The Second to the Corinthians 1:1-24

1  Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through God’s will, and Timothy+ our brother, to the congregation of God that is in Corinth, including all the holy ones who are in all A·chaʹia:+  May you have undeserved kindness and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.  Praised be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,+ the Father of tender mercies+ and the God of all comfort,+  who comforts us in all our trials+ so that we may be able to comfort others+ in any sort of trial with the comfort that we receive from God.+  For just as the sufferings for the Christ abound in us,+ so the comfort we receive through the Christ also abounds.  Now if we face trials, it is for your comfort and salvation; and if we are being comforted, it is for your comfort, which acts to help you to endure the same sufferings that we also suffer.+  And our hope for you is unwavering, knowing as we do that just as you share in the sufferings, so you will also share in the comfort.+  For we do not want you to be unaware, brothers, of the tribulation we experienced in the province of Asia.+ We were under extreme pressure beyond our own strength, so that we were very uncertain even of our lives.+  In fact, we felt that we had received the sentence of death. This was so that we would trust, not in ourselves, but in the God+ who raises up the dead. 10  From such a great risk of death he did rescue us and will rescue us, and our hope is in him that he will also continue to rescue us.+ 11  You also can help us by your supplication for us,+ in order that many may give thanks in our behalf for the favor we receive in answer to the prayers of many.+ 12  For the thing we boast of is this, our conscience bears witness that we have conducted ourselves in the world, and especially toward you, with holiness and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom,+ but with God’s undeserved kindness. 13  For we are really not writing you about anything except what you can read and understand, and I hope you will continue to understand these things fully, 14  just as you have also understood to an extent that we are a cause for you to boast, just as you will also be for us in the day of our Lord Jesus.+ 15  So with this confidence, I was intending to come first to you,+ so that you might have a second occasion for joy; 16  for I intended to visit you on my way to Mac·e·doʹni·a, to return to you from Mac·e·doʹni·a, and then to have you send me off to Ju·deʹa.+ 17  Well, when I had such an intention, I did not view the matter lightly, did I? Or do I purpose things in a fleshly way, so that I am saying “Yes, yes” and then “No, no”? 18  But God can be relied on that what we say to you is not “yes” and yet “no.” 19  For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who was preached among you through us, that is, through me and Sil·vaʹnus and Timothy,+ did not become “yes” and yet “no,” but “yes” has become “yes” in his case. 20  For no matter how many the promises of God are, they have become “yes” by means of him.+ Therefore, also through him is the “Amen” said to God,+ which brings him glory through us. 21  But the one who guarantees that you and we belong to Christ and the one who anointed us is God.+ 22  He has also put his seal on us+ and has given us the token of what is to come, that is, the spirit,+ in our hearts. 23  Now I call on God as a witness against me that it is to spare you that I have not yet come to Corinth. 24  Not that we are the masters over your faith,+ but we are fellow workers for your joy, for it is by your faith that you are standing.

Footnotes

Study Notes

The First to the Corinthians: Titles like this were apparently not part of the original text. Ancient manuscripts show that they were added later, doubtless to make it easier to identify the letters. The papyrus codex known as P46 shows that scribes identified Bible books by titles. That codex is the earliest known collection of Paul’s letters, often dated to about the year 200 C.E. It contains nine of his letters. At the beginning of Paul’s first inspired letter to the Corinthians, this codex has a title that reads Pros Ko·rinʹthi·ous A (“Toward [or, “To”] Corinthians 1”). (See Media Gallery, “Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians.”) Other early manuscripts, such as Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus of the fourth century C.E., contain the same title. In these manuscripts, the title appears both at the beginning of the letter and at the end.

The Second to the Corinthians: Titles like this were apparently not part of the original text. Ancient manuscripts show that they were added later, doubtless to make it easier to identify the letters.​—See study note on 1Co, Title.

an apostle: The Greek noun a·poʹsto·los is derived from the verb a·po·stelʹlo, meaning “to send away (out).” (Mt 10:5; Lu 11:49; 14:32) Its basic meaning is clearly illustrated in Jesus’ statement at Joh 13:16, where it is rendered “one who is sent.” Paul was called to be an apostle to the nations, or non-Jews, by the direct choice of the resurrected Jesus Christ. (Ac 9:1-22; 22:6-21; 26:12-23) Paul affirmed his apostleship by pointing out that he had seen the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ (1Co 9:1, 2) and had performed miracles (2Co 12:12). Paul also served as a channel for imparting the holy spirit to baptized believers, providing further evidence that he was a true apostle. (Ac 19:5, 6) Though he frequently refers to his apostleship, nowhere does he include himself among “the Twelve.”​—1Co 15:5, 8-10; Ro 11:13; Ga 2:6-9; 2Ti 1:1, 11.

holy ones: The Christian Greek Scriptures frequently refer to spiritual brothers of Christ in the congregations as “holy ones.” (Ac 9:13; 26:10; Ro 12:13; 2Co 1:1; 13:13) This term applies to those who are brought into a relationship with God through the new covenant by “the blood of an everlasting covenant,” the shed blood of Jesus. (Heb 10:29; 13:20) They are thereby sanctified, cleansed, and constituted “holy ones” by God. He ascribes this condition of holiness to them right from the start of their sanctified course on earth rather than after their death. Therefore, the Bible provides no basis for an individual or an organization to declare people to be “holy ones”​—or “saints,” as some Bible translations render this expression. Peter says that they “must be holy” because God is holy. (1Pe 1:15, 16; Le 20:7, 26) The term “holy ones” applies to all those who are brought into union and joint heirship with Christ. More than five centuries before Christ’s followers were given this designation, God revealed that people called “the holy ones of the Supreme One” would share in Christ’s Kingdom rulership.​—Da 7:13, 14, 18, 27.

Achaia: In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Achaia refers to the Roman province of southern Greece with its capital at Corinth. In 27 B.C.E., when Caesar Augustus reorganized the two provinces of Greece, Macedonia and Achaia, the name Achaia applied to all of Peloponnese and to part of continental Greece. The province of Achaia was under the administration of the Roman Senate and was ruled through a proconsul from its capital, Corinth. (2Co 1:1) Other cities of the province of Achaia mentioned in the Christian Greek Scriptures were Athens and Cenchreae. (Ac 18:1, 18; Ro 16:1) Achaia and Macedonia, its neighboring province to the N, were often mentioned together.​—Ac 19:21; Ro 15:26; 1Th 1:7, 8; see App. B13.

Paul . . . and Timothy our brother: Or “From Paul . . . and Timothy our brother.” Paul is the writer of this letter to the Corinthians, but he includes Timothy in the opening greeting. Timothy was apparently with Paul in Macedonia when this letter was written about 55 C.E. (Ac 19:22) Paul calls Timothy “our brother,” referring to their spiritual relationship.

an apostle: See study note on Ro 1:1.

the holy ones: See study note on Ro 1:7.

Achaia: See study note on Ac 18:12.

Greetings!: The Greek word khaiʹro, which literally means “to rejoice,” is here used as a salutation and conveys the thought “may things be well with you.” The introduction to this letter concerning circumcision, which was sent to the congregations, follows the common ancient form of letter writing. First the writer was mentioned, then a person was addressed, and third the common greeting was given. (See study note on Ac 23:26.) Of all the letters included in the Christian Greek Scriptures, only the letter of James uses the Greek term khaiʹro as a salutation in the same way as this letter from the first-century governing body. (Jas 1:1) The disciple James was involved in formulating this letter, which supports the conclusion that the James who wrote the letter bearing his name is the same as the one who had a prominent part in the meeting recounted in Acts chapter 15.

Go in peace: This idiomatic expression is often used in both the Greek and the Hebrew Scriptures with the meaning “May it go well with you.” (Lu 7:50; 8:48; Jas 2:16; compare 1Sa 1:17; 20:42; 25:35; 29:7; 2Sa 15:9; 2Ki 5:19.) The Hebrew word often rendered “peace” (sha·lohmʹ) has a broad meaning. It refers to the state of being free from war or disturbance (Jg 4:17; 1Sa 7:14; Ec 3:8) and can also convey the idea of health, safety, soundness (1Sa 25:6, ftn.; 2Ch 15:5, ftn.; Job 5:24, ftn.), welfare (Es 10:3, ftn.), as well as friendship (Ps 41:9). In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the Greek word for “peace” (ei·reʹne) was used with the same broad connotations as the Hebrew word to express the ideas of well-being, salvation, and harmony, in addition to the absence of conflict.

May you have undeserved kindness and peace: Paul uses this greeting in 11 of his letters. (Ro 1:7; 1Co 1:3; Ga 1:3; Eph 1:2; Php 1:2; Col 1:2; 1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:2; Tit 1:4; Phm 3) He uses a very similar greeting in his letters to Timothy but adds the quality “mercy.” (1Ti 1:2; 2Ti 1:2) Scholars have noted that instead of using the common word for “Greetings!” (khaiʹrein), Paul often uses the similar sounding Greek term (khaʹris), expressing his desire for the congregations to enjoy a full measure of “undeserved kindness,” or “favor.” (See study note on Ac 15:23.) The mention of “peace” reflects the common Hebrew greeting sha·lohmʹ. (See study note on Mr 5:34.) By using the terms “undeserved kindness and peace,” Paul is apparently highlighting the restored relationship that Christians enjoy with Jehovah God by means of the atonement. When Paul describes where the generous kindness and peace come from, he mentions God our Father separately from the Lord Jesus Christ.

encouragement: Or “exhortation.” The Greek noun pa·raʹkle·sis, literally “a calling to one’s side,” often conveys the meaning “encouragement” (Ac 13:15; Php 2:1) or “comfort” (Ro 15:4; 2Co 1:3, 4; 2Th 2:16). As the alternative rendering indicates, this term and the related verb pa·ra·ka·leʹo, used in this verse, can also convey the idea of “exhortation,” and it is in some contexts rendered that way in the main text. (1Th 2:3; 1Ti 4:13; Heb 12:5) The fact that these Greek terms can convey all three meanings​—exhortation, comfort, and encouragement​—would indicate that a Christian should never exhort someone in a harsh or unkind way.

the Father of tender mercies: The Greek noun rendered “tender mercies” (oi·ktir·mosʹ) is here used to describe a feeling of compassion, or pity, for others. God is called the Father, or the Source, of tender mercies because compassion emanates from him and is part of his nature. Such tender feelings move him to act mercifully in behalf of his faithful servants who are suffering tribulation.

the God of all comfort: The Greek noun pa·raʹkle·sis, here rendered “comfort,” literally means “a calling to one’s side.” It conveys the idea of standing next to a person, helping or encouraging him when he is undergoing trials or feeling sad. (See study note on Ro 12:8.) Some have suggested that Paul’s emphasis on comfort from God echoes Isa 40:1, where the prophet writes: “‘Comfort, comfort my people,’ says your God.” (See also Isa 51:12.) Additionally, the related Greek term rendered “helper” (pa·raʹkle·tos) at Joh 14:26 refers to Jehovah’s holy spirit. God uses his powerful active force to give comfort and help in situations that from a human viewpoint seem hopeless.​—Ac 9:31; Eph 3:16.

the God of all comfort: The Greek noun pa·raʹkle·sis, here rendered “comfort,” literally means “a calling to one’s side.” It conveys the idea of standing next to a person, helping or encouraging him when he is undergoing trials or feeling sad. (See study note on Ro 12:8.) Some have suggested that Paul’s emphasis on comfort from God echoes Isa 40:1, where the prophet writes: “‘Comfort, comfort my people,’ says your God.” (See also Isa 51:12.) Additionally, the related Greek term rendered “helper” (pa·raʹkle·tos) at Joh 14:26 refers to Jehovah’s holy spirit. God uses his powerful active force to give comfort and help in situations that from a human viewpoint seem hopeless.​—Ac 9:31; Eph 3:16.

comforts: Or “encourages.”​—See study note on 2Co 1:3.

trials: Or “troubles; tribulation.” The Greek word used here basically means distress, affliction, or suffering resulting from the pressures of circumstances. It is often used with reference to the affliction associated with persecution. (Mt 24:9; Ac 11:19; 20:23; 2Co 1:8; Heb 10:33; Re 1:9) The tribulation might include imprisonment and death as a result of a course of integrity. (Re 2:10) However, other circumstances, such as famine (Ac 7:11), poverty, and adversities common to orphans and widows (Jas 1:27), even family life and marriage, may bring varying degrees of “tribulation.”​—1Co 7:28.

trials: Or “troubles; tribulation.” The Greek word used here basically means distress, affliction, or suffering resulting from the pressures of circumstances. It is often used with reference to the affliction associated with persecution. (Mt 24:9; Ac 11:19; 20:23; 2Co 1:8; Heb 10:33; Re 1:9) The tribulation might include imprisonment and death as a result of a course of integrity. (Re 2:10) However, other circumstances, such as famine (Ac 7:11), poverty, and adversities common to orphans and widows (Jas 1:27), even family life and marriage, may bring varying degrees of “tribulation.”​—1Co 7:28.

trials: Or “tribulation.”​—See study note on 2Co 1:4.

I have fought with wild beasts at Ephesus: The Romans often threw criminals to wild beasts in the arenas. While scholars have suggested that this punishment did not apply to Roman citizens like Paul, there is historical evidence that some Roman citizens were thrown to beasts or made to fight with them. What Paul wrote in 2 Corinthians could describe an encounter with literal wild beasts in an arena. (2Co 1:8-10) If Paul was thrown to literal beasts, then his rescue was likely by divine intervention. (Compare Da 6:22.) This experience may thus have been one of the several “near-deaths” that Paul experienced in his ministry. (2Co 11:23) Other scholars feel that Paul is here referring to wild beasts in a figurative sense, describing the opposition of beastlike opposers in Ephesus.​—Ac 19:23-41.

the tribulation we experienced in the province of Asia: The Bible does not specify the occasion that Paul had in mind here. It could have been the riot in Ephesus, described at Ac 19:23-41. Or it might have been his encounter “with wild beasts at Ephesus,” mentioned at 1Co 15:32. (See study note.) Either experience could have cost Paul his life.​—2Co. 1:9.

had made supplication: Or “had prayed earnestly (pleadingly).” The Greek verb deʹo·mai refers to the offering of earnest prayer coupled with intense feeling. The related noun deʹe·sis, rendered “supplication,” has been defined as “humble and earnest entreaty.” In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the noun is used exclusively in addressing God. Even Jesus “offered up supplications and also petitions, with strong outcries and tears, to the One who was able to save him out of death.” (Heb 5:7) The use of the plural “supplications” indicates that Jesus implored Jehovah more than once. For example, in the garden of Gethsemane, Jesus prayed repeatedly and fervently.​—Mt 26:36-44; Lu 22:32.

by your supplication for us: Or “by your earnest prayer for us.” The Greek noun deʹe·sis, rendered “supplication,” has been defined as “humble and earnest entreaty.” In the Christian Greek Scriptures, this noun is used exclusively to describe addressing God. The Bible regularly stresses the benefit of praying for fellow believers, whether the prayers are said by an individual or by a group. (Jas 5:14-20; compare Ge 20:7, 17; 2Th 3:1, 2; Heb 13:18, 19) Jehovah listens to and acts on sincere, heartfelt prayers that are in harmony with his will. (Ps 10:17; Isa 30:19; Joh 9:31; 1Jo 5:14, 15) A supplication may make a difference in what God does and when he does it.​—See study note on Ac 4:31.

in answer to the prayers of many: Or “because of many prayerful faces.” In this context, the literal Greek wording, “out of many faces,” may convey the idea of faces that are turned upward to God in prayer. Paul also suggests that when God responds to prayers offered in Paul’s behalf, many Christians will be moved to give thanks to God. Paul was more interested in the glorification of Jehovah than in his own advantage.

fleshly wisdom: That is, human wisdom of this world.​—Compare 1Co 3:19.

what you can read: Or possibly, “what you already well know.” The Greek word a·na·gi·noʹsko may be understood in its more literal sense, “to know well.” However, when used with regard to something written, it means “to recognize” and is most often rendered “read” or “read aloud.” It is used with reference to both private and public reading of the Scriptures.​—Mt 12:3; Lu 4:16; Ac 8:28; 13:27.

fully: Lit., “to the end.” In this context, this Greek idiom apparently means “fully; completely.” However, some understand the literal reading as referring to time, meaning that Paul hoped that they would go on understanding “to the end.”

I intended to visit you on my way to Macedonia: In 55 C.E. while Paul was in Ephesus during his third missionary tour, he intended to cross the Aegean Sea to Corinth and from there travel on to Macedonia. Then, on his way back to Jerusalem, he intended to visit the Corinthian congregation again, evidently to collect the gift for the brothers in Jerusalem, which he had previously written about. (1Co 16:3) While this had been Paul’s intention, he had valid reasons for changing his plan.​—See study note on 2Co 1:17.

so that you might have a second occasion for joy: Paul visited Corinth for the first time during his second missionary tour. The year was 50 C.E. He established the congregation there and stayed for a year and six months. (Ac 18:9-11) He intended to visit Corinth a second time while he was in Ephesus during his third missionary tour. However, his plan did not materialize. (1Co 16:5; 2Co 1:16, 23) The “second occasion for joy” may refer to the second visit Paul had been hoping to make. Or Paul may be referring to his hope of making a double visit, as he describes in the following verse.​—See study note on 2Co 1:16.

joy: In this verse, a number of Greek manuscripts use the word khaʹris, which means “undeserved kindness; favor; benefit,” instead of the Greek word for “joy” (kha·raʹ). Therefore, the latter part of the verse could possibly be rendered “so that you might benefit twice.” A number of English Bible translations convey this idea.

I did not view the matter lightly, did I?: Apparently, in a letter that was written before 1 Corinthians (see study note on 1Co 5:9), Paul informed the Christians in Corinth of his plan to visit them on his way to Macedonia. Later, in his first inspired letter to the Corinthians, he informed them that he had changed his itinerary and would not visit them until after his visit to Macedonia. (1Co 16:5, 6) Consequently, it seems that some, perhaps the “superfine apostles” in that congregation (2Co 11:5), accused him of not keeping his promises. In his defense, Paul said that he “did not view the matter lightly.” The Greek word translated “lightly” conveys the sense of fickleness. It describes a person who is unreliable and irresponsibly changes his mind. Paul, however, was not fickle and did not plan things in a fleshly way, that is, with selfish motives or according to imperfect human reasoning. He had delayed his visit for a valid reason. At 2Co 1:23, he said that it was “to spare” them that he changed his original plan. He wanted to give them time to apply his written counsel so that when he eventually arrived, his visit could be more encouraging.

I intended to visit you on my way to Macedonia: In 55 C.E. while Paul was in Ephesus during his third missionary tour, he intended to cross the Aegean Sea to Corinth and from there travel on to Macedonia. Then, on his way back to Jerusalem, he intended to visit the Corinthian congregation again, evidently to collect the gift for the brothers in Jerusalem, which he had previously written about. (1Co 16:3) While this had been Paul’s intention, he had valid reasons for changing his plan.​—See study note on 2Co 1:17.

In my letter I wrote you: Paul is clearly referring to an earlier letter that he wrote to the Corinthians, one that we do not possess today. God apparently chose not to preserve the earlier letter, possibly because it was essential only to those to whom it was addressed.​—See study note on 1Co 1:2.

I did not view the matter lightly, did I?: Apparently, in a letter that was written before 1 Corinthians (see study note on 1Co 5:9), Paul informed the Christians in Corinth of his plan to visit them on his way to Macedonia. Later, in his first inspired letter to the Corinthians, he informed them that he had changed his itinerary and would not visit them until after his visit to Macedonia. (1Co 16:5, 6) Consequently, it seems that some, perhaps the “superfine apostles” in that congregation (2Co 11:5), accused him of not keeping his promises. In his defense, Paul said that he “did not view the matter lightly.” The Greek word translated “lightly” conveys the sense of fickleness. It describes a person who is unreliable and irresponsibly changes his mind. Paul, however, was not fickle and did not plan things in a fleshly way, that is, with selfish motives or according to imperfect human reasoning. He had delayed his visit for a valid reason. At 2Co 1:23, he said that it was “to spare” them that he changed his original plan. He wanted to give them time to apply his written counsel so that when he eventually arrived, his visit could be more encouraging.

I did not view the matter lightly, did I?: Apparently, in a letter that was written before 1 Corinthians (see study note on 1Co 5:9), Paul informed the Christians in Corinth of his plan to visit them on his way to Macedonia. Later, in his first inspired letter to the Corinthians, he informed them that he had changed his itinerary and would not visit them until after his visit to Macedonia. (1Co 16:5, 6) Consequently, it seems that some, perhaps the “superfine apostles” in that congregation (2Co 11:5), accused him of not keeping his promises. In his defense, Paul said that he “did not view the matter lightly.” The Greek word translated “lightly” conveys the sense of fickleness. It describes a person who is unreliable and irresponsibly changes his mind. Paul, however, was not fickle and did not plan things in a fleshly way, that is, with selfish motives or according to imperfect human reasoning. He had delayed his visit for a valid reason. At 2Co 1:23, he said that it was “to spare” them that he changed his original plan. He wanted to give them time to apply his written counsel so that when he eventually arrived, his visit could be more encouraging.

“yes” and yet “no”: Or “yes and no in one breath.” Lit., “yes and no.”​—See study note on 2Co 1:17.

Silvanus: This coworker is also mentioned by Paul at 1Th 1:1 and 2Th 1:1 and by Peter at 1Pe 5:12. In the book of Acts, he is called Silas. Luke’s account shows that he was a leading member of the first-century Christian congregation in Jerusalem, a prophet, and a companion of Paul’s on his second missionary journey. Silvanus was apparently a Roman citizen, which may explain why his Roman name is used here.​—Ac 15:22, 27, 40; 16:19, 37; 17:14; 18:5.

say “Amen” to your giving of thanks: The Greek word a·menʹ is a transliteration of the Hebrew ʼa·menʹ, meaning “so be it,” or “surely.” A number of scriptures indicate that those listening to a public prayer said amen at the end. (1Ch 16:36; Ne 5:13; 8:6) Paul’s statement shows that those in Christian assembly apparently continued to follow this pattern and joined in the amen to a prayer. However, Paul did not say specifically whether their amen was audible or silent, in their hearts.​—See Glossary, “Amen,” and study note on Ro 1:25.

they have become “yes” by means of him: That is, God’s promises have become affirmed, fulfilled, realized in Jesus. It is by means of him​—by all that he taught and by what he did​—that all the promises recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures were fulfilled. Jesus’ flawless integrity while on earth cleared up all possible cause for doubt concerning Jehovah’s promises.

through him is the “Amen” said to God: The word rendered “Amen” is a transliteration of a Hebrew word that means “so be it,” or “surely.” At Re 3:14, Jesus refers to himself as “the Amen.” This is because when he was on earth, he fulfilled all that was prophesied about him. Also, as a result of his faithful course and sacrificial death, he is the personal guarantee, or the “Amen,” that all of God’s declarations will be brought to reality. This assurance adds meaning to the “Amen” said at the close of prayers to God through Christ.​—See study note on 1Co 14:16.

his seal: In Bible times, a seal was used as a signature to prove ownership, authenticity, or agreement. In the case of spirit-anointed Christians, God has figuratively sealed them by his holy spirit to indicate that they are his possession and that they are in line for heavenly life.​—Eph 1:13, 14.

the token of what is to come: Or “the down payment; the guarantee (pledge) of what is to come.” The three occurrences of the Greek word ar·ra·bonʹ in the Christian Greek Scriptures all deal with God’s anointing of Christians with the spirit, that is, God’s holy spirit, or active force. (2Co 5:5; Eph 1:13, 14) This special operation of holy spirit becomes like a down payment of what is to come. Spirit-anointed Christians are convinced of their hope because of this token that they receive. Their full payment, or reward, includes their putting on an incorruptible heavenly body. (2Co 5:1-5) It also includes receiving the gift of immortality.​—1Co 15:48-54.

me: Or “my soul.”​—See Glossary, “Soul.”

Not that we are the masters over your faith: Paul was confident that as faithful Christians, his brothers wanted to do what was right. It was their faith that made them steadfast, not Paul or any other human. The Greek verb rendered “are the masters over” (ky·ri·euʹo) can have the nuance of domineering others or being overbearing. In fact, Peter used a related term when he urged elders not to be “lording it over those who are God’s inheritance.” (1Pe 5:2, 3) Paul appreciated that any authority he had as an apostle did not give him license to exercise it in a domineering way. Furthermore, in stating we are fellow workers for your joy, Paul showed that he viewed himself and his companions, not as superiors, but as servants who were doing all they could to help the Corinthians worship Jehovah with rejoicing.

Media

Video Introduction to the Book of 2 Corinthians
Video Introduction to the Book of 2 Corinthians
Paul’s Second Letter to the Corinthians
Paul’s Second Letter to the Corinthians

Shown here is a page from a papyrus codex referred to as P46, believed to date from about the year 200 C.E. A total of 86 leaves of this codex have survived. They contain nine of Paul’s inspired letters in the following order: Romans, Hebrews, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, and 1 Thessalonians. Highlighted is the title, which reads “Toward [or, “To”] Corinthians 2.” This papyrus collection provides evidence that from an early date, scribes identified Bible books by titles.​—See Media Gallery, “Paul’s First Letter to the Corinthians.”