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Jehovah’s Witnesses

English
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

According to Luke 1:1-80

1  Seeing that many have undertaken to compile an account of the facts that are given full credence among us,+  just as these were handed down to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses+ and attendants of the message,+  I resolved also, because I have traced all things from the start with accuracy, to write them to you in logical order,+ most excellent The·ophʹi·lus,+  so that you may know fully the certainty of the things that you have been taught orally.+  In the days of Herod,+ king of Ju·deʹa, there was a priest named Zech·a·riʹah of the division of A·biʹjah.+ His wife was from the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.  They both were righteous before God, walking blamelessly in accord with all the commandments and legal requirements of Jehovah.  But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well along in years.+  Now as he was serving as priest in the assignment of his division+ before God,  according to the established practice* of the priesthood it became his turn to offer incense+ when he entered into the sanctuary of Jehovah.+ 10  And the entire multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of offering incense. 11  Jehovah’s angel appeared to him, standing at the right side of the incense altar. 12  But Zech·a·riʹah became troubled at the sight, and he was overcome with fear. 13  However, the angel said to him: “Do not be afraid, Zech·a·riʹah, because your supplication has been favorably heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you are to name him John.+ 14  You will have joy and great gladness, and many will rejoice over his birth,+ 15  for he will be great in the sight of Jehovah.+ But he must drink no wine or any alcoholic drink at all,+ and he will be filled with holy spirit even from before birth,*+ 16  and he will turn back many of the sons of Israel to Jehovah their God.+ 17  Also, he will go ahead of him with E·liʹjah’s spirit and power,+ to turn back the hearts of fathers to children+ and the disobedient ones to the practical wisdom of righteous ones, in order to get ready for Jehovah a prepared people.”+ 18  Zech·a·riʹah said to the angel: “How can I be sure of this? For I am old, and my wife is well along in years.”+ 19  In reply the angel said to him: “I am Gaʹbri·el,+ who stands near before God,+ and I was sent to speak with you and to declare this good news to you. 20  But look! you will be silent and unable to speak until the day these things take place,+ because you did not believe my words, which will be fulfilled in their appointed time.” 21  Meanwhile, the people continued waiting for Zech·a·riʹah, and they were surprised that he delayed so long in the sanctuary. 22  When he came out, he was unable to speak to them, and they perceived that he had just seen a supernatural sight* in the sanctuary. He kept making signs to them but remained speechless. 23  When the days of his holy service were completed, he went off to his home. 24  Some days later Elizabeth his wife became pregnant, and she kept herself secluded for five months, saying: 25  “This is how Jehovah has dealt with me in these days. He has turned his attention to me to take away my reproach among men.”+ 26  In her sixth month, the angel Gaʹbri·el+ was sent from God to a city of Galʹi·lee named Nazʹa·reth, 27  to a virgin+ promised in marriage to a man named Joseph of David’s house, and the name of the virgin was Mary.+ 28  And coming in, the angel said to her: “Greetings, you highly favored one, Jehovah is with you.” 29  But she was deeply disturbed at his words and tried to understand what kind of greeting this might be. 30  So the angel said to her: “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31  And look! you will become pregnant* and give birth to a son,+ and you are to name him Jesus.+ 32  This one will be great+ and will be called Son of the Most High,+ and Jehovah God will give him the throne of David his father,+ 33  and he will rule as King over the house of Jacob forever, and there will be no end to his Kingdom.”+ 34  But Mary said to the angel: “How is this to be, since I am not having sexual relations with a man?”+ 35  In answer the angel said to her: “Holy spirit will come upon you,+ and power of the Most High will overshadow you. And for that reason the one who is born will be called holy,+ God’s Son.+ 36  And look! Elizabeth your relative has also conceived a son, in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her, the so-called barren woman; 37  for no declaration will be impossible for God.”+ 38  Then Mary said: “Look! Jehovah’s slave girl! May it happen to me according to your declaration.” At that the angel departed from her. 39  So Mary set out in those days and traveled with haste into the mountainous country, to a city of Judah, 40  and she entered the home of Zech·a·riʹah and greeted Elizabeth. 41  Well, as Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, the infant in her womb leaped, and Elizabeth was filled with holy spirit 42  and loudly cried out: “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruitage of your womb! 43  So how is it that this privilege is mine, to have the mother of my Lord come to me? 44  For look! as the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. 45  Happy too is she who believed, for there will be a complete fulfillment of those things spoken to her from Jehovah.” 46  And Mary said: “My soul magnifies Jehovah,+ 47  and my spirit cannot keep from being overjoyed at God my Savior,+ 48  because he has looked upon the low position of his slave girl.+ For look! from now on all generations will declare me happy,+ 49  because the powerful One has done great deeds for me, and holy is his name,+ 50  and for generation after generation his mercy is upon those who fear him.+ 51  He has acted mightily with his arm;+ he has scattered those who are haughty in the intention of their hearts.+ 52  He has brought down powerful men from thrones+ and has exalted lowly ones;+ 53  he has fully satisfied hungry ones with good things+ and has sent away empty-handed those who had wealth. 54  He has come to the aid of Israel his servant, remembering his mercy,+ 55  just as he spoke to our forefathers, to Abraham and to his offspring,*+ forever.” 56  Mary stayed with her about three months and then returned to her own home. 57  The time now came for Elizabeth to give birth, and she gave birth to a son. 58  And the neighbors and her relatives heard that Jehovah had magnified his mercy to her, and they rejoiced with her.+ 59  On the eighth day they came to circumcise the young child,+ and they were going to name him after his father, Zech·a·riʹah. 60  But his mother said in reply: “No! but he will be called John.” 61  At this they said to her: “Not one of your relatives is called by this name.” 62  Then they asked his father by signs what he wanted him to be called. 63  So he asked for a tablet and wrote: “John is his name.”+ At this they were all amazed. 64  Instantly his mouth was opened and his tongue was set free and he began to speak,+ praising God. 65  And fear fell upon all those living in their neighborhood, and all these things began to be talked about in the whole mountainous country of Ju·deʹa. 66  And all who heard noted it in their hearts, saying: “What will this young child turn out to be?” For the hand of Jehovah was indeed with him. 67  Then Zech·a·riʹah his father was filled with holy spirit, and he prophesied, saying: 68  “Let Jehovah be praised, the God of Israel,+ because he has turned his attention to his people and has brought them deliverance.+ 69  And he has raised up a horn of salvation+ for us in the house of David his servant,+ 70  just as he has spoken through the mouth of his holy prophets from of old,+ 71  of a salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all those hating us;+ 72  to show mercy in connection with our forefathers and to call to mind his holy covenant,+ 73  the oath that he swore to Abraham our forefather,+ 74  to grant us, after we have been rescued from the hands of enemies, the privilege of fearlessly rendering sacred service to him 75  with loyalty and righteousness before him all our days. 76  But as for you, young child, you will be called a prophet of the Most High, for you will go ahead of Jehovah to prepare his ways,+ 77  to give knowledge of salvation to his people by forgiveness of their sins,+ 78  because of the tender compassion of our God. With this compassion a daybreak will visit us from on high,+ 79  to give light to those sitting in darkness and death’s shadow+ and to guide our feet in the way of peace.” 80  And the young child grew up and became strong in spirit, and he continued in the desert until the day he showed himself openly to Israel.

Footnotes

Or “the custom.”
Or “right from his mother’s womb.”
Or “a vision.”
Or “will conceive in your womb.”
Lit., “seed.”

Study Notes

Luke: The Greek form of the name is Lou·kasʹ. Luke, the writer of this Gospel and of Acts of Apostles, was a physician and a faithful companion to the apostle Paul. (Col 4:14; see also “Introduction to Luke.”) Because of his Greek name and his style of writing, some have claimed that Luke was not a Jew. Also, at Col 4:10-14, Paul first speaks of “those circumcised” and later mentions Luke. However, that runs contrary to the indication at Ro 3:1, 2, which says that the Jews “were entrusted with the sacred pronouncements of God.” Therefore, Luke may have been a Greek-speaking Jew with a Greek name.

According to Luke: None of the Gospel writers identify themselves as such in their accounts, and titles are evidently not part of the original text. In some manuscripts of Luke’s Gospel, the title appears as Eu·ag·geʹli·on Ka·taʹ Lou·kanʹ (“Good News [or, “Gospel”] According to Luke”), whereas in others a shorter title, Ka·taʹ Lou·kanʹ (“According to Luke”), is used. It is not clear exactly when such titles were added or began to be used. Some suggest the second century C.E., since examples of the longer title have been found in Gospel manuscripts that have been dated to the end of the second century or early third century. According to some scholars, the opening words of Mark’s book (“The beginning of the good news about Jesus Christ, the Son of God”) may have been the reason why the term “gospel” (lit., “good news”) came to be used to describe these accounts. The use of such titles along with the name of the writer may have come about for practical reasons, providing a clear means of identification of the books.

that are given full credence: The Greek expression could also be rendered “that are given full credibility.” It highlights that the facts had been thoroughly examined. Combining this with the expression among us indicates that there was full conviction among Christians that all things connected with Christ had been fulfilled and had proved true and were worthy of being accepted with confidence. Therefore, some translations use such phrases as “that have been fully believed among us.” In other contexts, forms of the same Greek word are rendered “fully convinced” and “with firm conviction.”—Ro 4:21; 14:5; Col 4:12.

attendants of the message: Or “servants of the word.” Two translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew (referred to as J18, 22 in App. C) here use the Tetragrammaton and read “servants of Jehovah’s word.”

traced: Or “carefully investigated.” Luke was not an eyewitness to the events he recorded. So in addition to being inspired by holy spirit, he evidently based his account on the following sources: (1) Written records available to him as he compiled Jesus’ genealogy. (Lu 3:23-38) (2) The inspired account penned by Matthew. (3) Personal interviews with many eyewitnesses (Lu 1:2), such as the surviving disciples and possibly Jesus’ mother, Mary. Nearly 60 percent of the material in Luke’s Gospel is unique to his account.—See “Introduction to Luke.”

in logical order: Or “in an orderly sequence.” The Greek expression ka·the·xesʹ, rendered “in logical order,” can refer to sequence of time, topic, or logic, but it does not necessarily denote strict chronological order. That Luke did not always record the events in chronological sequence is evident from Lu 3:18-21. Therefore, all four Gospel accounts need to be examined to establish the order of events during Jesus’ life and ministry. Luke generally related events in chronological order, but he evidently allowed other factors to influence his systematic presentation of events and topics.

most excellent: The Greek word for “most excellent” (kraʹti·stos) is used in an official sense when addressing high officials. (Ac 23:26; 24:3; 26:25) Therefore, some scholars feel that this term may indicate that Theophilus held a high position before becoming a Christian. Others understand the Greek term to be simply a friendly or polite form of address or an expression of high esteem. Theophilus was evidently a Christian, for he had already been “taught orally” about Jesus Christ and his ministry. (Lu 1:4) Luke’s written statement would have served to assure him of the certainty of what he had previously learned by word of mouth. However, there are other views on this matter. Some feel that Theophilus was at first an interested person who later converted, whereas others feel that the name, meaning “Loved by God; Friend of God,” was used as a pseudonym for Christians in general. When addressing Theophilus at the beginning of Acts of Apostles, Luke does not use the expression “most excellent.”—Ac 1:1.

his turn to offer incense: High Priest Aaron initially offered the incense on the golden altar. (Ex 30:7) However, his son Eleazar was given oversight of the incense and other tabernacle items. (Nu 4:16) Zechariah, who was an underpriest, is here described as burning the incense, so it appears that handling this service, except on the Day of Atonement, was not restricted to the high priest. The burning of incense may have been considered the most esteemed of the daily services at the temple. It was done after the sacrifice was offered, and during that time, the people would be gathered for prayer outside the sanctuary. According to Rabbinic tradition, lots were drawn for this service but a priest who had previously officiated was not allowed to do so again unless all present had performed the service before. If this is so, a priest might have the honor only once in a lifetime.

Herod: Refers to Herod the Great.—See Glossary.

Zechariah: From the Hebrew name meaning “Jehovah Has Remembered.” Some Bible translations use “Zacharias,” reflecting the Greek form of the name.

the division of Abijah: Abijah was a priestly descendant of Aaron. In King David’s day, Abijah was recognized as head of one of the paternal houses of Israel. David divided the priesthood into 24 divisions, each to serve at the sanctuary in Jerusalem for a one-week period every six months. The paternal house of Abijah was chosen by lot to head the eighth division. (1Ch 24:3-10) “The division of Abijah” did not necessarily have to do with the line of descent of Zechariah but with the priestly division with which Zechariah was assigned to serve.—See study note on Lu 1:9.

Abijah: From the Hebrew name meaning “My Father Is Jehovah.”

Elizabeth: The Greek name E·lei·saʹbet comes from the Hebrew name ʼE·li·sheʹvaʽ (Elisheba), meaning “My God Is Plenty; God of Plenty.” Elizabeth was from the daughters of Aaron, that is, a descendant of Aaron, so John’s parents were both of priestly descent.

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

temple: The Greek word na·osʹ used here can refer to the entire complex, including its courtyards, and not only to the inner sanctuary of the temple itself.

sanctuary: The Greek word na·osʹ here refers to the central edifice with its Holy and Most Holy compartments.

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

his turn to offer incense: High Priest Aaron initially offered the incense on the golden altar. (Ex 30:7) However, his son Eleazar was given oversight of the incense and other tabernacle items. (Nu 4:16) Zechariah, who was an underpriest, is here described as burning the incense, so it appears that handling this service, except on the Day of Atonement, was not restricted to the high priest. The burning of incense may have been considered the most esteemed of the daily services at the temple. It was done after the sacrifice was offered, and during that time, the people would be gathered for prayer outside the sanctuary. According to Rabbinic tradition, lots were drawn for this service but a priest who had previously officiated was not allowed to do so again unless all present had performed the service before. If this is so, a priest might have the honor only once in a lifetime.

sanctuary: In this context, the Greek word na·osʹ refers to the central temple building. When it was Zechariah’s “turn to offer incense,” he had to enter the Holy, the first compartment of the sanctuary, where the altar of incense was located.—See study notes on Mt 27:5; 27:51 and App. B11.

Jehovah: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Hebrew Scriptures, expressions corresponding to the combination “sanctuary [or “temple”] of Jehovah” often include the Tetragrammaton. (Nu 19:20; 2Ki 18:16; 23:4; 24:13; 2Ch 26:16; 27:2; Jer 24:1; Eze 8:16; Hag 2:15) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression may be an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah’s angel: This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, starting at Ge 16:7. When it occurs in early copies of the Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. That is how the expression is handled at Zec 3:5, 6 in a copy of the Septuagint found in a cave in Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean desert. This fragment is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in this and many other verses, the definite article was not included where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. This may be another indication that Kyʹri·os replaces the divine name here and in similar contexts. A number of Bible translations retain the divine name when rendering the expression “Jehovah’s angel” in this verse.—See App. C.

John: The English equivalent of the Hebrew name Jehohanan or Johanan, meaning “Jehovah Has Shown Favor; Jehovah Has Been Gracious.”

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

in the sight of Jehovah: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although extant Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is here used with reference to God. The Greek expression e·noʹpi·on Ky·riʹou (lit., “in sight of [before] Lord”) reflects a Hebrew idiom and occurs over 100 times in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew phrases where the Tetragrammaton is used in the original text. (Jg 11:11; 1Sa 10:19; 2Sa 5:3; 6:5) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

holy spirit: Or “holy active force.”—See Glossary, “Holy spirit”; “Spirit.”

Jehovah: Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects language used in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered Jehovah their God) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expression “Jehovah your God” at Lu 4:8, 12; 10:27.) In the Hebrew Scriptures, the combination “Jehovah their God” occurs over 30 times, whereas the expression “the Lord their God” is never used. Also, the term the sons of Israel reflects a Hebrew idiom used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, meaning “the people of Israel” or “the Israelites.” (Ge 36:31, ftn.) A Greek expression similar to the one used here for “turn back [someone] to Jehovah” is used in the Septuagint at 2Ch 19:4 as a translation of the Hebrew phrase for “to bring [people] back to Jehovah.”—See App. C.

in the sight of Jehovah: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although extant Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is here used with reference to God. The Greek expression e·noʹpi·on Ky·riʹou (lit., “in sight of [before] Lord”) reflects a Hebrew idiom and occurs over 100 times in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew phrases where the Tetragrammaton is used in the original text. (Jg 11:11; 1Sa 10:19; 2Sa 5:3; 6:5) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah: Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects language used in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered Jehovah their God) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expression “Jehovah your God” at Lu 4:8, 12; 10:27.) In the Hebrew Scriptures, the combination “Jehovah their God” occurs over 30 times, whereas the expression “the Lord their God” is never used. Also, the term the sons of Israel reflects a Hebrew idiom used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, meaning “the people of Israel” or “the Israelites.” (Ge 36:31, ftn.) A Greek expression similar to the one used here for “turn back [someone] to Jehovah” is used in the Septuagint at 2Ch 19:4 as a translation of the Hebrew phrase for “to bring [people] back to Jehovah.”—See App. C.

Elijah’s: From the Hebrew name meaning “My God Is Jehovah.”

to turn back the hearts of fathers to children: This expression, quoting a prophecy at Mal 4:6, is not foretelling a general reconciliation between fathers and their children. Rather, John’s message would move fathers to repent, changing their hard hearts into humble, teachable hearts, like those of obedient children. Some would become children of God. Malachi similarly foretold that the hearts of sons would turn back to fathers, meaning that repentant men would become more like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, their faithful forefathers.

Jehovah: The angel’s words to Zechariah (verses 13-17) contain allusions to such verses as Mal 3:1; 4:5, 6; and Isa 40:3, where the divine name is used. (See study notes on Lu 1:15, 16.) Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the Hebrew Scripture background provides good reasons for using the divine name in the text. Additionally, an expression similar to the Greek phrase for to get ready . . . a people can be found in the Septuagint at 2Sa 7:24, where the Hebrew text reads: “You established your people Israel . . . , O Jehovah.”—See App. C.

the good news: First occurrence of the Greek word eu·ag·geʹli·on, rendered “gospel” in some English Bibles. A related Greek expression eu·ag·ge·li·stesʹ, rendered “evangelizer,” means “a proclaimer of good news.”Ac 21:8; Eph 4:11, ftn.; 2Ti 4:5, ftn.

this good news: The Greek word eu·ag·geʹli·on is derived from the words eu, meaning “good; well” and ag·gelʹlos, “one who brings news; one who proclaims (announces).” (See Glossary.) It is rendered “gospel” in some English Bibles. The related expression rendered “evangelizer” (Greek, eu·ag·ge·li·stesʹ) means “a proclaimer of good news.”Ac 21:8; Eph 4:11, ftn.; 2Ti 4:5, ftn.

is preached in all the world: Similar to his prophecy at Mt 24:14, Jesus here foretells that the good news would be proclaimed in all the world and would include this woman’s act of devotion. God inspired three Gospel writers to mention what she did.Mr 14:8, 9; Joh 12:7; see study note on Mt 24:14.

Gabriel: From the Hebrew name meaning “A Strong (Able-Bodied) One of God.” (Da 8:15, 16) Other than Michael, Gabriel is the only angel named in the Bible and the only materialized angel to reveal his own name.

declare this good news: The Greek verb eu·ag·ge·liʹzo·mai is related to the noun eu·ag·geʹli·on, “good news.” The angel Gabriel is here acting as an evangelizer.—See study notes on Mt 4:23; 24:14; 26:13.

holy service: Or “public service.” The Greek word lei·tour·giʹa, used here, and the related words lei·tour·geʹo (to render public service) and lei·tour·gosʹ (public servant, or worker) were used by the ancient Greeks and Romans to refer to work or service for the State or for civil authorities and done for the benefit of the people. For example, at Ro 13:6, the secular authorities are called God’s “public servants” (plural form of lei·tour·gosʹ) in the sense that they provide beneficial services for the people. The term as used here by Luke reflects the usage found in the Septuagint, where the verb and noun forms of this expression frequently refer to the temple service of the priests and Levites. (Ex 28:35; Nu 8:22) Service performed at the temple included the idea of a public service for the benefit of the people. However, it also included holiness, since the Levitical priests taught God’s Law and offered sacrifices that covered the sins of the people.—2Ch 15:3; Mal 2:7.

Jehovah: Although Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. Speaking to the man who had been healed, Jesus is attributing the miracle, not to himself, but to his heavenly Father. This conclusion is supported by Luke’s use of the Greek word The·osʹ (God) in recording the same event. (Lu 8:39) Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God, and a number of reference works support this view. (See App. C.) Additionally, the phrases “the things . . . done for you” and “mercy . . . shown you” have a bearing on the matter, as corresponding Hebrew verbs are often used in the Hebrew Scriptures, along with the divine name, with reference to Jehovah’s dealings with humans.Ge 21:1; Ex 13:8; De 4:34; 13:17; 30:3; 1Sa 12:7; 25:30; 2Ki 13:23.

how Jehovah has dealt with me: Or “what Jehovah has done for me.” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Here Elizabeth expresses her gratitude in a way that may bring to mind Sarah’s experience as described at Ge 21:1, in which verse the divine name occurs. To describe Jehovah’s dealings with humans, the Hebrew Scriptures often use the corresponding Hebrew verb for “has dealt with me” (or, “has done for me”) along with the divine name. (Ex 13:8; De 4:34; 1Sa 12:7; 25:30) Also, before Kyʹri·os there is no Greek definite article where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. (For additional support for the use of the divine name, see App. C; see also study note on Mr 5:19.) Elizabeth’s comment about how her reproach of being childless has been taken away echoes the words of Rachel, recorded at Ge 30:23.

In her sixth month: That is, the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy, as shown by the context, verses 24 and 25. Lit., “In the sixth month.”

promised in marriage: Among the Hebrews, to be “promised in marriage,” or engaged, was a binding arrangement. An engaged couple was viewed as already married, although the man and the woman did not begin living together as husband and wife until the wedding formalities were completed.

Mary: Corresponding to the Hebrew name “Miriam.” Six women in the Christian Greek Scriptures are named Mary: (1) Mary the mother of Jesus, (2) Mary Magdalene (Mt 27:56; Lu 8:2; 24:10), (3) Mary the mother of James and Joses (Mt 27:56; Lu 24:10), (4) Mary the sister of Martha and Lazarus (Lu 10:39; Joh 11:1), (5) Mary the mother of John Mark (Ac 12:12), and (6) Mary of Rome (Ro 16:6). In Jesus’ day, Mary was one of the most common female names.

Jehovah is with you: This and similar phrases that include the divine name often occur in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Ru 2:4; 2Sa 7:3; 2Ch 15:2; Jer 1:19) The angel’s greeting to Mary is similar to the words used when Jehovah’s angel addressed Gideon at Jg 6:12: “Jehovah is with you, you mighty warrior.” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Lu 1:28, the Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations also use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jesus: Corresponds to the Hebrew name Jeshua or Joshua, a shortened form of Jehoshua, meaning “Jehovah Is Salvation.”

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah: Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects language used in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered Jehovah their God) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expression “Jehovah your God” at Lu 4:8, 12; 10:27.) In the Hebrew Scriptures, the combination “Jehovah their God” occurs over 30 times, whereas the expression “the Lord their God” is never used. Also, the term the sons of Israel reflects a Hebrew idiom used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, meaning “the people of Israel” or “the Israelites.” (Ge 36:31, ftn.) A Greek expression similar to the one used here for “turn back [someone] to Jehovah” is used in the Septuagint at 2Ch 19:4 as a translation of the Hebrew phrase for “to bring [people] back to Jehovah.”—See App. C.

Jehovah God: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the expression Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ, literally, “Lord the God,” there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s words about the throne of David are an allusion to the promise at 2Sa 7:12, 13, 16, where Jehovah is speaking to David through the prophet Nathan and where the Tetragrammaton occurs several times in the immediate context. (2Sa 7:4-16) In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the expression here rendered “Jehovah God” and similar combinations occur mainly in quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures or in passages reflecting Hebrew language style. (See study note on Lu 1:16.) “Jehovah God,” not “the Lord God,” is the standard combination used in the Hebrew Scriptures, and this expression occurs about 40 times. Including such similar combinations as “Jehovah [my; our; your; his; their] God” or “Jehovah the God of . . . ” would bring the number of occurrences to over 800. It is true that later copies of the Septuagint used the combination Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ (Lord the God) as the equivalent of the Hebrew expression for “Jehovah God.” A vellum leaf dated to the third century C.E. containing a portion of the Septuagint translation of Genesis (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus vii. 1007) renders the divine name in the expression “Jehovah God” at Ge 2:8, 18, not by Kyʹri·os, but by an abbreviation of the Tetragrammaton in the form of a doubling of the Hebrew letter yod written as . It is also interesting to note that when the combinations “Jehovah your God” and “Jehovah his God” occur at De 18:5, 7 in an early fragment of the Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name has been used in the main text.—See App. C.

your relative: This form of the Greek term (spelled syg·ge·nisʹ) occurs only once in the Christian Greek Scriptures, but another spelling (syg·ge·nesʹ) of the word is used in other verses. (Lu 1:58; 21:16; Ac 10:24; Ro 9:3) Both terms refer to a relative in general, someone belonging to the same extended family or clan. So Mary and Elizabeth were related, but the exact relationship is not specified. Zechariah and Elizabeth were of the tribe of Levi and Joseph and Mary were of the tribe of Judah, so the relationship may not have been close.

no declaration will be impossible for God: Or “no word from God will ever fail.” Or possibly, “nothing will be impossible for God.” The Greek word rheʹma, rendered “declaration,” can refer to “a word; a saying; a declaration.” Or it can refer to “a thing; the thing spoken of,” whether an event, an action described, or the result of what has been declared. Although the Greek text could be rendered in different ways, the overall meaning remains the same, namely, that nothing is impossible as far as God is concerned or with respect to any of his promises. The wording here is similar to the Septuagint rendering of Ge 18:14, where Jehovah assured Abraham that his wife, Sarah, would give birth to Isaac in her old age.

Look! Jehovah’s slave girl!: With these words, Mary echoes expressions of other servants of Jehovah mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, Hannah says in her prayer recorded at 1Sa 1:11: “O Jehovah of armies, if you look upon the affliction of your servant [or, “slave girl”].” At 1Sa 1:11, the Septuagint uses the same Greek word for “slave girl” as is used in Luke’s account. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Lu 1:38, the divine name is used in the main text of this verse in view of the context (Kyʹri·os refers to God) and the Hebrew Scripture background. Additionally, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.—See App. C.

traveled . . . into the mountainous country: From Mary’s home in Nazareth, this trip into the Judean hills might have taken three or four days, depending on where the city of Zechariah and Elizabeth was located. The distance may have been 100 km (60 mi) or more.

from Jehovah: The things spoken to Mary by the angel had their origin with Jehovah God. The Greek expression pa·raʹ Ky·riʹou, here rendered “from Jehovah,” occurs in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew expressions in which the divine name is typically used. (Ge 24:50; Jg 14:4; 1Sa 1:20; Isa 21:10; Jer 11:1; 18:1; 21:1) As in other occurrences of Kyʹri·os (Lord) in Luke chapter 1, scholars have noted that the unexpected absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os makes the term tantamount to a proper name. Also, when the equivalent of this Greek expression occurs at De 18:16 in an early fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. Although existing Greek manuscripts of Luke’s Gospel use the word Kyʹri·os here, the context and the Hebrew Scripture background provide good reasons for using the divine name in the main text.

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

how Jehovah has dealt with me: Or “what Jehovah has done for me.” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Here Elizabeth expresses her gratitude in a way that may bring to mind Sarah’s experience as described at Ge 21:1, in which verse the divine name occurs. To describe Jehovah’s dealings with humans, the Hebrew Scriptures often use the corresponding Hebrew verb for “has dealt with me” (or, “has done for me”) along with the divine name. (Ex 13:8; De 4:34; 1Sa 12:7; 25:30) Also, before Kyʹri·os there is no Greek definite article where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. (For additional support for the use of the divine name, see App. C; see also study note on Mr 5:19.) Elizabeth’s comment about how her reproach of being childless has been taken away echoes the words of Rachel, recorded at Ge 30:23.

Look! Jehovah’s slave girl!: With these words, Mary echoes expressions of other servants of Jehovah mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, Hannah says in her prayer recorded at 1Sa 1:11: “O Jehovah of armies, if you look upon the affliction of your servant [or, “slave girl”].” At 1Sa 1:11, the Septuagint uses the same Greek word for “slave girl” as is used in Luke’s account. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Lu 1:38, the divine name is used in the main text of this verse in view of the context (Kyʹri·os refers to God) and the Hebrew Scripture background. Additionally, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.—See App. C.

And Mary said: Mary’s words of praise that follow in verses 46-55 contain well over 20 references to or allusions to the Hebrew Scriptures. Many of her expressions echo words of the prayer of Hannah, Samuel’s mother, who also received a blessing from Jehovah in the matter of childbirth. (1Sa 2:1-10) Some other examples of expressions referred to or alluded to can be found at Ps 35:9; Hab 3:18; Isa 61:10 (vs. 47); Ge 30:13; Mal 3:12 (vs. 48); De 10:21; Ps 111:9 (vs. 49); Job 12:19 (vs. 52); Ps 107:9 (vs. 53); Isa 41:8, 9; Ps 98:3 (vs. 54); Mic 7:20; Isa 41:8; 2Sa 22:51 (vs. 55). Mary’s words give evidence of her spirituality and her knowledge of the Scriptures. They show her appreciative attitude. Her words also reveal the depth of her faith, as she spoke of Jehovah as abasing the haughty and powerful and as helping the lowly and poor who seek to serve him.

My soul: Or “My whole being.” The Greek word psy·kheʹ, traditionally rendered “soul,” here refers to a person’s entire being. In this context, “my soul” can also be rendered “I.”—See Glossary, “Soul.”

My soul magnifies Jehovah: Or “My soul praises (proclaims) the greatness of Jehovah.” These words of Mary may echo passages in the Hebrew Scriptures, such as Ps 34:3 and 69:30, where the divine name is used in the same verse or in the context. (Ps 69:31) In these verses, the same Greek word for “magnify” (me·ga·lyʹno) is used in the Septuagint. It is worth noting that one fragment of a parchment roll (Papyrus Vindobonensis Greek 39777, dated to the third or fourth century C.E.) contains, according to Symmachus’ Greek translation, part of Ps 69 (68 in the Septuagint). At Ps 69:13, 30, 31, this fragment renders the divine name using, not Kyʹri·os, but the Tetragrammaton written in archaic Hebrew characters ( or ). This evidence, along with the Hebrew Scripture background, supports using the divine name at Lu 1:46.—See study note on And Mary said in this verse and study notes on Lu 1:6, 25, 38 and App. C.

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Hebrew Scriptures, expressions corresponding to the combination “sanctuary [or “temple”] of Jehovah” often include the Tetragrammaton. (Nu 19:20; 2Ki 18:16; 23:4; 24:13; 2Ch 26:16; 27:2; Jer 24:1; Eze 8:16; Hag 2:15) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression may be an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah’s angel: This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, starting at Ge 16:7. When it occurs in early copies of the Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. That is how the expression is handled at Zec 3:5, 6 in a copy of the Septuagint found in a cave in Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean desert. This fragment is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in this and many other verses, the definite article was not included where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. This may be another indication that Kyʹri·os replaces the divine name here and in similar contexts. A number of Bible translations retain the divine name when rendering the expression “Jehovah’s angel” in this verse.—See App. C.

in the sight of Jehovah: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although extant Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is here used with reference to God. The Greek expression e·noʹpi·on Ky·riʹou (lit., “in sight of [before] Lord”) reflects a Hebrew idiom and occurs over 100 times in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew phrases where the Tetragrammaton is used in the original text. (Jg 11:11; 1Sa 10:19; 2Sa 5:3; 6:5) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah: Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects language used in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered Jehovah their God) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expression “Jehovah your God” at Lu 4:8, 12; 10:27.) In the Hebrew Scriptures, the combination “Jehovah their God” occurs over 30 times, whereas the expression “the Lord their God” is never used. Also, the term the sons of Israel reflects a Hebrew idiom used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, meaning “the people of Israel” or “the Israelites.” (Ge 36:31, ftn.) A Greek expression similar to the one used here for “turn back [someone] to Jehovah” is used in the Septuagint at 2Ch 19:4 as a translation of the Hebrew phrase for “to bring [people] back to Jehovah.”—See App. C.

Jehovah: The angel’s words to Zechariah (verses 13-17) contain allusions to such verses as Mal 3:1; 4:5, 6; and Isa 40:3, where the divine name is used. (See study notes on Lu 1:15, 16.) Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the Hebrew Scripture background provides good reasons for using the divine name in the text. Additionally, an expression similar to the Greek phrase for to get ready . . . a people can be found in the Septuagint at 2Sa 7:24, where the Hebrew text reads: “You established your people Israel . . . , O Jehovah.”—See App. C.

how Jehovah has dealt with me: Or “what Jehovah has done for me.” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Here Elizabeth expresses her gratitude in a way that may bring to mind Sarah’s experience as described at Ge 21:1, in which verse the divine name occurs. To describe Jehovah’s dealings with humans, the Hebrew Scriptures often use the corresponding Hebrew verb for “has dealt with me” (or, “has done for me”) along with the divine name. (Ex 13:8; De 4:34; 1Sa 12:7; 25:30) Also, before Kyʹri·os there is no Greek definite article where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. (For additional support for the use of the divine name, see App. C; see also study note on Mr 5:19.) Elizabeth’s comment about how her reproach of being childless has been taken away echoes the words of Rachel, recorded at Ge 30:23.

Jehovah is with you: This and similar phrases that include the divine name often occur in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Ru 2:4; 2Sa 7:3; 2Ch 15:2; Jer 1:19) The angel’s greeting to Mary is similar to the words used when Jehovah’s angel addressed Gideon at Jg 6:12: “Jehovah is with you, you mighty warrior.” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Lu 1:28, the Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations also use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah God: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the expression Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ, literally, “Lord the God,” there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s words about the throne of David are an allusion to the promise at 2Sa 7:12, 13, 16, where Jehovah is speaking to David through the prophet Nathan and where the Tetragrammaton occurs several times in the immediate context. (2Sa 7:4-16) In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the expression here rendered “Jehovah God” and similar combinations occur mainly in quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures or in passages reflecting Hebrew language style. (See study note on Lu 1:16.) “Jehovah God,” not “the Lord God,” is the standard combination used in the Hebrew Scriptures, and this expression occurs about 40 times. Including such similar combinations as “Jehovah [my; our; your; his; their] God” or “Jehovah the God of . . . ” would bring the number of occurrences to over 800. It is true that later copies of the Septuagint used the combination Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ (Lord the God) as the equivalent of the Hebrew expression for “Jehovah God.” A vellum leaf dated to the third century C.E. containing a portion of the Septuagint translation of Genesis (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus vii. 1007) renders the divine name in the expression “Jehovah God” at Ge 2:8, 18, not by Kyʹri·os, but by an abbreviation of the Tetragrammaton in the form of a doubling of the Hebrew letter yod written as . It is also interesting to note that when the combinations “Jehovah your God” and “Jehovah his God” occur at De 18:5, 7 in an early fragment of the Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name has been used in the main text.—See App. C.

Look! Jehovah’s slave girl!: With these words, Mary echoes expressions of other servants of Jehovah mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, Hannah says in her prayer recorded at 1Sa 1:11: “O Jehovah of armies, if you look upon the affliction of your servant [or, “slave girl”].” At 1Sa 1:11, the Septuagint uses the same Greek word for “slave girl” as is used in Luke’s account. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Lu 1:38, the divine name is used in the main text of this verse in view of the context (Kyʹri·os refers to God) and the Hebrew Scripture background. Additionally, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.—See App. C.

from Jehovah: The things spoken to Mary by the angel had their origin with Jehovah God. The Greek expression pa·raʹ Ky·riʹou, here rendered “from Jehovah,” occurs in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew expressions in which the divine name is typically used. (Ge 24:50; Jg 14:4; 1Sa 1:20; Isa 21:10; Jer 11:1; 18:1; 21:1) As in other occurrences of Kyʹri·os (Lord) in Luke chapter 1, scholars have noted that the unexpected absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os makes the term tantamount to a proper name. Also, when the equivalent of this Greek expression occurs at De 18:16 in an early fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. Although existing Greek manuscripts of Luke’s Gospel use the word Kyʹri·os here, the context and the Hebrew Scripture background provide good reasons for using the divine name in the main text.

My soul magnifies Jehovah: Or “My soul praises (proclaims) the greatness of Jehovah.” These words of Mary may echo passages in the Hebrew Scriptures, such as Ps 34:3 and 69:30, where the divine name is used in the same verse or in the context. (Ps 69:31) In these verses, the same Greek word for “magnify” (me·ga·lyʹno) is used in the Septuagint. It is worth noting that one fragment of a parchment roll (Papyrus Vindobonensis Greek 39777, dated to the third or fourth century C.E.) contains, according to Symmachus’ Greek translation, part of Ps 69 (68 in the Septuagint). At Ps 69:13, 30, 31, this fragment renders the divine name using, not Kyʹri·os, but the Tetragrammaton written in archaic Hebrew characters ( or ). This evidence, along with the Hebrew Scripture background, supports using the divine name at Lu 1:46.—See study note on And Mary said in this verse and study notes on Lu 1:6, 25, 38 and App. C.

Jehovah: The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. (See study notes on Lu 1:6, 9, 11, 15, 16, 17, 25, 28, 32, 38, 45, 46.) The expression rendered that Jehovah had magnified his mercy to her reflects the wording of verses in the Hebrew Scriptures, including Ge 19:18-20, where Lot addresses Jehovah by saying: “Jehovah! . . . You are showing great kindness to me [lit., “You are magnifying your kindness”].” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the divine name is used in this verse in view of the context (Kyʹri·os refers to God) and the Hebrew Scripture background.—See App. C.

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Hebrew Scriptures, expressions corresponding to the combination “sanctuary [or “temple”] of Jehovah” often include the Tetragrammaton. (Nu 19:20; 2Ki 18:16; 23:4; 24:13; 2Ch 26:16; 27:2; Jer 24:1; Eze 8:16; Hag 2:15) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression may be an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

hand: This term is often used figuratively for “power.” Since the hand applies the power of the arm, “hand” may also convey the idea of “applied power.”

hand of Jehovah: This phrase is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “hand” and the Tetragrammaton. (Ex 9:3; Nu 11:23; Jg 2:15; Ru 1:13; 1Sa 5:6, 9; 7:13; 12:15; 1Ki 18:46; Ezr 7:6; Job 12:9; Isa 19:16; 40:2; Eze 1:3) Although existing Greek manuscripts of Luke’s Gospel use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text in view of this Hebrew Scripture background. In connection with Lu 1:66, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is noteworthy because even though the earliest copies of the Septuagint contained the divine name, when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os, the definite article was in a similar way often not included where standard grammatical usage would call for it. This unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. The Greek expression rendered “hand of Jehovah” also occurs at Ac 11:21; 13:11.—See study notes on Lu 1:6, 9; Ac 11:21; 13:11 and App. C.

Let Jehovah be praised: Or “Blessed be Jehovah.” This expression of praise is common in the Hebrew Scriptures, where it is often used with the divine name. (1Sa 25:32; 1Ki 1:48; 8:15; Ps 41:13; 72:18; 106:48) Although extant Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to the God of Israel. This fact together with the Hebrew Scripture background of this phrase is an indication that Kyʹri·os (Lord) is used here as a substitute for the divine name.—See App. C.

a horn of salvation: Or “a powerful savior.” In the Bible, animal horns often represent strength, conquest, and victory. (1Sa 2:1; Ps 75:4, 5, 10; 148:14; ftns.) Also, rulers and ruling dynasties, both the righteous and the wicked, are symbolized by horns, and their achieving of conquests was likened to pushing with horns. (De 33:17; Da 7:24; 8:2-10, 20-24) In this context, the expression “a horn of salvation” refers to the Messiah as the one having power to save, a mighty savior.—See Glossary, “Horn.”

rendering sacred service to him: The Greek verb la·treuʹo basically denotes serving. As used in the Scriptures, it refers to rendering service to God or in connection with the worship of him (Mt 4:10; Lu 2:37; 4:8; Ac 7:7; Ro 1:9; Php 3:3; 2Ti 1:3; Heb 9:14; 12:28; Re 7:15; 22:3) or to rendering service at the sanctuary or temple (Heb 8:5; 9:9; 10:2; 13:10). Thus, in some contexts the expression can also be rendered “to worship.” In a few cases, it is used in connection with false worship—rendering service to, or worshipping, created things.—Ac 7:42; Ro 1:25.

Jehovah: In this translation, this is the first occurrence of the divine name in the Gospel of Luke. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord), there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase commandments and legal requirements and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Ge 26:2, 5; Nu 36:13; De 4:40; Eze 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at De 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. A number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text of Luke 1:6 or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

Jehovah: Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects language used in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered Jehovah their God) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expression “Jehovah your God” at Lu 4:8, 12; 10:27.) In the Hebrew Scriptures, the combination “Jehovah their God” occurs over 30 times, whereas the expression “the Lord their God” is never used. Also, the term the sons of Israel reflects a Hebrew idiom used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, meaning “the people of Israel” or “the Israelites.” (Ge 36:31, ftn.) A Greek expression similar to the one used here for “turn back [someone] to Jehovah” is used in the Septuagint at 2Ch 19:4 as a translation of the Hebrew phrase for “to bring [people] back to Jehovah.”—See App. C.

Jehovah: The angel’s words to Zechariah (verses 13-17) contain allusions to such verses as Mal 3:1; 4:5, 6; and Isa 40:3, where the divine name is used. (See study notes on Lu 1:15, 16.) Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the Hebrew Scripture background provides good reasons for using the divine name in the text. Additionally, an expression similar to the Greek phrase for to get ready . . . a people can be found in the Septuagint at 2Sa 7:24, where the Hebrew text reads: “You established your people Israel . . . , O Jehovah.”—See App. C.

Jehovah: At Isa 40:3, quoted here, the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text. (See App. C.) Luke applies this prophecy to John the Baptist. John would prepare the way of Jehovah in that he would be the forerunner of Jesus, who would represent his Father and come in his Father’s name. (Joh 5:43; 8:29) In the apostle John’s Gospel, John the Baptist applies this prophecy to himself.—Joh 1:23.

Jehovah: The prophetic words of Zechariah in the second part of this verse reflect the wording of Isa 40:3 and Mal 3:1, where the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name has been used in the main text, although existing Greek manuscripts use Kyʹri·os (Lord). (See study notes on Lu 1:6, 16, 17; 3:4 and App. C.) Additionally, it is noteworthy that in this verse, as in many other occurrences of Kyʹri·os in Luke chapter 1, the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. Also, a number of Bible translations use such renderings as Jehovah, Yahveh, Yahweh, יהוה (YHWH, or the Tetragrammaton), LORD, and ADONAI in the main text or in footnotes and marginal notes to indicate that this is a reference to Jehovah God. A number of reference works support this view.—See App. C.

you will go ahead of Jehovah: John the Baptist would “go ahead of Jehovah” in the sense that he would be the forerunner of Jesus, who would represent his Father and come in his Father’s name.—Joh 5:43; 8:29; see the study note on Jehovah in this verse.

those days: According to Lu 3:1-3, John the Baptizer began his ministry “in the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar,” that is, during the spring of 29 C.E. (See study note on Lu 3:1.) About six months later, in the fall of 29 C.E., Jesus came to John to be baptized.—See App. A7.

the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius: Caesar Augustus died on August 17, 14 C.E. (Gregorian calendar). On September 15, Tiberius allowed the Roman Senate to proclaim him emperor. If the years were counted from the death of Augustus, the 15th year of Tiberius’ reign ran from August 28 C.E. to August 29 C.E. If counted from when he was formally proclaimed emperor, the 15th year ran from September 28 C.E. to September 29 C.E. John evidently began his ministry in the spring (in the northern hemisphere) of 29 C.E., which is within the 15th year of the reign of Tiberius. In Tiberius’ 15th year, John would have been about 30 years old, which was the age when the Levite priests began their service at the temple. (Nu 4:2, 3) Similarly, when Jesus was baptized by John and “began his work,” according to Lu 3:21-23, “he was about 30 years old.” Jesus’ death took place in the spring month of Nisan, so his three-and-a-half-year ministry evidently began in the fall, about the month of Ethanim (September/October). John was likely six months older than Jesus and evidently began his ministry six months before Jesus did. (Lu, chap. 1) Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that John began his ministry in the spring of 29 C.E.—See study notes on Lu 3:23; Joh 2:13.

began his work: Or “began his ministry; started to teach.” Lit., “began; started.” Luke uses the same Greek expression at Ac 1:21, 22 and 10:37, 38 when referring to the start of Jesus’ earthly ministry. His public ministry involved preaching, teaching, and disciple-making.

the day he showed himself openly to Israel: Referring to the time when John the Baptist began his public ministry, that is, during the spring of 29 C.E.—See study notes on Mr 1:9; Lu 3:1, 23.

Media

Video Introduction to the Book of Luke
Video Introduction to the Book of Luke
Approaching the Entrance to Herod’s Temple
Approaching the Entrance to Herod’s Temple

This animation depicts what Zechariah may have seen as he approached the entrance to the temple. Some sources say that the temple built by Herod was 15 stories high. Apparently, the facade surrounding the front doors was plated with gold. The entrance faced east, so light from the rising sun would have been reflected with dazzling brilliance.

(1) Court of Women

(2) Altar of Burnt Offering

(3) Entrance to the Holy

(4) Sea of Cast Metal

Writing Tablets
Writing Tablets

Zechariah, who wrote in Hebrew “John is his name,” may have used a wooden tablet similar to the one shown here. Such tablets were in use for centuries throughout the ancient Middle East. The recessed portion of this type of tablet was filled with a thin layer of wax. Using a stylus made of iron, bronze, or ivory, a writer made notes on the soft surface. A typical stylus was pointed on one end and flattened into a chisel shape on the other. The flattened end was used to erase the writing and smooth the wax. Two or more tablets were sometimes held together by small strips of leather. Businessmen, scholars, students, and tax collectors used tablets for records that needed to be kept only temporarily. The tablets shown in the photo date from the second or third century C.E. and were discovered in Egypt.