Skip to content

Skip to table of contents

New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

C3

Verses Where the Divine Name Does Not Appear as Part of Direct or Indirect Quotations in the Book of Luke

LUKE 1:6 “the commandments and legal requirements of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts read “of the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to expressions and passages in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. For example, the phrase “commandments and legal requirements” and similar combinations of legal terms can be found in the Hebrew Scriptures in contexts where the divine name is used or where Jehovah is speaking. (Genesis 26:2, 5; Numbers 36:13; Deuteronomy 4:40; Ezekiel 36:23, 27) It is worth noting that these two Greek legal terms occur in the Septuagint at Deuteronomy 27:10. In an early papyrus fragment of the Greek Septuagint (in the collection Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) showing parts of the verse, the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The Hebrew Scripture background for these terms related to Jehovah’s standards is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, makes this comment on Luke 1:6: “‘The Lord,’ following Septuagint usage, where kurios renders Hebrew ʼadonay when standing for Yahweh. It has this meaning in all occurrences in chs. 1 and 2 (except 1:43 and 2:11), and in 5:17.”

  • The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, 1982, (Vol. 2, p. 508) states: “Greek kyrios is usually translated ‘Lord’ in the English versions and is the equivalent of Heb. YHWH in the LXX [Septuagint] . . . ‘Lord’ may denote God (the Father; Mt. 5:33; Lk. 1:6).”

  • A Theology of Luke’s Gospel and Acts, by Darrell L. Bock, 2011, (p. 126) states: “The common κύριος (kyrios) has its roots in the LXX [Septuagint] name for Yahweh. This usage is especially prominent in the infancy section [of Luke’s account], appearing twenty five times.”

  • A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, revised and edited by F. W. Danker, 2000, (pp. 576-577) lists Luke 1:6, 9, 28, 46; 2:15, 22 under the definition of “lord” as “a designation of God.” It goes on to say concerning the use of the expression in the Septuagint (LXX): “It [frequently] replaces the name Yahweh in the MT [Masoretic Text].” It also lists Luke 1:17, 58 after the following explanation: “Without the art[icle] . . . , like a personal name.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:6, 9, 15, 16, 17, 25, 28, 32, 38, 45, 46, 58, 66, 68; 2:9b, 15, 22, 23a, b, 24, 26, 39; 3:4; 4:8, 12, 18, 19; 5:17; 10:21, 27; 13:35; 19:38; 20:37, 42a as verses where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:6: “As often in the rest of the infancy narrative, kyrios is here used of Yahweh. . . . The rest of the phrase is formulated in imitation of OT [Old Testament] expressions.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 40 says of this verse: “‘Walking in all the commandments and legal ordinances of the Lord (i.e., Jehovah) blameless.’ The [Greek words rendered “commandments and legal ordinances (requirements)”] remind us of the commandments and statutes of Jehovah recorded in Deut. 4:1, 40; 6:2.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, uses capital and small capitals for LORD in the main text of Luke 1:6 and adds this explanation in the margin: “The LORD. Must here and elsewhere be often rendered Jehovah.”

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, uses capital and small capitals for the word “ADONAI” in this verse and most of the other verses where “Jehovah” appears in the text of Luke in the New World Translation. In the introduction to the Complete Jewish Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAIis used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-17, 23, 28-35, 37-40, 42-44, 46-49, 52, 58-60, 65, 66, 88, 93-97, 100-102, 105, 114-117, 125, 130

LUKE 1:9 “sanctuary of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “of the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou) here; a few manuscripts read “of God.” However, as mentioned in the comment on Luke 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use Kyʹri·os here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Hebrew Scriptures, expressions corresponding to the combination “sanctuary [or “temple”] of Jehovah” often include the Tetragrammaton. (Numbers 19:20; 2 Kings 18:16; 23:4; 24:13; 2 Chronicles 26:16; 27:2; Jeremiah 24:1; Ezekiel 8:16; Haggai 2:15) Therefore, the Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:9 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 43 says of this verse: “Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is the translation of Yahweh.”

  • New Testament Text and Translation Commentary, by Philip W. Comfort, 2008, makes this comment on Luke 1:9: “‘The Lord’ in this verse is not ‘the Lord Jesus Christ’ but ‘Yahweh.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-18, 22, 23, 28-36, 38-40, 42-44, 46-49, 52, 59, 60, 65, 66, 88, 93, 95, 100-102, 105, 106, 114-116, 127

LUKE 1:11 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, starting at Genesis 16:7. When it occurs in early copies of the Greek Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this and many other verses, the Greek definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would normally call for it. The absence of the definite article here and in other verses may therefore be another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Matthew 1:20.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:11 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:11: “‘The angel of the Lord’ also appears to the barren wife of Manoah, the father of Samson in Judg 13:3. . . . The Greek phrase angelos kyriou is a Semitism, reflecting the Hebrew construct chain, malʼak Yhwh, ‘messenger of Yahweh,’ as the lack of Greek def[inite] art[icle]s reveals. This is the exalted OT [Old Testament] figure who appears at times to be indistinguishable from Yahweh himself.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-13, 16-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38-43, 46-49, 52, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-103, 105, 106, 114-117, 125, 127, 128, 130, 133

LUKE 1:15 “in the sight of Jehovah”

REASON(S): As mentioned in the comment on Luke 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Most existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse; a few manuscripts read “God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is here used with reference to God. The Greek expression e·noʹpi·on Ky·riʹou (lit., “in sight of [before] Lord”) reflects a Hebrew idiom and occurs over 100 times in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew phrases where the Tetragrammaton is used in the original text. (Judges 11:11; 1 Samuel 10:19; 2 Samuel 5:3; 6:5) The Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:15 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 46 says of this verse: “‘In the sight of the Lord’ (Yahweh, as before).”

  • New Testament Text and Translation Commentary, by Philip W. Comfort, 2008, says of Luke 1:15: “The Lord here is Yahweh, not the Lord Jesus Christ.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:15: “John’s greatness (see Luke 7:28) is here measured in terms of the Kyrios, who in this context is to be understood as Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:15: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10-18, 22, 23, 28-36, 38-43, 46-49, 52, 53, 59, 60, 65, 66, 73, 88, 93-95, 100-102, 104, 106, 114-117, 122, 125, 127, 130, 133

LUKE 1:16 “turn back many of the sons of Israel to Jehovah their God”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The angel’s message to Zechariah (verses 13-17) strongly reflects language used in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered “Jehovah their God”) is common in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expression “Jehovah your God” at Luke 4:8, 12; 10:27.) In the Hebrew Scriptures, the combination “Jehovah their God” occurs over 30 times, whereas the expression “the Lord their God” is never used. Also, the term “the sons of Israel,” used many times in the Hebrew Scriptures, reflects a Hebrew idiom meaning “the people of Israel” or “the Israelites.” (Genesis 36:31, footnote) A Greek expression similar to the one used here for “turn back [someone] to Jehovah” is used in the Septuagint at 2 Chronicles 19:4 as a translation of the Hebrew phrase “to bring [people] back to Jehovah.”​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:16 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 48 says of this verse: “Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is Yahweh as it was before.”

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, comments on Luke 1:16: “Here and [Luke] 1:32, 68 in passages strongly reminiscent of the Old Testament. The term is, therefore, to be understood from the Old Testament background as the Greek rendering of Yahweh ʼElohim in which Yahweh is a proper name and ʼElohim a class noun.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of Luke 1:16: “Fitted out with prophetic spirit and power, John will become Yahweh’s instrument to convert Israel from its estrangement. . . . Here Kyrios clearly refers to Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:16: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-18, 22-24, 28-43, 46-49, 52-55, 57, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 97, 100-105, 112, 114-117, 122, 125, 127, 128, 130, 133

LUKE 1:17 “get ready for Jehovah a prepared people”

REASON(S): The angel’s words to Zechariah (verses 13-17) contain allusions to such verses as Malachi 3:1; 4:5, 6; and Isaiah 40:3, where the divine name is used. (See comments on Luke 1:15, 16.) Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the Hebrew Scripture background provides good reasons for using the divine name in the text. Additionally, an expression similar to the Greek phrase for “to get ready . . . a people” can be found in the Septuagint at 2 Samuel 7:24, where the Hebrew text reads: “You established your people Israel . . . , O Jehovah.”​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:17 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) makes these comments on Luke 1:17: “Go before him. I.e. before Yahweh, as the messenger of Mal 3:1. . . . In Mal [4:5, 6] he is identified as the messenger to be sent before ‘the great and awesome day of Yahweh’ (cf. Mal 3:2). . . . It is in this sense that the angel now tells Zechariah that his son John is to go before the Lord (= Yahweh). See Luke 1:76. . . . to make ready a people fit for the Lord. The first part of the clause is an OT [Old Testament] expression, ‘to make ready a people’ (2 Sam 7:24).”

  • The French reference work Évangile Selon Saint Luc (The Gospel According to St. Luke), by M. J. Lagrange, 1921, says of Luke 1:17: “Κυριώ [form of Kyʹri·os] without the article corresponds to Iahvé.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:17: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-18, 22-24, 28-36, 39, 40-44, 46-49, 52, 53, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93, 95, 100-106, 114-117, 125, 127

LUKE 1:25 “Jehovah has dealt with me”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Here Elizabeth expresses her gratitude in a way that may bring to mind Sarah’s experience as described at Genesis 21:1, in which verse the divine name occurs. To describe Jehovah’s dealings with humans, the Hebrew Scriptures often use the corresponding Hebrew verb for “has dealt with me” (or, “has done for me”) along with the divine name. (Exodus 13:8; Deuteronomy 4:34; 1 Samuel 12:7; 25:30) Also, before Kyʹri·os there is no Greek definite article, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. Elizabeth’s comment about how her reproach of being childless was taken away echoes the words of Rachel, recorded at Genesis 30:23.​—See comments on Mark 5:19 and Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:25 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 58 says of this verse: “The Lord (Yahweh as before, with or without the article).”

  • Word Biblical Commentary, by John Nolland, 1989, (Vol. 35A, p. 34) explains this about Luke 1:25: “Elizabeth expresses her wonderment at God’s graciousness to her in terms reminiscent of the experience of Sarah (Gen 21:1) and Rachel (Gen 30:23). . . . The infancy narratives are reported with almost constant echoing of OT [Old Testament] items: what happens here is to be understood in terms of what happened there.”

  • The French reference work Évangile Selon Saint Luc (The Gospel According to St. Luke), by M. J. Lagrange, 1921, says of Luke 1:25: “The critical editions omit the article in front of Κύριος [Kyʹri·os], which here stands for Iahvé.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:25: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-18, 22, 23, 28-36, 38-44, 46, 47, 52-54, 59, 60, 65, 66, 90, 93-95, 100-106, 114-117, 122, 125, 130, 133

LUKE 1:28 “Jehovah is with you”

REASON(S): This and similar phrases that include the divine name often occur in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Ruth 2:4; 2 Samuel 7:3; 2 Chronicles 15:2; Jeremiah 1:19) The angel’s greeting to Mary is similar to the words used when Jehovah’s angel addressed Gideon at Judges 6:12: “Jehovah is with you, you mighty warrior.” Although existing Greek manuscripts use the term “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) at Luke 1:28, the Hebrew Scripture background for this expression is an indication that Kyʹri·os is here a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:28 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 62 says of this verse: “The fact that a godly Jewess enjoyed Yahweh’s grace (ὁ Κύριος [ho Kyʹri·os] as before) and helpful presence needed no angelic announcement.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 1:28: “The Lord is with you! This is a frequently used OT [Old Testament] phrase, but it occurs as a greeting only in two places in the OT, Ruth 2:4 and Judg 6:12. . . . In the OT the phrase often expresses Yahweh’s help and assistance and carries a military connotation. Obviously, kyrios here is to be understood of Yahweh.”

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Vol. I, p. 463) makes this comment on Luke 1:28: “The Lord (Jehovah) is or be with thee.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5, 7-18, 22, 23, 32-36, 38-44, 46, 48, 52, 59, 60, 64, 65, 88, 94, 95, 100-106, 114-117, 122, 128, 130, 133

LUKE 1:32 “Jehovah God will give him the throne”

REASON(S): As mentioned in the comment on Luke 1:6, the first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the expression Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ, literally, “Lord the God,” there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The angel’s words about “the throne of David” are an allusion to the promise at 2 Samuel 7:12, 13, 16, where Jehovah is speaking to David through the prophet Nathan and where the Tetragrammaton occurs several times in the immediate context. (2 Samuel 7:4-16) In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the expression here rendered “Jehovah God” and similar combinations occur mainly in quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures or in passages reflecting Hebrew language style. “Jehovah God,” not “the Lord God,” is the standard combination used in the Hebrew Scriptures, and this expression occurs about 40 times. Including such similar combinations as “Jehovah [my; our; your; his; their] God” or “Jehovah the God of . . .” would bring the number of occurrences to over 800. It is true that later copies of the Septuagint used the combination Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ (Lord the God) as the equivalent of the Hebrew expression for “Jehovah God.” However, a vellum leaf dated to the third century C.E. containing a portion of the Septuagint translation of Genesis (Papyrus Oxyrhynchus vii. 1007) renders the divine name in the expression “Jehovah God” at Genesis 2:8, 18, not by Kyʹri·os, but by an abbreviation of the Tetragrammaton in the form of a doubling of the Hebrew letter yod written as . It is also interesting to note that when the combinations “Jehovah your God” and “Jehovah his God” occur at Deuteronomy 18:5, 7 in an early fragment of the Septuagint (in the collection Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name has been used in the main text.​—See comments on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:32 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 101 says of Luke 1:68: “Κύριος ὁ Θεός [Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ] is the same as it was in v. 16 and 32, the Greek for Yahweh Elohim.”

  • Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, 2002, (Vol. 1, pp. 331-332) makes this comment on Luke 1:32: “Most High . . . the Lord God (1:32). Both of these are Greek translations of Old Testament names for God. The first is from El Elyon, ‘God Most High,’ and the second from Yahweh Elohim, ‘Yahweh God.’”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, comments on the expression “the Most High” found at Luke 1:32: “The first use of the designation which stresses Jehovah’s majesty and sovereignty is found in Gen. 14:18.”

  • The Moody Bible Commentary, by Michael Rydelnik and Michael Vanlaningham, 2014, says with regard to Luke 1:31-33: “The Lord God (Yahweh of the OT [Old Testament]).”

  • The Jewish Annotated New Testament, by Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Zvi Brettler, 2011, says with regard to Luke 1:32: “‘Most High’ translates the Heb ‘El Elyon’ or ‘YHWH Elyon.’”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on the expression “Lord God” at Luke 1:32: “Jehovah Elohim: only occurrence in the Gospels.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-44, 46-49, 52, 53, 55-57, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93, 95-97, 100-106, 114-117, 125, 128, 130

LUKE 1:38 “Jehovah’s slave girl”

REASON(S): With these words, Mary echoes expressions of other servants of Jehovah mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, Hannah says in her prayer recorded at 1 Samuel 1:11: “O Jehovah of armies, if you look upon the affliction of your servant [or, “slave girl”].” At 1 Samuel 1:11, the Septuagint uses the same Greek word for “slave girl” as is used in Luke’s account. Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Luke 1:38, the divine name is used in the main text of this verse in view of the context (Kyʹri·os refers to God) and the Hebrew Scripture background. Additionally, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:38 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 76 says of this verse: “Mary pronounces herself ‘the slave-maid’ of Yahweh (Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] as throughout this chapter). She is Jehovah’s willing property for him to use as he in his covenant grace desires; she declares this of herself.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 1:38: “Mary is made to identify herself with the OT [Old Testament] term used by Hannah in 1 Sam 1:11, expressive of her lowly condition before Yahweh, who is here the Kyrios.” The same volume on p. 203 makes this point: “Elizabeth is made to refer to Mary as ‘the mother of my Lord’ in 1:43, whereas Mary in calling herself the ‘handmaid of the Lord’ (1:38) is rather referring to Yahweh with this title.”

  • The Gospel of Luke​—A Commentary on the Greek Text (The New International Greek Testament Commentary), by I. H. Marshall, 1978, says that at Luke 1:38, Kyʹri·os “can be used without the article since it is tantamount to a proper name.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:38: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5, 7-18, 22-24, 28-35, 38-40, 42, 43, 46, 47, 52, 53, 55, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-102, 104-106, 114-117, 125, 128

LUKE 1:45 “things spoken to her from Jehovah”

REASON(S): The things spoken to Mary by the angel had their origin with Jehovah God. The Greek expression pa·raʹ Ky·riʹou, here rendered “from Jehovah,” occurs in existing copies of the Septuagint as a translation of Hebrew expressions in which the divine name is typically used. (Genesis 24:50; Judges 14:4; 1 Samuel 1:20; Isaiah 21:10; Jeremiah 11:1; 18:1; 21:1) As in other occurrences of Kyʹri·os (Lord) in Luke chapter 1, scholars have noted that the unexpected absence of a definite article before Kyʹri·os makes the term tantamount to a proper name. Also, when the equivalent of this Greek expression occurs at Deuteronomy 18:16 in an early fragment of the Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. Although existing Greek manuscripts of Luke’s Gospel use the word Kyʹri·os here, the context and the Hebrew Scripture background provide good reasons for using the divine name in the main text.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:45 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 82 says of this verse: “The completion of all that was thus spoken ‘from the Lord’ (Yahweh) through the angel.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:45: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38-43, 46, 47, 52, 53, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-102, 104-106, 114-117, 130

LUKE 1:46 “My soul magnifies Jehovah”

REASON(S): These words of Mary may echo passages in the Hebrew Scriptures, such as Psalm 34:3 and 69:30, where the divine name is used in the same verse or in the context. (Psalm 69:31) In these verses, the same Greek word for “magnify” (me·ga·lyʹno) is used in the Septuagint. It is worth noting that one fragment of a parchment roll (P. Vindobonensis Greek 39777, dated to the third or fourth century C.E.) contains, according to Symmachus’ Greek translation, part of Psalm 69 (68 in the Septuagint). At Psalm 69:13, 30, 31, this fragment renders the divine name using, not Kyʹri·os, but the Tetragrammaton written in archaic Hebrew characters ( or ). This evidence, along with the Hebrew Scripture background, supports using the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:46 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 84 says of this verse: “Already Mary’s first line announces her theme: she magnifies Yahweh (Κύριος [Kyʹri·os]).”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this phrase at Luke 1:46: “It expresses praise and thanksgiving for Yahweh’s greatness and majesty which are recognized as the source of the blessings that have come to Mary.” A note on the expression “God my Savior” found at Luke 1:47 says: “This phrase is parallel to ‘Lord’ in v. 46, showing that kyrios there is to be understood of Yahweh, the source of blessing to Mary.”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, makes this comment on Luke 1:46-48: “Mary says, ‘My soul magnifies the Lord,’ that is, proclaims the greatness of Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22, 23, 28-36, 38-44, 46, 47, 52, 53, 55, 59, 60, 65, 66, 88, 93-95, 100-102, 104-106, 114-117, 122, 130

LUKE 1:58 “Jehovah had magnified his mercy”

REASON(S): The expression rendered “that Jehovah had magnified his mercy to her” reflects a typical Hebrew way of expressing things and evidently echoes the wording of Genesis 19:18-20. There Lot is addressing Jehovah, saying: “Jehovah! . . . You are showing great kindness to me [lit., “You are magnifying your kindness”].” The context, as well as the Hebrew Scripture background, supports the use of the divine name in this verse.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:58 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 94 says of this verse: “Yahweh considered Elizabeth’s grief over her barrenness.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:58: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 32-35, 38-44, 46, 52, 55, 59, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 95, 97, 100-102, 104, 106, 114-117, 122, 125, 128, 130

LUKE 1:66 “The hand of Jehovah”

REASON(S): This phrase is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “hand” and the Tetragrammaton. (Exodus 9:3; Numbers 11:23; Judges 2:15; Ruth 1:13; 1 Samuel 5:6, 9; 7:13; 12:15; 1 Kings 18:46; Ezra 7:6; Job 12:9; Isaiah 19:16; 40:2; Ezekiel 1:3) Although existing Greek manuscripts of Luke’s Gospel use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text in view of this Hebrew Scripture background. In connection with Luke 1:66, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is noteworthy because even though the earliest copies of the Septuagint contained the divine name, when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os, the definite article was in a similar way often not included, where standard grammatical usage would call for it. This unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. The Greek expression rendered “hand of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s hand”) also occurs at Acts 11:21; 13:11.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:66 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 98 says of this verse: “‘The Lord’s hand’ is his directing and upholding power, and Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 1:66: “There is little doubt that kyrios here refers to Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:66: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-35, 38-44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-97, 100-102, 104, 114-117, 125, 128, 130

LUKE 1:68 “Let Jehovah be praised, the God of Israel”

REASON(S): This expression of praise is common in the Hebrew Scriptures, where it is often used with the divine name. (1 Samuel 25:32; 1 Kings 1:48; 8:15; Psalm 41:13; 72:18; 106:48) Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to “the God of Israel.” This fact together with the Hebrew Scripture background of this phrase is an indication that Kyʹri·os (Lord) is used here as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:68 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 101 says of this verse: “Κύριος ὁ Θεός [Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ] is the same as it was in v. 16 and 32, the Greek for Yahweh Elohim.”

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, comments on Luke 1:68: “Because of the Old Testament background of the phrase it is best to understand kurios as representing the name Yahweh and not as a title.”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, comments on Luke 1:68: “Zechariah begins with a doxology. He praises Jehovah.”

  • The Jerome Biblical Commentary, edited by Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, 1968, says with regard to Zechariah’s speech that starts to be recorded at Luke 1:68: “The hymn blesses Yahweh for what he has achieved of salvation.”

  • The Scofield Reference Bible, by C. I. Scofield, 1909, says in a marginal note on Luke 1:68: “Jehovah. Psa. 106.48.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:68: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 27-44, 46-49, 52-55, 57, 59-61, 64-66, 73, 88, 90, 93-95, 97, 100-106, 108, 109, 112, 114-117, 122, 125, 128, 130, 133

LUKE 1:76 “go ahead of Jehovah”

REASON(S): The prophetic words of Zechariah in the second part of this verse reflect the wording of Isaiah 40:3 and Malachi 3:1, where the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name has been used in the main text, although existing Greek manuscripts use Kyʹri·os (Lord). (See comments on Luke 1:6, 16, 17; 3:4.) Additionally, it is noteworthy that in this verse, as in many other occurrences of Kyʹri·os in Luke chapter 1, the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name.

SUPPORT:

  • A Commentary on the Holy Bible, edited by J. R. Dummelow, 1936, says of Luke 1:76: “Of the Lord] Zacharias understood it of Jehovah.”

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke, by Alfred Plummer, 1920, says of Luke 1:76: “Here Κυρίου [form of Kyʹri·os] means Jehovah, not the Christ, as is clear from vv. 16, 17.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 1:76 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is possibly “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Vol. I, p. 469) makes this comment on the verse: “John will go before the Lord (Jehovah).”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 109 says of this verse: “Throughout this chapter Κύριος is the Greek word for Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 1:76: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-35, 39-43, 46, 48, 49, 52, 53, 60, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-102, 105, 106, 114-116, 127

LUKE 2:9a “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): See comments on Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1:11.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-13, 16, 17, 22-24, 32-36, 38-43, 46, 48, 49, 52, 55, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 94-96, 100-106, 114-117, 122, 128, 130

LUKE 2:9b “Jehovah’s glory”

REASON(S): The first two chapters of Luke’s account are rich with references to and allusions to passages and expressions from the Hebrew Scriptures where the divine name occurs. Most existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse; a few manuscripts use “God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. In the Hebrew Scriptures, the corresponding Hebrew expression for “glory” occurs along with the Tetragrammaton more than 30 times. (Some examples are found at Exodus 16:7; 40:34; Leviticus 9:6, 23; Numbers 14:10; 16:19; 20:6; 1 Kings 8:11; 2 Chronicles 5:14; 7:1; Psalm 104:31; 138:5; Isaiah 35:2; 40:5; 60:1; Ezekiel 1:28; 3:12; 10:4; 43:4; Habakkuk 2:14.) An early copy of the Greek Septuagint found in a cave in Nahal Hever in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E., contains the Tetragrammaton written in ancient Hebrew characters within the Greek text at Habakkuk 2:14. Also, it is noteworthy that when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in this and many other verses, the definite article was not included, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background as well as the absence of the Greek definite article, the divine name has been used in the main text of Luke 2:9.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:9 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • With regard to the expression “angel of the Lord” and “glory of the Lord,” R.C.H. Lenski makes this comment on Luke 2:9 in The Interpretation of Luke’s Gospel (pp. 128-129): “As is the case throughout the first chapter, Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is the Greek term for Yahweh and as a genitive with unarticulated nouns forms one concept with them: ‘Jehovah-angel,’ ‘Jehovah-glory.’ . . . It was Jehovah’s angel who came upon them like a flash.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 2:9: “In the LXX [Septuagint] doxa translates Hebrew kābôd, the ‘splendor, brilliance,’ associated with Yahweh’s perceptible presence to his people.”

  • The Critical and Exegetical Hand-Book to the Gospels of Mark and Luke, by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, (Sixth edition of 1884), says of this expression at Luke 2:9: “​— δόξα κυρίου] יְהוָֹה [YHWH] כְּבוֹד, radiance by which God is surrounded.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 2:9: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-8, 10-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38-43, 46-49, 52, 55, 59, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 91, 93-96, 100-104, 114, 115, 117

LUKE 2:15 “Jehovah has made known to us”

REASON(S): The angels conveyed the message, but the shepherds recognized the Source as being Jehovah God. Although existing Greek manuscripts use “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Septuagint, the Greek verb rendered “has made known” is used to translate a corresponding Hebrew verb in contexts where the divine name is used and where Jehovah communicates his will to humans. (Psalm 25:4; 39:4; 98:2; 103:6, 7) Therefore, it would be natural to connect the divine name with what the Jewish shepherds are here saying.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:15 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 2:15: “Which the Lord has made known to us. I.e. Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 137 says of this verse: “Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is again the translation of Yahweh.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1991 printing, says in a footnote on Luke 2:15: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5, 7, 8, 10-12, 14-18, 22, 23, 28-31, 33-36, 39-44, 46, 47, 49, 52, 59-61, 65, 88, 93-96, 100-102, 104-106, 114-117, 122, 130

LUKE 2:22 “To present him to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Existing Greek manuscripts read “to the Lord” (toi Ky·riʹoi) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. As the following verse shows, Jesus’ being brought to the temple after his birth is in accord with Jehovah’s words to Moses at Exodus 13:1, 2, 12, where parents were commanded to “devote to Jehovah every firstborn male.” Also, the expression “to present him to Jehovah” is similar to what is described at 1 Samuel 1:22-28, where young Samuel is presented “before Jehovah” and dedicated to His service. In view of the context and the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name is used in the main text of Luke 2:22.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:22 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 141 says of this verse: “They brought the child to Jerusalem ‘to present him to the Lord,’ i.e., Yahweh, Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] being used in this sense throughout these first chapters of Luke. . . . Every first-born son had to be presented to Jehovah.”

  • The Holy Scriptures, by J. N. Darby, 1991 printing, says in a footnote on Luke 2:22: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22, 23, 28-36, 38-43, 47, 49, 52, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 93-95, 100-102, 104-106, 114-117, 125, 128, 130

LUKE 2:23a “just as it is written in Jehovah’s Law”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts read noʹmoi Ky·riʹou, “Lord’s Law,” there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “law” and the Tetragrammaton. (For example: Exodus 13:9; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 16:40; 22:12; 2 Chronicles 17:9; 31:3; 34:14; 35:26; Nehemiah 9:3; Psalm 1:2; 119:1; Isaiah 5:24; Jeremiah 8:8; Amos 2:4.) The expression “just as it is written” is a common introduction to Hebrew Scripture quotes in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Mark 1:2; Acts 7:42; 15:15; Romans 1:17; 9:33; 10:15) It is also used in the Septuagint at 2 Kings 14:6 to introduce a scripture quote. The full expression “just as it is written in Jehovah’s Law” reflects an expression in the Hebrew Scriptures that can be found at 2 Chronicles 31:3 and 35:26, where the divine name is used. Additionally, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article is not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name in this context. In view of the context, the Hebrew Scripture background, and the absence of the Greek definite article, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text of Luke 2:23.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:23 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 142 says of this verse: “Holy ‘to the Lord,’ to Yahweh.”

  • The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Gerhard Kittel, 1967, says of this expression at Luke 2:23: “In Lk. 2:23 there is no art[icle], but we have the combination νόμος κυρίου [noʹmos ky·riʹou], which is to be defined in the light of יהוה [YHWH] תורת.”

  • The Scofield Reference Bible, by C. I. Scofield, 1909, says in a marginal note on Luke 2:23: “Jehovah. Ex. 13.2, 12.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 2:23: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-31, 33-36, 38-43, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 58-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-102, 104, 106, 114-117, 125

LUKE 2:24 “in the Law of Jehovah”

REASON(S): See comments on Luke 1:6; 2:23.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:24 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 2:24: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38-43, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 56, 58-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-102, 104, 106, 114-117, 122, 125, 130, 133

LUKE 2:26 “the Christ of Jehovah”

REASON(S): There are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text, although available Greek manuscripts literally read “the Christ of Lord” (ton khri·stonʹ Ky·riʹou). In existing copies of the Septuagint, this expression corresponds to the Hebrew term ma·shiʹach YHWH, that is, “anointed (one) of Jehovah,” used 11 times in the Hebrew Scriptures. (1 Samuel 24:6 [twice], 10; 26:9, 11, 16, 23; 2 Samuel 1:14, 16; 19:21; Lamentations 4:20) In connection with both Luke’s account and the Septuagint, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os in these contexts tantamount to a proper name. Therefore, both the Hebrew Scripture background and the absence of the Greek article are valid reasons for treating Kyʹri·os in these expressions, not as a title, but as an equivalent of the divine name.​—See comment on Luke 1:6.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:26 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 145 says of this verse: “To see the Lord’s (Yahweh, Κύριος in this sense throughout these two chapters) Christ.”

  • Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, 2002, (Vol. 1, pp. 345-346) says of Luke 2:26: “This phrase is equivalent to the Old Testament expression ‘the LORD’s Anointed’ . . . and carries the sense, ‘Yahweh’s chosen agent of redemption.’”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 2:26: “The OT [Old Testament] expression, ‘the Anointed of Yahweh’ (see e.g. 1 Sam 24:7, 11; 26:9, 11, 16, 23), is used here in the strictly messianic sense, of a future, expected David.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 2:26: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38-43, 46, 47, 49, 52, 58-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-105, 114-117, 122, 125, 128, 130

LUKE 2:39 “Law of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts read noʹmon Ky·riʹou, “Lord’s Law,” there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. This expression occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “law” and the Tetragrammaton. (For example: Exodus 13:9; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 16:40; 22:12; 2 Chronicles 17:9; 31:3; Nehemiah 9:3; Psalm 1:2; 119:1; Isaiah 5:24; Jeremiah 8:8; Amos 2:4.) It is also noteworthy that the Greek definite article is not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name in this context. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background and the absence of the Greek definite article, the divine name is used in the main text.​—See comments on Luke 1:6; 2:23.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 2:39 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 2:39: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J5-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38, 40-44, 46-49, 52, 55, 59-61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-95, 100-104, 106, 114-117, 122, 125, 128

LUKE 5:17 “Jehovah’s power”

REASON(S): Although Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context clearly shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God, and the Greek word dyʹna·mis, which could be rendered “power” or “strength,” appears in the Septuagint where the Hebrew text refers to Jehovah’s power, or strength, and uses the Tetragrammaton in the context. (Psalm 21:1, 13; 93:1; 118:15) In connection with Luke 5:17, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is noteworthy because even though early copies of the Septuagint contained the divine name, when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os, the definite article was in a similar way often not included, where standard grammatical usage would call for it. This unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os is another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background and the absence of the Greek definite article, the divine name is used in the main text.​—See comments on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 5:17 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 292 says of this verse: “The unarticulated Κύριος [Kyʹri·os], as the first chapters in Luke show, denotes Yahweh.”

  • New Testament Commentary, by William Hendriksen, 2007, makes this comment on Luke 5:17: “Significantly Luke adds that the power of the Lord​—that is, of Jehovah​—was with Jesus ‘for healing.’”

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke, by Alfred Plummer, 1920, says of Luke 5:17: “‘The power of Jehovah was present for Him to heal with’ . . . Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] without the article means Jehovah.”

  • Word Pictures in the New Testament, by Archibald Thomas Robertson, 1930, (Vol. 2) says of Luke 5:17: “Here Kuriou refers to Jehovah.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1981, (Vol. 28) says of this expression at Luke 5:17: “This phrase is clearly a Lucan creation, a description of Yahweh’s power present in Jesus for the sake of curing people. In effect, it echoes 4:14, 36 and prepares for the miracle and the pronouncement that are to come. Here Kyrios is clearly distinguished from Jesus and means Yahweh.”

  • A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to S. Luke, by Alfred Plummer, 1916, comments on this expression at Luke 5:17: “[Luke] often calls Christ ‘the Lord’; but in such cases Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] always has the article [7:13; 10:1; 11:39; 12:42; 13:15; 17:5, 6; 18:6; 19:8; 22:61]. Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] without the article means Jehovah [1:11; 2:9; 4:18; Acts 5:19; 8:26, 39; 12:7].”

  • The New American Commentary, by Robert H. Stein, 1992, (Vol. 24) says with regard to Luke 5:17: “The term ‘Lord’ here refers to God/YHWH as in 1:6, 9, 11, 15, 16.”

  • The French reference work Évangile Selon Saint Luc (The Gospel According to St. Luke), by M. J. Lagrange, 1921, says of Luke 5:17: “But when Luke does not use the article, Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is Iahvé.” It then lists similar occurrences at Luke 1:11; 2:9; 4:18; Acts 5:19; 8:26, 39; 12:7.

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 5:17: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7-12, 14-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38-44, 46, 47, 52, 55, 58, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93-96, 100-104, 106, 115-117, 125, 130

LUKE 20:37 “when he calls Jehovah”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context shows that Kyʹri·os is used with reference to God. The quote in this verse is taken from Exodus 3:6, where in the preceding verses, “Jehovah” is the one speaking. (Exodus 3:4, 5) In view of this Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name has been used in the main text. In connection with Luke 20:37, scholars have noted the absence of the Greek definite article before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. This is noteworthy because even though early copies of the Greek Septuagint contained the divine name, when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os, the definite article was in a similar way not included, where standard grammatical usage would normally call for it. Therefore, the unexpected absence of the definite article here is another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comments on Luke 1:6, 16.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Luke 20:37 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel, by R.C.H. Lenski, on page 999 says of this verse: “It was, however, the Lord (Yahweh) himself who used this covenant name concerning himself there at the bush.”

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Gospel of Luke, produced by the United Bible Societies (1971) and written by J. Reiling and J. L. Swellengrebel, makes this comment on Luke 20:37: “Kurios (cp. on 1:6) is without article as if a personal name.”

  • The Anchor Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1985, (Vol. 28-28A) says of this verse: “When he speaks of the Lord. I.e. Yahweh (see Exod 3:4).” It goes on to explain with regard to this verse: “The main point in the argument is that Yahweh identifies himself to Moses as the God of the patriarchs long after they have died.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Luke 20:37: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J9, 11-18, 21-24, 27, 28-44, 46-49, 52, 54, 55, 57-61, 65, 66, 86, 88, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 100-103, 105, 106, 112, 114-117, 121, 124, 125, 129, 130