Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Nkhondo Yasintha Masiku Ano

Nkhondo Yasintha Masiku Ano

 Nkhondo Yasintha Masiku Ano

NTHAŴI zonse nkhondo yakhala yankhanza kwambiri. Yawononga miyoyo yambiri ya asilikali ndiponso yabweretsa mavuto kwa anthu wamba. Koma m’zaka zaposachedwapa, nkhondo yasintha. Motani?

Nkhondo zamasiku ano ndi nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni, nkhondo zapakati pamagulu otsutsana a nzika za m’dziko limodzi. Ndipo kaŵirikaŵiri nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni sizitherapo, zimasiya anthu akuvutika ndi maganizo kwambiri, ndipo zimawononga zedi mayiko kusiyana ndi nkhondo zomenyedwa pakati pa mayiko. Wolemba mbiri wa ku Spain wotchedwa Julián Casanova anati: “Nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni ndi zankhanza, pamakhala kuphana ndipo anthu ambiri amafa, kugwiriridwa, kukakamizika kusamukira ku dziko lina, ndipo zikafika poipa kwambiri, pamakhala kupululutsa fuko.” Kunena zoona, zinthu zankhanza zikamachitika pakati pamagulu a anthu oyandikana, kuvutika maganizo kungatenge nthaŵi yaitali kuti kuthe.

Kuchokera pamene chidani chachikulu pakati pa dziko la America ndi dziko la Soviet Union chinatha, nkhondo zimene zachitika pakati pa asilikali a mayiko osiyanasiyana n’zochepa chabe. Lipoti la bungwe la Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) linati: “Nkhondo zonse zikuluzikulu zimene zinachitika kuchokera m’chaka cha 1990 mpaka 2000 zinali zapachiŵeniŵeni kupatulapo nkhondo zitatu zokha.”

Kunena zoona, nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni zingaoneke ngati zosaopsa ndipo ofalitsa nkhani mwina sangazilengeze padziko lonse, koma kuvutika ndi kuwononga zinthu kumene kumachitika chifukwa cha ziwawa zotero kumakhalabe kwakukulu. Anthu mamiliyoni ambiri afa pa nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni. Ndipo m’kati mwa zaka makumi aŵiri zapitazi, anthu pafupifupi mamiliyoni asanu anafa m’mayiko atatu okha mmene munali nkhondo omwe ndi Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, ndi Sudan. M’mayiko a ku Balkan, kumenyana kodetsa nkhaŵa pakati pa mitundu kunaphetsa anthu pafupifupi 250,000, ndipo nkhondo yosatherapo ya zigaŵenga ku Colombia yaphetsa anthu okwana 100,000.

Kuipa kwa nkhondo yapachiŵeniŵeni kumaoneka bwino poona mmene imakhudzira ana. Lipoti la United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees linati m’zaka khumi zapitazi, ana opitirira mamiliyoni aŵiri anafa pankhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni. Ana ena sikisi miliyoni anavulazidwa. Ana ambiri aphunzitsidwa usilikali. Mwana wina yemwe ndi msilikali anati: “Anandiphunzitsa usilikali. Anandipatsa mfuti. Ndinkagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Ndinkapha anthu wamba. Ndipo ndinapha anthu ambiri. Inali nkhondo basi . . . Ndinkangomvera zimene ankandiuza basi. Ndinkadziŵa kuti zinali zinthu zoipa. Si zimene ndinkafuna.”

Ana ambiri m’mayiko amene nthaŵi zonse mwakhala mukuchitika nkhondo yapachiŵeniŵeni amakula osadziŵa mtendere. Amakhala m’dziko limene masukulu anawonongedwa ndipo anthu amangowomberana mmalo mokambirana. Dunja, mtsikana wazaka 14 anati: “Anthu ambiri aphedwa . . . Simungamvenso kulira kwa mbalame, koma kulira kwa ana chifukwa cha kumwalira kwa mayi kapena bambo awo, mchimwene kapena mchemwali wawo.”

Chimayambitsa N’chiyani?

Kodi chimayambitsa nkhondo zankhanza zapachiŵeniŵeni zoterozo n’chiyani? Zina mwa zifukwa zikuluzikulu zoyambitsa nkhondo ndizo  kudana chifukwa chosiyana mafuko, kusiyana zipembedzo, kusoŵa chilungamo, ndi chipwirikiti cha ndale. Chinthu chinanso chimene chimayambitsa nkhondo ndi umbombo, kufuna kukhala wolamulira ndiponso kufuna kukhala ndi ndalama. Atsogoleri a ndale amayambitsa chidani chimene chimabutsa kumenyana ndipo nthaŵi zambiri amatero chifukwa cha umbombo. Lipoti limene a bungwe la SIPRI anafalitsa linafotokoza kuti anthu ambiri amene amachita nawo nkhondo “amachita zimenezo pofuna kupeza phindu.” Lipotilo linawonjezera kuti: “Umbombo umaonekera m’njira zosiyanasiyana, kungoyambira pa malonda ogulitsa miyala yambiri ya dayimondi amene akuluakulu a asilikali ndiponso atsogoleri a ndale amachita mpaka pa kuba kwa achinyamata okhala ndi mfuti m’midzi.”

Kupezeka mwachisawawa kwa mfuti zotchipa koma zoopsa kwambiri kumachititsanso kuti anthu ambiri aphedwe. Anthu pafupifupi 500,000 pachaka, amene ambiri a iwo ndi akazi ndi ana, amaphedwa chifukwa cha zida zimene amati ndi zing’onozing’ono. M’dziko lina mu Africa muno, anthu angagule mfuti yamtundu wa AK-47 pa mtengo umene angagulire nkhuku. N’zomvetsa chisoni kuti m’madera ena mfuti zayamba kupezeka kwambiri ngati nkhuku. Padziko lonse lapansi, akuganiza kuti pali zida zing’onozing’ono mamiliyoni 500, mfuti imodzi pa anthu 12 aliwonse amene ali moyo.

Kodi nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni zankhanza zikhala chizindikiro cha zaka za m’ma 2000 zino? Kodi nkhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni zikhoza kuletsedwa? Kodi anthu adzaleka kupha anzawo? Nkhani yotsatirayi iyankha mafunso ameneŵa.

[Bokosi patsamba 4]

Zotsatirapo Zomvetsa Chisoni za Nkhondo Zapachiŵeniŵeni

Pankhondo zapachiŵeniŵeni zimene amagwiritsa ntchito zida zing’onozing’ono, anthu 90 mwa anthu 100 aliwonse amene amavulala kapena kufa ndi anthu wamba osati asilikali. “N’zoonekeratu kuti nthaŵi zambiri ana ndi amene amavulazidwa kapena kuphedwa pa nkhondo ndipo zimenezi sizichitika mwangozi,” anatero katswiri wa Mlembi Wamkulu wa Bungwe la United Nations pa za mmene nkhondo imakhudzira ana, a Graça Machel.

Kugwiririra kwasanduka njira ina yomenyera nkhondo. M’madera ena amene kukuchitika nkhondo, oukira boma amagwiririra pafupifupi mtsikana wina aliyense amene am’peza m’midzi imene agonjetsa. Cholinga cha ogwiririra ameneŵa ndi kuchititsa anthu mantha kapena kuwononga ubale wa mabanja.

Njala ndi matenda zimayambanso chifukwa cha nkhondo. Kukamachitika nkhondo yapachiŵeniŵeni, anthu amadzala ndi kukolola mbewu zochepa, pamakhala chithandizo chamankhwala chochepa ngatinso chingapezeke n’komwe, ndipo pamafika chithandizo chochepa chochokera kumayiko akunja chopita kwa anthu ovutika. Kafukufuku wina amene anachita pa nkhondo ina yapachiŵeniŵeni mu Africa muno anasonyeza kuti anthu 20 mwa anthu 100 aliwonse anafa ndi matenda ndipo anthu 78 mwa anthu 100 aliwonse anafa ndi njala. Anthu aŵiri okha mwa anthu 100 aliwonse ndi amene anafa chifukwa cha kumenyanako.

Pa avareji, pa mphindi 22 zilizonse munthu mmodzi amaduka mwendo kapena mkono kapena kufa chifukwa choponda mabomba okwirira pansi. Pali mabomba okwirira pansi okwana pafupifupi 60 mpaka 70 miliyoni m’mayiko opitirira 60.

Anthu amakakamizika kuthaŵa kwawo. Padziko lonse lapansi pali anthu othaŵa kwawo ndiponso amene anasiya nyumba zawo mamiliyoni 50 ndipo theka la ameneŵa ndi ana.

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 2]

PACHIKUTO: Mnyamata: Chithunzi chojambulidwa ndi Chris Hondros/​Getty Images

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 3]

Chithunzi chojambulidwa ndi Chris Hondros/​Getty Images