To the Philippians 4:1-23

4  Consequently, my brothers whom I love and long for, my joy and crown,+ stand firm+ in this way in the Lord, my beloved ones.  I urge Eu·oʹdi·a and I urge Synʹty·che to be of the same mind in the Lord.+  Yes, I request you also, as a true fellow worker, to keep assisting these women who have striven side by side with me for the good news, along with Clement as well as the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.+  Always rejoice in the Lord. Again I will say, Rejoice!+  Let your reasonableness+ become known to all men. The Lord is near.  Do not be anxious over anything,+ but in everything by prayer and supplication along with thanksgiving, let your petitions be made known to God;+  and the peace+ of God that surpasses all understanding will guard your hearts+ and your mental powers by means of Christ Jesus.  Finally, brothers, whatever things* are true, whatever things are of serious concern, whatever things are righteous, whatever things are chaste,+ whatever things are lovable, whatever things are well-spoken-of, whatever things are virtuous, and whatever things are praiseworthy, continue considering these things.+  The things that you learned as well as accepted and heard and saw in connection with me, practice these,+ and the God of peace will be with you. 10  I rejoice greatly in the Lord that now at last you have renewed your concern for me.+ Though you were concerned about me, you lacked opportunity to show it. 11  Not that I am saying this because I am in need, for I have learned to be self-sufficient regardless of my circumstances.+ 12  I know how to be low on provisions+ and how to have an abundance. In everything and in all circumstances I have learned the secret of both how to be full and how to hunger, both how to have an abundance and how to do without. 13  For all things I have the strength through the one who gives me power.+ 14  Nevertheless, you did well to share with me in my tribulation. 15  In fact, you Phi·lipʹpi·ans also know that after you first learned the good news, when I departed from Mac·e·doʹni·a, not a congregation shared with me in the matter of giving and receiving, except you alone;+ 16  for while I was in Thes·sa·lo·niʹca, you sent something to me for my need not just once but twice. 17  Not that I am looking for a gift, but I want the fruitage that brings more credit to your account. 18  However, I have everything I need and even more. I am fully supplied, now that I have received from E·paph·ro·diʹtus+ what you sent, a sweet fragrance,+ an acceptable sacrifice, well-pleasing to God. 19  In turn my God will fully supply all your need+ according to his riches in glory by means of Christ Jesus. 20  Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever. Amen. 21  Give my greetings to every holy one in union with Christ Jesus. The brothers who are with me send you their greetings. 22  All the holy ones, but especially those of the household of Caesar,+ send you their greetings. 23  The undeserved kindness of the Lord Jesus Christ be with the spirit you show.

Footnotes

Lit., “as many (things) as.”

Study Notes

Always rejoice in the Lord: Paul again encourages the Philippians to “rejoice in the Lord.” (See study note on Php 3:1.) While the title “Lord” could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ in this context, Paul is apparently echoing admonitions that are found in the Hebrew Scriptures and that refer to Jehovah.​—Ps 32:11; 97:12.

the Lord: In this context, the title “Lord” (without the definite article before the Greek word for “Lord”) could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ. However, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew and other languages use the divine name here, which may favor the understanding that this refers to Jehovah.​—Compare study note on Php 4:4.

who have striven side by side: Or “who have struggled hard side by side.” Even though Euodia and Syntyche seem to have some disagreement that is evidently known in the Philippian congregation, Paul still commends them for having worked with him earlier in preaching and teaching the good news. He describes the help that these women gave by using a Greek verb that he used earlier at Php 1:27, where it likewise conveys the idea of striving together with, working hard side by side, cooperating earnestly with.

one: Or “at unity.” Jesus prayed that his true followers would be “one,” unitedly working together for the same purpose, just as he and his Father are “one,” demonstrating cooperation and unity of thought. (Joh 17:22) At 1Co 3:6-9, Paul describes this type of unity among Christian ministers as they work with one another and with God.​—See 1Co 3:8 and study notes on Joh 10:30; 17:11.

to be of the same mind in the Lord: Paul’s letter to the Philippians is full of commendation and encouragement, but in this passage, Paul provides corrective counsel. The two Christian women he mentions in this verse must have had some differences that were serious enough to threaten the peace and unity of the congregation and to reach the attention of the apostle, who was imprisoned in distant Rome. Paul’s counsel does not suggest that the two were immature. (See study note on Php 4:3.) Paul knew from his own experience that differences can arise even between mature Christians. (Ac 15:37-39) Rather than taking sides in whatever their differences were, Paul gently urges both women to strive for oneness of mind and unity, based on their mutual love for the Lord.​—See study note on Joh 17:21.

to be of the same mind in the Lord: Paul’s letter to the Philippians is full of commendation and encouragement, but in this passage, Paul provides corrective counsel. The two Christian women he mentions in this verse must have had some differences that were serious enough to threaten the peace and unity of the congregation and to reach the attention of the apostle, who was imprisoned in distant Rome. Paul’s counsel does not suggest that the two were immature. (See study note on Php 4:3.) Paul knew from his own experience that differences can arise even between mature Christians. (Ac 15:37-39) Rather than taking sides in whatever their differences were, Paul gently urges both women to strive for oneness of mind and unity, based on their mutual love for the Lord.​—See study note on Joh 17:21.

Not that we are the masters over your faith: Paul was confident that as faithful Christians, his brothers wanted to do what was right. It was their faith that made them steadfast, not Paul or any other human. The Greek verb rendered “are the masters over” (ky·ri·euʹo) can have the nuance of domineering others or being overbearing. In fact, Peter used a related term when he urged elders not to be “lording it over those who are God’s inheritance.” (1Pe 5:2, 3) Paul appreciated that any authority he had as an apostle did not give him license to exercise it in a domineering way. Furthermore, in stating we are fellow workers for your joy, Paul showed that he viewed himself and his companions, not as superiors, but as servants who were doing all they could to help the Corinthians worship Jehovah with rejoicing.

true fellow worker: The phrase renders a Greek expression that literally means “genuine yokefellow.” Paul here addresses an unnamed Christian man in the Philippian congregation, entrusting him to help Euodia and Syntyche to resolve their differences by being “of the same mind in the Lord.” (See study note on Php 4:2.) It is noteworthy that Paul, an apostle appointed by Jesus Christ, sees himself as a fellow worker of his Christian brothers and sisters, not their master. (Ac 9:15; Ro 11:13) Rather than lord it over the congregation, Paul applies Christ’s words: “All of you are brothers.”​—Mt 23:8; 1Pe 5:3; see study note on 2Co 1:24.

who have striven side by side: Or “who have struggled hard side by side.” Even though Euodia and Syntyche seem to have some disagreement that is evidently known in the Philippian congregation, Paul still commends them for having worked with him earlier in preaching and teaching the good news. He describes the help that these women gave by using a Greek verb that he used earlier at Php 1:27, where it likewise conveys the idea of striving together with, working hard side by side, cooperating earnestly with.

whose names are in the book of life: This figurative book of remembrance is a loving assurance that faithful individuals are in God’s perfect memory and that he will reward them with eternal life, whether in heaven or on earth. (Re 3:5; 20:15) The Hebrew Scripture background of this expression shows that faithful people are listed in the book of life conditionally; they must continue faithful and obedient in order to remain there and receive the promised reward. (Ex 32:32, 33; Ps 69:28, ftn.; Mal 3:16) Paul has just mentioned two hardworking anointed women in the Philippian congregation, Euodia and Syntyche, who were having some kind of dispute. Yet, Paul sees them as included among his fellow workers whose names are inscribed in this figurative book. He does not conclude that their minor imperfections and failures would cost them the promised reward, which is assured as long as they endure in faith to the end. (Compare 2Ti 2:11, 12.) The imagery of names written in a book may have reminded Christians in Philippi, a Roman colony, of the city’s public register, which was inscribed with the names of those enjoying citizenship.

continue rejoicing in the Lord: In his letter to the Philippians, Paul several times expresses his own joy and encourages his fellow believers to rejoice. (Php 1:18; 2:17, 18, 28, 29; 4:1, 4, 10) Paul’s emphasis on joy is striking, since he apparently wrote this letter while under house arrest. The expression “in the Lord” may convey such meanings as “in connection with [or “in union with”] the Lord” or “because of the Lord.” While the title “Lord” in this context could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, Paul may be echoing similar admonitions that are found in the Hebrew Scriptures and that refer to Jehovah.​—Ps 32:11; 97:12; see “Introduction to Philippians” and study note on Php 4:4.

Always rejoice in the Lord: Paul again encourages the Philippians to “rejoice in the Lord.” (See study note on Php 3:1.) While the title “Lord” could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ in this context, Paul is apparently echoing admonitions that are found in the Hebrew Scriptures and that refer to Jehovah.​—Ps 32:11; 97:12.

kindness of the Christ: Paul was not harsh when writing to the Christians in Corinth about some of their shortcomings. Instead, he appealed to them in a mild, kind, Christlike manner. The Greek word here translated “kindness” literally means “yieldingness,” and it could also be translated “reasonableness.” This quality is an outstanding characteristic of Christ Jesus. When here on earth, Jesus perfectly reflected his Father’s supreme example of reasonableness. (Joh 14:9) Similarly, although the Corinthians needed strong counsel, Paul tried to appeal to them kindly rather than simply issue commands.

reasonableness: The Greek word rendered “reasonableness” is broad in meaning, conveying the idea of being yielding, courteous, or tolerant. This quality involves, not insisting on carrying out the letter of the law or demanding one’s rights, but being willing to adapt to existing circumstances. A reasonable person strives to be considerate and gentle. This quality of a Christian should become known to all men, that is, also to those outside the Christian congregation. One Bible translation renders the first part of the verse: “Have a reputation for being reasonable.” While all Christians strive to be reasonable, it is specifically required of the overseers in the congregation.​—1Ti 3:3; Tit 3:2; Jas 3:17; see study note on 2Co 10:1.

The Lord is near: The title “Lord” could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ in this context. However, Paul may be echoing statements that are found in the Hebrew Scriptures and that refer to Jehovah, such as the words of Ps 145:18: “Jehovah is near to all those calling on him.” (See also Ps 34:18.) God draws close to all who draw close to him; he is near in that he hears the prayers of his servants and gives them protection. (Ac 17:27; Jas 4:8) Being aware of his closeness could help Christians to rejoice and to be reasonable, not to be overly anxious, as Php 4:6 points out. God is also near in the sense that he will soon replace this old world with a new one under his Kingdom. (1Jo 2:17) A few translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew and other languages use the divine name in this verse.

stop being anxious: Or “stop worrying.” The tense of the Greek verb me·ri·mnaʹo in this prohibition indicates to stop doing an action already in progress. The Greek term for “being anxious” can refer to worry that divides a person’s mind and distracts him, robbing him of joy. Luke uses the same Greek word at Lu 12:11, 25, 26. This verb is used by Paul at 1Co 7:32-34 and Php 4:6.​—See study note on Mt 6:25.

Stop being anxious: Or “Stop worrying.” The tense of the Greek verb in this prohibition indicates to stop doing an action already in progress. The Greek term for “anxious” can refer to worry that divides a person’s mind and distracts him, robbing him of joy. The same word occurs at Mt 6:27, 28, 31, 34.

stop being anxious: Or “stop worrying.” The tense of the Greek verb me·ri·mnaʹo in this prohibition indicates to stop doing an action already in progress. The Greek term for “being anxious” can refer to worry that divides a person’s mind and distracts him, robbing him of joy. Luke uses the same Greek word at Lu 12:11, 25, 26. This verb is used by Paul at 1Co 7:32-34 and Php 4:6.​—See study note on Mt 6:25.

the anxiety: The Greek word meʹri·mna, rendered “anxiety,” may also be rendered “anxious concern; worry.” The degree of Paul’s concern for his fellow Christians is evident in that he mentions it in the midst of all the dangers and adversities he listed in the preceding verses. (2Co 11:23-27) He kept in touch with a number of brothers, who made him aware of the spiritual welfare of Christians in various congregations. (2Co 7:6, 7; Col 4:7, 8; 2Ti 4:9-13) He was deeply concerned that all remain faithful to God to the end.​—See study note on 1Co 12:25, where the related verb me·ri·mnaʹo has a similar meaning.

whatever you ask in my name: Jesus here introduced a new feature to prayer. Never before had Jehovah required that people pray in someone’s name. For instance, even though Moses had been a mediator between the nation of Israel and God, Jehovah did not say that the Israelites should use Moses’ name when praying. However, on the last evening with his disciples before his death, Jesus revealed this new way to pray, mentioning the expression ‘ask in my name’ four times. (Joh 14:13, 14; 15:16; 16:23, 24) Since Jesus purchased the human race when he gave his perfect life as a ransom, he is the only channel through which God’s blessings are extended to mankind. (Ro 5:12, 18, 19; 1Co 6:20; Ga 3:13) That act made Jesus the only legal Mediator between God and man (1Ti 2:5, 6), the only one through whom a person can be freed from the curse of sin and death (Ac 4:12). Appropriately, then, Jesus is the only channel of approach to God. (Heb 4:14-16) Those who pray in Jesus’ name acknowledge the vital role he plays.

Do not: The Greek expression here rendered “Do not be anxious” could also be rendered “Stop being anxious” or “Stop worrying.”​—See study note on Lu 12:22.

Do not be anxious: The Greek verb for “be anxious” (me·ri·mnaʹo) can refer to worrying or being overly concerned in a way that divides a person’s mind and distracts him, robbing him of joy. Several times, Jesus gave a similar exhortation. (See study notes on Mt 6:25; Lu 12:22.) Paul himself had ample reason for being anxious; he wrote this letter during his first imprisonment in Rome. (Php 1:7, 13, 14) He could also have been worried about being low on provisions (Php 4:12) and about the welfare of fellow believers (2Co 11:28 and study note). Paul encourages fellow believers in any such circumstances to “let [their] petitions be made known to God.”​—See also Ps 55:2, 22; 1Pe 5:7.

in everything: Anything that affects a Christian’s relationship with God or his life as one of God’s servants can be a proper subject of prayer. As long as our prayers are in harmony with God’s will, they may embrace virtually every facet of life. A Christian may feel free to talk to Jehovah about his inmost feelings, needs, fears, and anxieties.​—Mt 6:9-13; Joh 14:13 (see study note), 14; 16:23, 24; 1Pe 5:7; 1Jo 5:14.

prayer and supplication along with thanksgiving: Paul uses “prayer” as the general term for worshipful communication with God. “Supplication” is more specific; it is a strong word that suggests pleading or entreaty, often accompanied by strong emotions and even tears. (Heb 5:7) One reference work defines it as “the cry of personal need.” By adding “along with thanksgiving,” Paul shows that it is always fitting to express appreciation to God. Even in times of dire need, there are reasons to be grateful; Paul knew as much from his own experiences. (Ac 16:22-25; Eph 5:19, 20) Paul also mentions petitions, using a word that means “requests”; here, it focuses on the things asked for in prayer. Paul has just explained that a Christian’s petitions may embrace a wide array of needs.​—See study note on in everything in this verse.

peace: The Greek word for “peace” has a broad meaning. In this context, “peace” involves tranquility of mind and heart that comes from cultivating a close relationship with Jehovah, “the God of peace.” (Php 4:9; 1Th 5:23; Heb 13:20; see study note on 1Co 14:33.) God’s holy spirit is often mentioned together with “peace.” (Ac 9:31; Ro 8:6; 15:13) With the help of his spirit, those who are at peace with God promote harmony, unity, and good relations with others.​—Mt 5:9; 2Co 13:11; Jas 3:18.

heart: When used in a figurative sense, this term generally refers to the total inner person. When mentioned together with “soul” and “mind,” however, it evidently takes on a more specific meaning and refers mainly to a person’s emotions, desires, and feelings. The three terms used here (heart, soul, and mind) are not mutually exclusive; they are used in an overlapping sense, emphasizing in the strongest possible way the need for complete and total love for God.

the peace of God: This refers to the calmness and tranquility of mind that result from a Christian’s precious relationship with Jehovah God. A Christian may enjoy this peace even in the face of turbulent and trialsome circumstances. “The peace of God” does not come through mere meditation or personal effort; rather, it is given by Jehovah God himself, “the God of peace.” (Php 4:9; Nu 6:26; Ps 4:8; 29:11; Ro 15:33; see study note on Ga 5:22.) Having “the peace of God” is dependent on having a close relationship with Jehovah and doing what is good in his eyes. (Pr 3:32) He gives his servants confidence that he knows their needs and situation and that he answers their prayers. Such assurance puts their heart and mind at rest.​—Ps 34:18; 94:14; 2Pe 2:9; see study note on will guard in this verse.

that surpasses all understanding: The peace of God cannot be attained through human reasoning or planning. In fact, greater “understanding” of a situation may lead to greater anxiety and hopelessness. (Ec 1:18) However, the peace of God “surpasses” anything that humans can imagine. A servant of Jehovah may not see a way out of his problems. While God may do the unexpected and rescue his servants from their trial (Mr 10:27; 2Pe 2:9), at times the only solution may be patient endurance (Jas 5:11). In such situations, Jehovah will always give peace to those who fully trust in him. (Isa 26:3) Those who do not know Jehovah cannot fully understand the tranquility and peace of mind that God’s people enjoy in the face of serious problems, physical harm, or even death.

will guard: The Greek verb for “guard” is a military expression. The literal idea could refer to a sentry or to a garrison of troops that was assigned to guard a fortified city. (2Co 11:32) Here and elsewhere in the Christian Greek Scriptures, it is used metaphorically. (Ga 3:23; 1Pe 1:5) Philippi was a military city. The inhabitants of Philippi slept peacefully, knowing that soldiers were guarding the gates of their city. In a similar manner, faithful Christians have “the peace of God” guarding their hearts and minds, so that they enjoy peace of mind and spiritual security. They know that Jehovah cares for them and wants them to succeed. (Ps 4:8; 145:18; 1Co 10:13; 1Pe 5:10) That knowledge guards them from becoming overwhelmed by anxiety or discouragement.​—See study note on the peace of God in this verse.

your hearts: When the term “heart” is used figuratively in the Bible, it often refers to the total inner person. However, when mentioned together with the mind, or “mental powers,” it apparently takes on a more specific meaning and refers mainly to a person’s emotions, desires, and motives.​—See study note on Mt 22:37.

your mental powers: Or “your minds; your thoughts.” The Greek word Paul here uses refers to a person’s intellect. It is rendered “minds” at 2Co 3:14; 4:4; 11:3 and “thought” at 2Co 10:5. By mentioning both “hearts and . . . mental powers,” Paul emphasizes that “the peace of God” guards a Christian’s entire inner person.

by means of Christ Jesus: Christians can receive the peace that God gives only if they have faith in Jesus and understand his role in fulfilling God’s purpose. This is because Jesus’ ransom sacrifice opens the way to forgiveness of sins, which makes possible a close personal relationship with Jehovah. This relationship is the basis for true peace of mind and heart. (Ac 3:19; Ga 1:3-5; 1Jo 2:12) Christians can also draw comfort from remembering that as King of God’s Kingdom, Jesus will undo any damage Satan and his system may inflict. (Isa 65:17; 1Jo 3:8; Re 21:3, 4) Additionally, Jesus promised to be with his disciples, actively supporting them even through the last days of this system. This contributes to their peace of mind.​—Mt 28:19, 20; Php 1:18, 19.

righteous: See Glossary, “Righteousness.”

chaste: Or “pure.” The Greek word used here means pure and holy not only in conduct (sexual or otherwise) but also in thought and motive.​—Ps 24:3, 4; Eph 5:3; 1Ti 4:12; 5:2; Jas 3:17; 1Pe 3:2.

continue considering: The Greek word that Paul here uses conveys the idea of “thinking about”; “meditating on”; “letting one’s mind dwell on.” This verb form denotes ongoing or continuous action. Other translations thus use such phrasing as “fill all your thoughts with” or “don’t ever stop thinking about” the upbuilding subjects that Paul lists. Such positive thinking leads to action, affecting the Christian’s course of life.​—Php 4:9.

Always rejoice in the Lord: Paul again encourages the Philippians to “rejoice in the Lord.” (See study note on Php 3:1.) While the title “Lord” could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ in this context, Paul is apparently echoing admonitions that are found in the Hebrew Scriptures and that refer to Jehovah.​—Ps 32:11; 97:12.

the Lord: In this context, the title “Lord” (without the definite article in Greek) could refer either to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ. A number of Bible translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew and English use the divine name here, which may favor the idea that “Lord” refers to Jehovah in this context.​—See study note on Php 4:4.

self-sufficient: The Greek words rendered “self-sufficient” (2Co 9:8; Php 4:11) or “contentment” (1Ti 6:6) convey the idea of being content and satisfied with what one has or of having enough and not being dependent on others. Paul learned by experience to adapt to whatever circumstance he encountered in his travels. He was happy and content in any assignment Jehovah gave him. (Php 4:12, 13) Paul imitated Jesus, who did not try to store up great material wealth or settle down permanently. (Mt 8:20) Paul followed Jesus’ example by concentrating on doing God’s will and trusting in Jehovah to take care of basic needs.​—Heb 13:5.

Macedonia: See Glossary.

in the matter of giving and receiving: The Greek expression rendered “giving and receiving” was commonly used in business dealings to convey the sense of “debits and credits.” Undoubtedly, Paul is referring to the financial help that the Philippian Christians had given him. They had supported him with material gifts in appreciation for his sharing spiritual blessings with them. (Compare 1Co 9:11.) From the beginning​—when Lydia showed outstanding hospitality to Paul and his companions​—the Philippians earned a reputation for generosity. (Ac 16:14, 15) At least four times, the congregation sent Paul funds to help him in his ministry. The most recent instance​—when funds were sent by means of Epaphroditus while Paul was confined in Rome​—was among the reasons Paul wrote this letter. (2Co 11:9; Php 4:14, 16, 18) In his letters, Paul praised various Christian congregations for their generosity, which encouraged all the disciples to develop a giving spirit.​—Ro 15:26; 2Co 8:1-6.

God: Some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew and other languages use the divine name here.

Amen: Or “So be it.” The Greek word a·menʹ is a transliteration of a Hebrew term derived from the root word ’a·manʹ, meaning “to be faithful, to be trustworthy.” (See Glossary.) “Amen” was said in agreement to an oath, a prayer, or a statement. Writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures often used it to express agreement with some form of praise to God, as Paul does here. (Ro 16:27; Eph 3:21; 1Pe 4:11) In other cases, it is used to emphasize the writer’s wish that God extend favor toward the recipients of the letter. (Ro 15:33; Heb 13:20, 21) It is also used to indicate that the writer earnestly agrees with what is expressed.​—Re 1:7; 22:20.

the household of Caesar: At this time (c. 61 C.E.), the Roman Caesar, or emperor, was Nero. (See Glossary, “Caesar.”) Caesar’s household does not necessarily refer to the emperor’s immediate family. It would have included a wide array of servants numbering perhaps into the thousands. Among them were slaves, freedmen, even those in various branches of government service in Rome and in the provinces, along with their wives and children. Jewish writer Philo of Alexandria used the same Greek expression in referring to this vast group of people. (Flaccus, 35) Paul does not state how he was connected with Christians in Caesar’s household while he was imprisoned in Rome; nor does he say whether he had played a role in their conversion. How the Philippian Christians were connected with those of Caesar’s household is also unknown. It is possible that some Christians in Philippi were relatives or friends of some Christians in the emperor’s service, or household. Some may have been among the faithful ones whom Paul sent greetings to at the end of his letter to the Romans.​—Ro 16:3-16.

with the spirit you show: Lit., “with your spirit.” The term “spirit” in this context refers to the impelling inner force or dominant mental inclination that causes a person to say or do things in a certain way. For example, the Scriptures speak of “the quiet and mild spirit” (1Pe 3:4) and “a spirit of mildness” (Ga 6:1). At 2Ti 1:7, Paul mentions a spirit “of power and of love and of soundness of mind” in contrast with “a spirit of cowardice.” He then concludes the letter to Timothy by saying: “The Lord be with the spirit you show.” (2Ti 4:22) Just as an individual can show a certain spirit, so can a group of people. Here in his concluding words to the Galatians, as well as in his letter to the Philippians, Paul uses the Greek plural pronoun (“you; your”) to express his desire that all in these congregations show a spirit that is in harmony with God’s will and the example set by Christ.​—Php 4:23.

with the spirit you show: See study note on Ga 6:18.

show: Some ancient manuscripts add “Amen” at the end, but the shorter reading has good manuscript support and is viewed by many scholars as the original reading.

Media

Paul Writes the Philippians a Letter of Love and Joy
Paul Writes the Philippians a Letter of Love and Joy

When Epaphroditus returned to Philippi from Rome, he brought a letter from the apostle Paul, who was then a prisoner in Rome. (Php 1:13; 2:25; 4:18) The letter, which was addressed to the Philippian Christians, breathed love and joy. (Php 1:4; 2:17, 18; 3:1; 4:1, 4) Paul did not have to present strong argument and reproof as he had done in some other letters. He did encourage Euodia and Syntyche to work together in peace. Even so, he describes these two faithful sisters as “women who have striven side by side with [him] for the good news,” and he encourages one of his fellow workers to “keep assisting these women.” (Php 4:3) Throughout the letter, Paul encourages the Philippian congregation to continue in their fine course.​—Php 3:16.