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Chizunzo Chisonkhezera Kuwonjezeka mu Antiokeya

Chizunzo Chisonkhezera Kuwonjezeka mu Antiokeya

 Chizunzo Chisonkhezera Kuwonjezeka mu Antiokeya

PAMENE chizunzo chinaulika pambuyo pa kuphedwa kwa Stefano, ophunzira ambiri a Yesu anathaŵa mu Yerusalemu. Malo ena kumene anathaŵirako kunali ku Antiokeya, ku Suriya, makilomita ngati 550 cha kumpoto kwake. (Machitidwe 11:19) Zimene zinadzachitika kumeneko zinakhudza zochitika zonse za mbiri ya Chikristu. Kuti timvetse zimene zinachitika, ndi bwino kuti tidziŵeko pang’ono za Antiokeya.

Malinga ndi mmene mizinda ya ufumu wa Roma inalili, mizinda ya Roma ndi Alesandriya ndiyo yokha imene inali yaikulu, yokhupuka, ndi yofunika kuposa mzinda wa Antiokeya. Likulu limeneli la dziko la Suriya linali kulamulira ngodya ya kumpoto chakum’maŵa ya nyanja ya Mediterranean. Antiokeya (tsopano Antakya, ku Turkey) anali pa mtsinje wokhoza kuyendapo ndi ngalawa wa Orontes, umene unagwirizanitsa mzindawo ndi doko lake, Seleucia Pieria, pa mtunda wa makilomita 32. Anali kulamulira umodzi mwa misewu ya malonda yofunika kwambiri pakati pa Roma ndi Chigwa cha Tigirisi ndi Firate. Monga paphata pa malonda, anali kuchita malonda mu ufumu wonsewo ndipo ankaona zochita za anthu a mitundu yonse, amene anali kubweretsa nkhani za magulu achipembedzo a kumadera onse a dziko la Roma.

Chipembedzo ndi filosofi ya a Helene zinakula ku Antiokeya. Koma “m’nthaŵi ya Kristu,” anatero wolemba mbiri Glanville Downey, “magulu achipembedzo ampatuko akale ndiponso mafilosofiwo anayamba kukhala nkhani zimene munthu payekha anali kukhulupirira, popeza kuti anthu paokha anali kufunafuna chipembedzo chowakhutiritsa pa mavuto awo ndi zokhumba zawo.” (A History of Antioch in Syria) Ambiri anali kukhutiritsidwa ndi kukhulupirira Mulungu m’modzi, miyambo, ndi chikhalidwe cha Chiyuda.

Gulu lalikulu la Ayuda linakhazikika ku Antiokeya kuchokera pamene mzindawo unakhazikitsidwa mu 300 B.C.E. Kumayerekezedwa kuti gululo linali la anthu ochokera pa 20,000 kufika pa 60,000, amene anali kupanga chiŵerengero choposa 10 peresenti cha mzindawo. Wolemba mbiri Josephus anati mafumu a mzere wa mafumu wa Selukeya anali kulimbikitsa Ayuda kuti akhazikike mu mzindawo, ankawapatsa ufulu wonse wa nzika. Panthaŵiyo, Malemba Achihebri anali kupezeka m’Chigiriki. Izi zinasokhezera chidwi cha anthu amene anali kugwirizana ndi kulakalaka Mesiya kwa Ayuda. Motero, panali Agiriki ambiri amene anatembenuzidwira ku Chiyuda. Mfundo zonsezi zinapangitsa Antiokeya kukhala munda wachonde wopangiramo ophunzira achikristu.

Kuchitira Umboni kwa Akunja

Ambiri a otsatira ozunzidwa a Yesu amene anathaŵa ku Yerusalemu anali kuuza Ayuda okha za chikhulupiriro chawo. Komabe, ku Antiokeya ophunzira ena ochokera ku Kupro ndi Kurene analankhula  ndi “Ahelene.” (Machitidwe 11:20) Pamene kuli kwakuti kulalikira kwa Ayuda olankhula Chigiriki ndiponso kwa otembenukira ku Chiyuda kunali kuchitika chiyambire Pentekoste wa 33 C.E., kulalikira kwa ku Antiokeya kukuoneka kuti kunali kanthu kena katsopano. Sikunali kuchitidwa kwa Ayuda okha. Inde, Wakunja Korneliyo ndi banja lake anali kale ophunzira. Koma panafunika masomphenya ochokera kwa Yehova kuti mtumwi Petro akhutiritsidwe maganizo kuti kunali koyenera kulalikira kwa Akunja, kapena kuti anthu amitundu.​—Machitidwe 10:1-48.

Mu mzinda mokhala anthu ambirimbiri achiyuda amene anakhalamo kalekale ndiponso popanda kudana kwenikweni pakati pa Ayuda ndi Akunja, anthu osakhala Ayuda anali kulandira umboni ndipo anali kulabadira uthenga wabwino. Mwachionekere Antiokeya anali malo abwino ochitikiramo zimenezi, ndipo ‘unyinji unakhulupirira.’ (Machitidwe 11:21) Ndipo pamene otembenukira ku Chiyuda, amene kale anali kulambira milungu yachikunja, anakhala Akristu, iwo anali okonzekeretsedwa mwapadera kuchitira umboni kwa Akunja ena amene anali adakalambira milungu yachikunjayo.

Pakumva zimene zinali kuchitika ku Antiokeya, mpingo wa ku Yerusalemu unatumizako Barnaba kuti akafufuze. Chinali chinthu chanzeru ndiponso chachikondi kusankha munthu ameneyu. Iye anali wa ku Kupro, mofanana ndi anthu ena aja amene anayamba kulalikira kwa osakhala Ayuda. Barnaba anali womasuka kukhala pakati pa Akunja a ku Antiokeya. Ndiyeno, iwo anali kumuona ngati munthu wochokera pakati pa anthu amene anali kuwadziŵa. * Iye anachita chifundo ndi ntchito imene anali kugwira. Motero “mmene anafika, naona chisomo cha Mulungu, anakondwa; ndipo anawadandaulira onse, kuti atsimikize mtima kukhalabe ndi Ambuye,” ndipo “khamu lalikulu lidawonjezeka kwa Ambuye.”​—Machitidwe 11:22-24.

“Zifukwa zomveka zimene ntchito yoyambirira inayendera bwino ku Antiokeya,” anaganiza tero wolemba mbiri Downey, “zingakhale zakuti mu mzindawu amishonale sanafunike kuopa Ayuda odzipereka kwambiri monga amene anapezana nawo ku Yerusalemu; ndiponso kuti mzindawu, monga likulu la Suriya, unali kulamulidwa ndi mkulu wa asilikali, ndipo motero anthu anali abata kwambiri, kunali kokayikitsa kuti kungabuke chipolowe monga chinachitika ku Yerusalemu, kumene olamulira a Yudeya akuoneka kuti (panthaŵi inoyi) sanathe kuletsa Ayuda odzipereka kwambiriwo.”

M’mikhalidwe yabwino yotereyi ndiponso pokhala ndi zambiri zofunika kuchita, Barnaba ayenera kuti anazindikira kuti anafunika womuthandiza, ndipo anaganizira bwenzi lake Saulo. N’chifukwa chiyani Saulo, kaya kuti Paulo? Mwachionekere n’chifukwa chakuti Paulo, ngakhale kuti sanali m’modzi wa atumwi 12, anapatsidwa utumwi kwa amitundu. (Machitidwe 9:15, 27; Aroma 1:5; Chivumbulutso 21:14) Choncho, Paulo anali woyenera bwino kukhala mnzake polalikira uthenga wabwino mu mzinda wa Akunja wa Antiokeya. (Agalatiya 1:16) Motero Barnaba anapita ku Tariso, namupeza Saulo, nadza naye ku Antiokeya.​—Machitidwe 11:25, 26; onani bokosi pa masamba 26-7.

Kutchedwa Akristu Motsogozedwa ndi Mulungu

Kwa chaka chathunthu, Barnaba ndi Saulo ‘anaphunzitsa anthu aunyinji; ndipo ophunzira anayamba [motsogozedwa ndi Mulungu, NW] kutchedwa Akristu ku Antiokeya.’ N’zokayikitsa kuti Ayuda ndiwo anali oyamba kutcha otsatira Yesu kuti Akristu (Chigiriki) kapena kuti Amesiya (Chihebri), chifukwa iwo anamukana Yesu kuti anali Mesiya, kapena kuti Kristu, ndipo motero sakanasonyeza kuti anamuzindikira kuti ndi Kristu mwa kutcha otsatira ake kuti Akristu. Ena amaganiza kuti anthu akunja ndiwo anawatcha kuti Akristu powaseka kapena powanyodola. Komabe, Baibulo limasonyeza kuti dzina lakuti Akristu linaperekedwa ndi Mulungu.​—Machitidwe 11:26.

M’Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu, mneni amene anagwiritsidwa ntchito ponena za dzina latsopanoli,  kaŵirikaŵiri wotembenuzidwa kuti “anatchedwa,” nthaŵi zonse amagwirizanitsidwa ndi chinthu chokhala ndi mphamvu ya mizimu, chonenedwa ndi mlauli, kapena chaumulungu. Motero akatswiri a Baibulo amatembenuza mneniyu kuti “kulosera,” “kulengeza mwaumulungu,” kapena “kupereka lamulo kaya chilimbikitso chaumulungu, kuphunzitsa kuchokera kumwamba.” Popeza kuti otsatira Yesu anatchedwa kuti Akristu “motsogozedwa ndi Mulungu,” n’zotheka kuti Yehova anatsogolera Saulo ndi Barnaba kupereka dzinali.

Dzina latsopanoli linapitirira kugwiritsidwa ntchito. Ophunzira a Yesu tsopano sanalingaliridwenso kukhala kagulu kopatuka m’Chiyuda, chomwe anali kusiyana nacho kotheratu. Pofika mu 58 C.E., akuluakulu a boma la Roma anali kudziŵa bwino kuti Akristu anali ayani. (Machitidwe 26:28) Malinga n’kunena kwa wolemba mbiri Tasitasi, pofika mu 64 C.E., dzinali linali lodziŵikanso kwambiri pakati pa anthu wamba ku Roma.

Yehova Amagwiritsa Ntchito Anthu Ake Okhulupirika

Uthenga wabwino unapita patsogolo kwambiri mu Antiokeya. Modalitsidwa ndi Yehova ndiponso kutsimikiza mtima kwa otsatira a Yesu kuti apitirizebe kulalikira, Antiokeya anakhala pachimake pa Chikristu m’zaka za zana loyamba. Mulungu anagwiritsa ntchito mpingo wa mu mzindawo monga ponyamukira pokafalitsa uthenga wabwino ku mayiko akutali. Mwachitsanzo, Antiokeya anali malo amene mtumwi Paulo anali kunyamukirapo popita ku uliwonse wa maulendo oyambirira aumishonale.

M’nthaŵi zamakono changu komanso kutsimikiza mtima pokumana ndi chitsutso nazonso zathandiza kufalikira kwa Chikristu choona, zatheketsa anthu ambiri kumva uthenga wabwino ndi kuuyamikira. * Motero ngati mukumana ndi chitsutso chifukwa chakuti mumachirikiza kulambira koyera, kumbukirani kuti Yehova ali ndi zifukwa zololera zimenezo. Monganso m’zaka za zana loyamba, anthu lerolino ayenera kupatsidwa mwayi wa kumva za Ufumu wa Mulungu ndiponso kuti athe kuima ku mbali ya Ufumuwo. Mwina mukungofunika kutsimikiza mtima kupitirizabe kutumikira Yehova mokhulupirika kuti munthu wina athandizidwe kukhala ndi chidziŵitso cholondola cha choonadi.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 9 Pa tsiku loŵala bwino, chisumbu cha Kupro chimaonekera kuchokera pa phiri la Casius, kumwera chakumadzulo kwa Antiokeya.

^ ndime 18 Onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya August 1, 1999, tsamba 9; Galamukani! ya May 8, 1999, masamba 21-2; 1999 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses, masamba 250-2.

[Bokosi/​Zitunzi pamasamba 26, 27]

“Zaka Zosatchulidwa” za Saulo

KUTCHULIDWA komaliza kwa Saulo m’buku la Machitidwe asanapite ku Antiokeya pafupifupi mu 45 C.E. ndi pamene chiŵembu chofuna kumupha ku Yerusalemu chinalephereka ndipo okhulupirira anzake anamutumiza ku Tariso. (Machitidwe 9:28-30; 11:25) Koma zimenezi zinachitika pafupifupi mu 36 C.E., zaka zisanu ndi zinayi m’mbuyo mwake. Kodi anali kuchita chiyani panthaŵiyi​—nyengo imene ikutchedwa kuti zaka zosatchulidwa za Saulo?

Kuchokera ku Yerusalemu, Saulo anapita ku mbali za Suriya ndi Kilikiya, ndipo mipingo ya ku Yudeya inamva kuti: “Iye wakutilondalonda ife kale, tsopano alalikira chikhulupirirocho adachipasula kale.” (Agalatiya 1:21-23) Lipoti limenelo lingakhale likunena za ntchito yake ndi Barnaba ku Antiokeya, komabe ngakhale nthaŵiyi isanafike n’zosakayikitsa kuti Saulo sanali kungokhala. Pofika mu 49 C.E., ku Suriya ndi Kilikiya kunali mipingo yambiri. Umodzi unali ku Antiokeya, koma anthu ena amaganiza kuti ina inayambika chifukwa cha ntchito ya Saulo panthaŵi imene ikutchedwa kuti zaka zake zosatchulidwa.​—Machitidwe 11:26; 15:23, 41.

Akatswiri ena a Baibulo amakhulupirira kuti zochitika zikuluzikulu pa moyo wa Saulo ziyenera kuti zinamuchitikira panthaŵi imodzimodziyi. Mavuto ambiri amene anakumana nawo monga ‘mtumiki wa Kristu’ ndi ovuta kutchula kuti anamuchitikira liti pantchito yake yaumishonale. (2 Akorinto 11:23-27) Kodi ndi liti pamene Saulo analandira kasanu mikwingwirima 39 kwa Ayuda? Kodi ndi kuti kumene anamenyedwa ndi ndodo katatu? Kodi ndi kuti kumene anali m’ndende “mochulukira”? Kumangidwa kwake ku Roma kunachitika pambuyo pake. Timauzidwa za nthaŵi imodzi imene anamenyedwa ndi kumangidwa​—ku Filipi. Koma bwanji za nthaŵi zinazo? (Machitidwe 16:22, 23) Wolemba nkhani wina anati panthaŵiyi Saulo anali “kuchitira umboni za Kristu  m’masunagoge a Ayuda omwazikana mwanjira yoti n’kudzetsa chizunzo kuchokera kwa akuluakulu achipembedzo ndiponso a boma.”

Chombo chinamuswekera kanayi Saulo, koma Malemba amalongosola kusweka kwa chombo kumodzi kokha, kumene kunachitika pambuyo pondandalika mavuto ake pamene anali kulembera kalata Akorinto. (Machitidwe 27:27-44) Motero kusweka kutatu kwinako kuyenera kuti kunachitika pamaulendo ake amene sitikuwadziŵa. Chimodzi kapena zonse mwa zochitika zimenezi, chiyenera kuti chinachitika m’nthaŵi ya “zaka zosatchulidwa.”

Chochitika china chimene chikuoneka kuti chinachitika m’nyengo imeneyinso chalongosoledwa pa 2 Akorinto 12:2-5. Saulo anati: ‘Ndidziŵa munthu wa mwa Kristu, zitapita zaka khumi ndi zinayi, anakwatulidwa kunka Kumwamba kwachitatu, ku Paradaiso, namva maneno osatheka kuneneka, amene saloleka kwa munthu kulankhula.’ Ndithudi, Saulo anali kulankhula za iye mwini. Popeza kuti analemba zimenezi mu 55 C.E., zaka 14 m’mbuyomo zikutifikitsa mu 41 C.E., m’katikati mwa “zaka zosatchulidwa.”

Mosakayikira masomphenya amenewo anapatsa Saulo chidziŵitso chapadera. Kodi anali kumukonzekeretsa monga “mtumwi wa anthu amitundu”? (Aroma 11:13) Kodi anakhudza mmene pambuyo pake anali kulingalirira, kulembera, ndi kulankhulira? Kodi zaka za pakati pa kutembenuka kwa Saulo ndi kuitanidwa kwake kupita ku Antiokeya zinamuphunzitsa ndi kumupangitsa kukhala wofikapo pa kukhala ndi maudindo m’tsogolo? Kaya tingapereke mayankho otani ku mafunso amenewo, tingatsimikize kuti pamene Barnaba anamuitana kuti akathandize kupititsa patsogolo ntchito yolalikira ku Antiokeya, Saulo wachanguyo anali woyenerera ndithu kukwanitsa ntchitoyo.​—Machitidwe 11:19-26.

[Mapu patsamba 25]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

SURIYA

Orontes

Antiokeya

Selukeya

KUPRO

NYANJA YA MEDITERRANEAN

Yerusalemu

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Mountain High Maps® Copyright © 1997 Digital Wisdom, Inc.

[Zithunzi patsamba 24]

M’mwamba: Antiokeya wamakono

Pakati: Selukeya kumuonera mbali ya kumwera

Pansi: Khoma la padoko la Selukeya