Onlad karga

Onlad saray karga

Kapigan Aderal so Daan ya Jerusalem?—Part One

Kapigan Aderal so Daan ya Jerusalem?—Part One

 Kapigan Aderal so Daan ya Jerusalem?​—Part One

No Akin et Importante; No Antoy Ipapanengneng na Ebidensya

Saya so unona ed duaran mantumbokan ya isyu na The Watchtower a mangeebat ed saray tepet nipaakar ed petsa na inkaderal na daan ya Jerusalem. Ipresenta ed sayan serye so ni-research a maong tan base ed Biblia iran ebat ed saray tepet ya pakaguguloay nonot na arum.

“Unong ed saray historyador tan archaeologist, aderal so Jerusalem nen 586 odino 587 B.C.E. * Akin balet et ibabaga yo ran Tasi nen Jehova ya agawa itan nen 607 B.C.E.? Antoy prueba yo?”

ONTAN so insulat na sakey ed saray manbabasa ed sayan magasin. Balet, akin et importante nin amtaen so eksakton petsa sanen dineral na ari na Babilonia a si Nabucodonosor II so syudad na Jerusalem? Unona, lapud satan so gapoan na baleg a pananguman ya agawad totoo na Dios. Imbaga na sakey a historyador ya nanresulta itan ed “sakey a trahedya, talagan baleg a trahedya.” Satan ya petsa so impanampot na templo a sentro na panagdayew ed Makapanyarin-amin a Dios diad masulok ya 400 taon. Oniay inyakis na sakey ya salmista: “O Dios . . . dinutakan day inkasanto na Templom tan dineral-deral day Jerusalem.”​—Salmo 79:1, Maung a Balita. *

Komadua, lapud no naamtaan moy eksakton taon na inggapo na sayan “baleg a trahedya” tan no natalosan mo a say impangipawil ed dugan panagdayew diad Jerusalem et espisipikon propesiya na Biblia ya agawa, napruebaan mon dugay ibabaga na Salitay Dios. Pero akin a mas asakbay na 20 taon so petsan papanisiaan na saray Tasi nen Jehova no ikomparad papanisiaan na dakel? Diad antikey, lapud ebidensyan walad Biblia a mismo.

“Pitomplon Taon” na Siopa?

Pigay taon ni antis na satan a kadederal, angiter so Judion propeta a si Jeremias na importantin pakabidbiran ed peryodo na panaon a walad Biblia. Pinasakbayan to so “amin a manaayam ed Jerusalem.” Imbaga to: “Sayan interon bansa et magmaliw ya aderal a pasen, tan sarayan nasyon et manlingkor ed ari na Babilonia diad pitomplon taon.” (Jeremias 25:1, 2, 11, New International Version) Insan inyarum na propeta: “Oniay inkuan nen Jehova, ‘Sano nasumpal so pitomplon taon yo ed Babilonia et ipaarap koy imanok ed sikayo, tan tooren koy sipan ko ya ipawil ta kayo ed sayan pasen.’” (Jeremias 29:10, NW) Antoy koneksion na  “pitomplon taon” ed satan a kadederal? Tan panon iyan makatulong pian nakalkula so petsa na impakaderal na Jerusalem?

Imbes ya 70 taon “ed Babilonia,” dakel a patalos na Biblia so pakabasaay “nipaakar ed Babilonia.” (Say Biblia) Lapud satan, ibabaga na arum ya historyador a say 70 taon et ontutukoy ed Empiryo na Babilonia. Unong ed saray reperensya, sinakop na Babilonia so dalin na Juda tan Jerusalem diad loob na 70 taon, manlapud manga 609 B.C.E. anggad 539 B.C.E. sanen asakop so capital city na Babilonia.

Balet, ipapanengneng na Biblia a say 70 taon et panaon na graben dusa na Dios ed saray taga Juda tan Jerusalem ya angisipan a sikatoy unoren da. (Exodo 19:3-6) Nen ag-ira nagbabawi ed saray mauges a gagawaen da, imbaga na Dios: ‘Tawagen ko so aripen kon Ari Nabucodonosor na Babilonia a mibakal sumpad sayan bansa tan amin a manaayam dia tan amin a kaliberliber ton bansa.’ (Jeremias 25:4, 5, 8, 9, MB) Anggaman napilanlanor iray kaliberliber a bansa ed sanok na Babilonia, say kaderal na Jerusalem tan say 70 taon ya pakaaripen da et tinawag nen Jeremias ya say “impakadusa na saray totook” ta “nankasalanan na makapaermen a tuloy” so Jerusalem.​—Tagleey 1:8; 3:42; 4:6, MB.

Kanian unong ed Biblia, say 70 taon et panaon na graben panusa ed saray taga Juda tan inusar na Dios so Babilonia a manggawad saya. Balet, imbaga na Dios ed saray Judio: “Kayari na pitomploy taon . . . papawilen ta kayod dalin yo,” diad Juda tan Jerusalem.​—Jeremias 29:10, MB.

Kapigan Ginmapo so “Pitomplo a Taon”?

Si Esdras ya historyador tan sakey ed saray nansulat ed Biblia et nambilay kayarin agawa so propesiya nen Jeremias a 70 taon. Tan oniay insulat to nipaakar ed Ari Nabucodonosor: ‘Saray akabatik a nanlapu ed kampilan inyakar to ra ed Babilonia; et sikara so ariripen ed sikato tan ed saray anak to angga ed impan-ari na nanarian na Persia. Pian nasumpal so salita nen Jehova ed panamegley na sangi nen Jeremias, angga ed say dalin nanliket ed saray sabaton. Ta leleg a say dalin so nigaton a kibalatar, inunor to so sabaton pian nasumpal so pitomplo a taon.’​—2 Awaran 36:20, 21.

Kanian, say 70 taon et panaon pian say dalin na Juda tan Jerusalem et ‘naliketan ed saray sabaton to.’ Say labay ton ibaga et makapanpainaway dalin, anggapoy mantanem odino mangasikasod saray kaubasan. (Levitico 25:1-5) Lapud ag-intulok na totoo na Dios, a sakey ed saray kasalanan da et say agda impangunor ed Sabaton, say dusa et napaulyanan tan nataynanan so dalin da ed 70 taon.​—Levitico 26:27, 32-35, 42, 43.

Kapigan ataynanan tan apaulyanan so Juda? Diad tua, amiduan nilusob nen Nabucodonosor na Babilonia so Jerusalem. Kapigan ginmapo so 70 taon? Seguradon aliwan diad samay kasumpal na inmunan impanakop tod Jerusalem. Akin ey? Anggaman dakel so inaawit nen Nabucodonosor ya aripenen ed Babilonia, walaray intilak tod Jerusalem. Agto met dineral so syudad. Diad loob na pigaran taon kayari na saya, saramay akera ed Juda ya “totoon sankamairapan ed bilay,” et nansiansia ed dalin da. (2 Arari 24:8-17) Balet ta anguma-uman so situasyon.

Nanrebelde iray Judio kanian amawil iray taga Babilonia ed Jerusalem. (2 Arari 24:20; 25:8-10) Dineral day syudad pati say sagradon templo to, tan dakel so inaawit dan priso ed Babilonia. Diad loob na duay bulan, “tinmaynan tan linmad Ehipto iray amin ya Israelita [saray Judio ya atilak ed dalin da], mayaman may mairap-bilay, pati saray opisyal na sundalo.” (2 Arari 25:25, 26, MB) Nen koma-piton bulan na saray Judio a Tishri (Setyembre/Oktubre), diad saman a taon et ataynanan tan apaulyanan so dalin tan ginmapo so Sabaton a panagpainawa. Oniay imbaga na Dios panamegley nen Jeremias ed saray Judion batik ed Ehipto: “Anengneng yo la so amin a mauges ya inyakar  ko ed Jerusalem, tan saray syudad na Juda; et nia, dia ed sayan agew sikara so kibalatar, tan anggapo so too a manayam ed sikara.” (Jeremias 44:1, 2) Kanian satan so gapoay 70 a taon. Tan anton taon itan ey? Pian naebatan, kaukolan tayon amtaen no kapigan itan anampot.

Kapigan Anampot so “Pitomplo a Taon”?

Si propetan Daniel, a nambilay anggad “impanuley na Panarian na Persia,” et walad Babilonia ed saman tan kinuenta to no kapigan manampot so 70 taon. Insulat to: “Siak, si Daniel, inaral ko ray masanton libro tan ninonot koy nipaakar ed pitomploy taon a kaderal na Jerusalem, unong ed imbaga na KATAWAN ed kinen propeta Jeremias.”​—Daniel 9:1, 2, ESV; MB.

Ontan met, ninonot a maong nen Esdras iray propesiya nen Jeremias tan inkonekta to so panampot na “pitomplo a taon” ed samay panaon sanen ‘tinenyeg nen Jehova so espiritu nen Ciro [odino Cyrus], ari ed Persia, diad ontan et nanggawa na panangiyabawag.’ (2 Awaran 36:21, 22) Kapigan imbulos iray Judio? Inter so ganggan ya sikaray ibulos diad “inmuna a taon nen Ciro ari ed Persia.” (Nengnengen so kahon ya  “Importantin Petsa Diad History.”) Kanian nen 537 B.C.E., kaukolan ya ompawil ed Jerusalem iray Judio pian ipawil so dugan panagdayew.​—Esdras 1:1-5; 2:1; 3:1-5.

Base ed kronolohiya na Biblia sirin, say 70 a taon et literal a peryodo na panaon ya anampot nen 537 B.C.E. No manbilang na 70 taon a paatras, say gapo na sayan peryodo et 607 B.C.E.

Balet no saray ebidensya ed Salita na Dios et ipapanengneng ton aderal so Jerusalem nen  607 B.C.E., akin et ibabaga na arum ya agawa itan nen 587 B.C.E.? Lapud papanisiaan da so duaran reperensya​—say sulsulat na saray historyador nensaman tan say listaan nen Ptolemy. Kasin mas duga irayan reperensya nen say Biblia? Nengnengen tayo.

Historyador Nensaman​—Susto Ra Kasi?

Saray historyador a nambilay sanen magano lan naderal so Jerusalem et nandurumay imbaga ran impormasyon nipaakar ed saray arari na Neo-Babilonia. * (Nengnengen so kahon ya  “Arari na Neo-Babilonia.”) Saray imbaga ran petsa et midumaan ed Biblia. Balet, kasin susto so insulat da?

Sakey ed saray historyador ya nambilay antis na igapoy Neo-Babylonian period et si Berossus, a sakey ya “pari nen Bel” diad Babilonia. Say orihinal ya sulat to ya Babyloniaca nen manga 281 B.C.E. et abalang, tan pigpigara labat so akera ed sulsulat na arum ni ran historyador. Imbaga nen Berossus ya inusar to ray “libron inal-alwaran tan inyatol ed Babilonia.”1 Talaga kasin susto iray impormasyon nen Berossus? Nengnengen tayoy sakey ya alimbawa.

Insulat nen Berossus ya say Asiryanon arin si Senakerib so tinmumbok ya “nanuley ed agi” to; tan “kayari to et say anak to [Esarhaddon a nanari na] 8 taon; insan si Sammuges [Shamash-shuma-ukin a nanari na] 21 taon.” (III, 2.1, 4) Balet ipapanengneng na saray dokumento ed Babilonia, ya nisulat antis na panaon nen Berossus, a say tinumbokan nen Senakerib et say ama ton si Sargon II, aliwan say agi to; si Esarhaddon et nanuley na 12 taon, aliwan 8 taon, tan si Shamash-shuma-ukin et nanuley na 20 taon, aliwan 21. Anggaman binidbir nen scholar R. J. van der Spek ya kinonsulta nen Berossus iray dokumento ed Babilonia, insulat to: “Siempre walan walay inlaok ton opinyon tan interpretasyon.”2

Antoy nibaga na arum ya scholar ed si Berossus? Inaral a maong nen S. M. Burstein so sulsulat nen Berossus tan imbaga to: “Nensaman, ipapasen ya historyador si Berossus.” Balet, oniay konklusyon to: “No usisaen iray sulsulat to, singa agnibagan sikatoy historyador. Anggan saramay akeran parte na insulat ton Babyloniaca et makapakelaw ya anta simplin impormasyon et alingo . . . Diad saray historyador, say onian lingo so agnaawat, balet aliwan parad history so sulsulat nen Berossus.”3

Antoy nibaga yo? Nayari kasin ipasen ya susto tan napanmatalkan so kalkulasyon nen Berossus? Saramay arum nin daan a rekord na saray historyador balet ey, ya imbase ray sulsulat da ed kalkulasyon nen Berossus? Nayari met kasin ibaga ya napanmatalkan so sulsulat da?

Say Listaan nen Ptolemy

Si Claudius Ptolemy, a sakey ya astronomer nen second-century C.E., et nanggawa na Listaan na Arari tan inusar itan a pansuporta ed petsan 587 B.C.E. Satan so manunan  pankokonsultaan nipaakar ed kronolohiya na history, kaiba lay Neo-Babylonian period.

Say Listaan nen Ptolemy et sakopen toy anggad manga 600 a taon kayarin anampot so Neo-Babylonian period. Panon ton atantiya no kapigan ginmapo so uley na sankaunaan ya ari ed listaan to? Impaliwawa nen Ptolemy ya inusar day kalkulasyon ed astronomy ya imbase day daiset ed eclipse, tan “akuenta [da] imay gapo na impan-ari nen Nabonassar,” say sankaunaan ya ari ed listaan to.4 Kanian, imbaga nen Christopher Walker na British Museum ya say listaan nen Ptolemy et “sakey labat ya paraan pian nampapara so kronolohiya na saray astronomer” tan “ag-itan inggagalan mangiter na eksakton rekord na impan-uley tan impatey na saray arari.”5

“Abayag lan amta ya satan a Listaan et napanmatalkan no nipaakar ed astronomy, balet agto labay ya ibagan napanmatalkan met itan no nipaakar ed history,” so insulat nen Leo Depuydt, a sakey ed saray manunan tagasuporta nen Ptolemy. Oniay inyarum nen Professor Depuydt nipaakar ed sayan Listaan na arari: “No diad saray akaunan manuley [kaiba iray arari ed Neo-Babilonia], kaukolan a sansakey ya pankomparaen so Listaan tan saray rekord na cuneiform pian naamtaan so petsa na impanuley da.”6

Anto irayan “rekord na cuneiform” a makatulong ed sikatayon mangamta no kasin susto so listaan nen Ptolemy? Kaibad saraya so sulsulat nipaakar ed Babilonia, listaan na arari, tan economic tablets. Sarayan dokumento et insulat na saray eskriba a nambilay legan odino asingger ed panaon na Neo-Babilonia.7

Antoy pidumaan na Listaan nen Ptolemy ed saray rekord na cuneiform? Ipapanengneng na kahon ya  “Antoy Pidumaan na Listaan nen Ptolemy ed Saray Cuneiform?” (nengnengen diad leksab) so kabiangan na listaan tan inkompara iya ed sakey a cuneiform. Naimano dia ya apatira labat ya ari so inlista nen Ptolemy diad baetan na saray manuley ed Babilonia a si Kandalanu tan Nabonidus. Balet, ipapanengneng na sakey a parte na cuneiform ya tinawag a “Listaan na Arari ed Uruk” ya pitoran arari so nanuley  ed baetan da. Kasin antikey labat so impanuley da kanian sikaray imbaliwala la? Unong ed saray cuneiform, sakey ed sikara so nanuley na pitoy taon.8

Nanengneng met ed saray cuneiform so mabiskeg ya ebidensya ya antis na uley nen Nabopolassar (say unonan ari ed Neo-Babylonian period) et wala ni sananey ya arin (Ashur-etel-ilani) nanuley na apat taon diad Babilonia. Niarum ni, masulok a sakey taon ya anggapoy ari ed satan a nasyon.9 Balet, amin iraya et anggapo ed listaan nen Ptolemy.

Akin et ag-inlista nen Ptolemy so arum ya arari? Malinew ya agto ra impasen a lehitimon manuley ed Babilonia.10 Singa bilang, agto inlista si Labashi-Marduk, a sakey ya ari na Neo-Babilonia. Balet unong ed saray cuneiform, saray ararin ag-imbiang nen Ptolemy et talagan nanuley ed Babilonia.

Nibagan susto met so listaan nen Ptolemy. Balet lapud sarayan ineekal to, talaga kasin makapangiter itan na eksakton kronolohiya na history?

Say Konklusyon Base ed Sayan Ebidensya

Bilang konklusyon: Malinew ya ibabaga na Biblia ya agawa so 70 taon ya impakaaripen na saray Judio. Walay mabiskeg ya ebidensya​—tan mipakna so maslak ya scholar​—a saray Judio et pinmawil ed dalin da nen 537 B.C.E. No manbilang ya paatras manlapud satan a taon, say inkaderal sirin na Jerusalem et nen 607 B.C.E. Anggaman agmipakna ed sayan petsa iray historyador nensaman tan say listaan nen Ptolemy, walaray makatunongan a tepet ed no kasin dugan amin iray sulsulat da. On, saratan ya duaran reperensya et agmakapangiter na mabiskeg a prueba pian nakontra so kronolohiya na Biblia.

Balet, wala ni ray kaaruman ya tepet. Talaga kasin anggapoy ebidensya ed history ya onsuportad 607 B.C.E. ya petsan base ed Biblia? Antoy ipapanengneng na saray cuneiform, ya insulat a mismo na saray maslak ya akaimaton? Ebatan irayan tepet diad onsublay ya isyu.

[Saray paimano ed leksab]

^ par. 4 Saratan ya taon et parehon walad saray sulsulat da. Balet pian agmakapalingo, say bitlaen mi labat ed sayan serye et say 587 B.C.E. Say labay ya ibaga na B.C.E. et “Before the Common Era.”

^ par. 5 Nan-publish iray Tasi nen Jehova na napanmatalkan a patalos na Biblia a tinawag ya New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. Balet, no aliwa kan Tasi nen Jehova, ompan labay moy mangusar na arum a patalos sano basaen mo ray bersikulo ed Biblia. Diad sayan isyu, nanduruman patalos na Biblia so inusar.

^ par. 23 Say Neo-Babylonian Empire et ginmapo diad uley nen Nabopolassar ya ama nen Nabucodonosor, tan anampot diad uley nen Nabonidus. Interesado iray scholar ed sayan peryodo na panaon lapud sakopen toy ngalngali 70 a taon na impakaderal na Jerusalem.

[Kahon/Saray litrato ed pahina 28]

 IMPORTANTIN PETSA DIAD HISTORY

Say petsan 539 B.C.E. sanen sinakop nen Cyrus II so Babilonia et kinalkula diad impangusar ed testimonya na:

Saray daan a rekord tan cuneiform: Insulat nen Diodorus na Sicily (c. 80-20 B.C.E.) a si Cyrus et nagmaliw ya ari na Persia diad “kagapoy taon na Limamplo tan liman Olympiad.” (Historical Library, Book IX, 21) Say taon ed saman et 560 B.C.E. Imbaga na Griegon historyador a si Herodotus (c. 485-425 B.C.E.) ya pinatey si Cyrus “kayari ton nanuley na duamplo tan siam a taon,” kanian say impatey to et nen koma-30 taon na uley to nen 530 B.C.E. (Histories, Book I, Clio, 214) Ipapanengneng na saray cuneiform ya sikatoy siam taon a nanuley ed Babilonia antis ya inatey. No ontan sirin, say siam taon antis ya impatey to nen 530 B.C.E. et 539 B.C.E., say taon sanen sinakop to so Babilonia.

Makanan ebidensya na sakey a cuneiform: Pinaneknekan na sakey ya Babylonian astronomical clay tablet (BM 33066) ya 530 B.C.E. so impatey nen Cyrus. Anggaman walaray lingo na sayan cuneiform nipaakar ed lira na saray planeta, bitewen tan bulan, akasulat ed saya so duaran lunar eclipse ya inkuan ton agawa ed koma-piton taon na impanuley nen Cambyses II, say anak tan kasalat nen Cyrus. Mapatnag ya say natutukoy et saray lunar eclipse ya anengneng ed Babilonia nen Hulyo 16, 523 B.C.E. tan Enero 10, 522 B.C.E., kanian ompapaway ya 523 B.C.E. so gapo na koma-piton taon na uley nen Cambyses. No ontan sirin, say inmunan taon na impan-ari to et nen 529 B.C.E. Kanian, say unor ya taon nen Cyrus et nen 530 B.C.E., sirin say 539 B.C.E. so unonan taon na uley to ed Babilonia.

[Credit Line]

Tablet: © The Trustees of the British Museum

[Kahon ed pahina 31]

SUMMARY

▪ Kaslakan ya ibabaga na saray modernon historyador ya aderal so Jerusalem nen 587 B.C.E.

▪ Malinew ya ipapanengneng na kronolohiyay Biblia ya aderal so Jerusalem nen 607 B.C.E.

▪ Say manunan angibasiyan na saray modernon historyador ed konklusyon da et diad sulsulat na historyador nensaman tan ed listaan nen Ptolemy.

▪ Dakel so lingo ed sulsulat na saray historyador nensaman tan mabetbet ya mikontraan ed saray cuneiform.

[Kahon ed pahina 31]

Parad Kaaruman ya Impormasyon

1. Babyloniaca (Chaldaeorum Historiae), Book One, 1.1.

2. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society, pahina 295.

3. The Babyloniaca of Berossus, pahina 8.

4. Almagest, III, 7, impatalos nen G. J. Toomer, diad Ptolemy’s Almagest, im-publish nen 1998, pahina 166. Amta nen Ptolemy ya inusar na saray astronomer ed Babilonia so matematika pian “nakalkula” so apalabas tan arapen iran eclipse lapud adiskobre ra ya nanengneng lamet iray miparan eclipse kada 18 taon.​—Almagest, IV, 2.

5. Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period, pahina 17-18.

6. Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 47, 1995, pahina 106-107.

7. Say cuneiform et paraan na panagsulat ya ikukutep so makdem ya uhas-kikil a nguro na panagsulat diad anlemek a laryo.

8. Pitoy taon a nanuley si Sin-sharra-ishkun, tan say 57 ya cuneiform na sayan ari et ginawa diad gapoy impan-ari to anggad koma-piton taon. Nengnengen so Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 35, 1983, pahina 54-59.

9. Say economic tablet C.B.M. 2152 et ginawa nen komapat a taon na impanuley nen Ashur-etel-ilani. (Legal and Commercial Transactions Dated in the Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and Persian Periods​—Chiefly From Nippur, nen A.T. Clay, 1908, pahina 74.) Ontan met, sikatoy inlista ed Harran Inscriptions of Nabonidus, (H1B), column I, line 30, antis a tuloy nen Nabopolassar. (Anatolian Studies, Vol. VIII, 1958, pahina 35, 47.) Diad saramay panaon ya anggapoy ari, nengnengen so Chronicle 2, line 14, of Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, pahina 87-88.

10. Ipipilit na arum ya scholar ya inekal nen Ptolemy so arum ya arari ta say inlista to labat et saray arari na Babilonia tan impuera to iray natatawag ya “Arari na Asirya.” Balet, nanengneng yo ed kahon diad pahina 30 ya akapila ed listaan nen Ptolemy iray “Ari na Asirya.” Malinlinew ya ipapanengneng na saray sulsulat, cuneiform, tan inskripsion ya nanari ed Babilonia si Ashur-etel-ilani, Sin-shumu-lishir, tan Sin-sharra-ishkun.

[Tsart/Litrato ed pahina 29]

 (Parad aktual a format, nengnengen so publikasyon)

ARARI NA NEO-BABILONIA

No susto irayan historyador, akin et nandurumay insulat da?

BEROS- POLYHIS- JOSE- PTOL-

SUS TOR PHUS EMY

c. 350-270 105-? 37-?100 c. 100-170

B.C.E. B.C.E. C.E. C.E.

Arari

Nabopo-

lassar 21 20 ​— 21

Nabucodo-

nosor II 43 43 43 43

Amel-

Marduk 2 12 18 2

Neri-

glissar 4 4 40 4

Labashi-

Marduk 9 bulan ​— 9 bulan ​—

Naboni-

dus 17 17 17 17

Karukey na uley na ari (taon) base ed saray historyador nensaman

[Credit Line]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Tsart/Saray litrato ed pahina 30]

 (Parad aktual a format, nengnengen so publikasyon)

ANTOY PIDUMAAN NA LISTAAN NEN PTOLEMY ED SARAY CUNEIFORM?

Inekal nen Ptolemy so arum ya arari ed listaan to. Akin?

LISTAAN NEN PTOLEMY

Nabonassar

Nabu-nadin-zeri (Nadinu)

Mukin-zeri tan Pul

Ululayu (Shalmaneser V)

“Ari na Asirya”

Merodach-baladan

Sargon II “Ari na Asirya”

Inmunan Peryodo ya Anggapoy Ari

Bel-ibni

Ashur-nadin-shumi

Nergal-ushezib

Mushezib-Marduk

Komaduan Peryodo ya Anggapoy Ari NANTUTUMBOKAN

Esarhaddon “Ari na Asirya” YA ARARI ED URUK YA

Shamash-shuma-ukin AKATATAK ED CUNEIFORM

Kandalanu Kandalanu

Sin-shumu-lishir

Sin-sharra-ishkun

Nabopolassar Nabopolassar

Nabucodonosor Nabucodonosor

Amel-Marduk Amel-Marduk

Neriglissar Neriglissar

Labashi-Marduk

Nabonidus Nabonidus

Cyrus

Cambyses

[Litrato]

Saray rekord ed Babilonia et kabiangan na cuneiform ya ontulong pian naamtaan tayo no susto so Listaan nen Ptolemy

[Credit Line]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum

[Picture Credit Line ed pahina 31]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum