE

PARIS

Noyon

Orléans

Bourges

SWITZERLAND

GENEVA

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Buku la Calvin (1536) ndi limene munachokera ziphunzitso zina za Apulotesitanti

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© INTERFOTO/​Alamy

[Chithunzi patsamba 20]

Kuphedwa kwa Servetus ndi nkhani yochititsa manyazi pa moyo wa Calvin

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Mary Evans Picture Library

[Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Baibulo la “Geneva Bible” (1560) limene linali loyamba m’Chingelezi kukhala ndi manambala a mavesi

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Courtesy American Bible Society

[Mawu a Chithunzi Patsamba 18]

French town: © Mary Evans Picture Library