Acts of Apostles 2:1-47

2  Now while the day of the Festival of Pentecost+ was in progress, they were all together at the same place.  Suddenly there was a noise from heaven, just like that of a rushing, stiff breeze, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting.+  And tongues as if of fire became visible to them and were distributed, and one came to rest on each one of them,  and they all became filled with holy spirit+ and started to speak in different languages, just as the spirit enabled them to speak.+  At that time devout Jews from every nation under heaven were staying in Jerusalem.+  So when this sound occurred, a crowd gathered and was bewildered, because each one heard them speaking in his own language.  Indeed, they were utterly amazed and said: “See here, all these who are speaking are Gal·i·leʹans,+ are they not?  How is it, then, that each one of us is hearing his own native language?  Parʹthi·ans, Medes,+ and Eʹlam·ites,+ the inhabitants of Mes·o·po·taʹmi·a, Ju·deʹa and Cap·pa·doʹci·a, Ponʹtus and the province of Asia,+ 10  Phrygʹi·a and Pam·phylʹi·a, Egypt and the regions of Libʹy·a near Cy·reʹne, sojourners from Rome, both Jews and proselytes,+ 11  Creʹtans, and Arabians—we hear them speaking in our languages about the magnificent things of God.” 12  Yes, they were all astonished and perplexed, saying to one another: “What does this mean?” 13  However, others mocked them and said: “They are full of sweet wine.” 14  But Peter stood up with the Eleven+ and spoke to them in a loud voice: “Men of Ju·deʹa and all you inhabitants of Jerusalem, let this be known to you and listen carefully to my words. 15  These people are, in fact, not drunk, as you suppose, for it is the third hour of the day. 16  On the contrary, this is what was said through the prophet Joel: 17  ‘“And in the last days,” God says, “I will pour out some of my spirit on every sort of flesh, and your sons and your daughters will prophesy and your young men will see visions and your old men will dream dreams,+ 18  and even on my male slaves and on my female slaves I will pour out some of my spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.+ 19  And I will give wonders in heaven above and signs on earth below—blood and fire and clouds of smoke. 20  The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and illustrious day of Jehovah comes. 21  And everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved.”’+ 22  “Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus the Naz·a·reneʹ was a man publicly shown to you by God through powerful works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst,+ just as you yourselves know. 23  This man, who was handed over by the determined will and foreknowledge of God,+ you fastened to a stake by the hand of lawless men, and you did away with him.+ 24  But God resurrected him+ by releasing him from the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held fast by it.+ 25  For David says about him: ‘I keep Jehovah constantly in front of me,* for he is at my right hand that I may never be shaken. 26  On this account my heart became cheerful and my tongue rejoiced greatly. And I will reside in hope; 27  because you will not leave me in the Grave, nor will you allow your loyal one to see corruption.+ 28  You have made life’s ways known to me; you will fill me with great joy in your presence.’+ 29  “Men, brothers, it is permissible to speak with freeness of speech to you about the family head David, that he died and was buried,+ and his tomb is with us to this day. 30  Because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath that he would seat one of his offspring on his throne,+ 31  he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was he forsaken in the Grave nor did his flesh see corruption.+ 32  God resurrected this Jesus, and of this we are all witnesses.+ 33  Therefore, because he was exalted to* the right hand of God+ and received the promised holy spirit from the Father,+ he has poured out what you see and hear. 34  For David did not ascend to the heavens, but he himself says, ‘Jehovah said to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand 35  until I place your enemies as a stool for your feet.”’+ 36  Therefore, let all the house of Israel know for a certainty that God made him both Lord+ and Christ, this Jesus whom you executed on a stake.”+ 37  Now when they heard this, they were stabbed to the heart, and they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles: “Men, brothers, what should we do?” 38  Peter said to them: “Repent,+ and let each one of you be baptized+ in the name of Jesus Christ for forgiveness of your sins,+ and you will receive the free gift of the holy spirit. 39  For the promise+ is to you and your children, and to all those who are far away, to all those whom Jehovah our God may call to himself.”+ 40  And with many other words he gave a thorough witness and kept exhorting them, saying: “Get saved from this crooked generation.”+ 41  So those who gladly accepted his word were baptized,+ and on that day about 3,000 people were added.+ 42  And they continued devoting themselves to the teaching of the apostles, to associating together, to the taking of meals,+ and to prayers.+ 43  Indeed, fear began to fall upon everyone, and many wonders and signs began to occur through the apostles.+ 44  All those who became believers were together and had everything in common, 45  and they were selling their possessions+ and properties and distributing the proceeds to all, according to what each one needed.+ 46  And day after day they were in constant attendance in the temple with a united purpose, and they took their meals in different homes and shared their food with great rejoicing and sincerity of heart, 47  praising God and finding favor with all the people. At the same time Jehovah continued to add to them daily those being saved.+

Footnotes

Or “before my eyes.”
Or possibly, “by.”

Study Notes

Pentecost: The Greek word pen·te·ko·steʹ (meaning “50th [Day]”) is used in the Christian Greek Scriptures to denote what is called “the Festival of Harvest” (Ex 23:16) and the “Festival of Weeks” (Ex 34:22) in the Hebrew Scriptures. This festival took place at the end of a seven-week harvest period that included first the barley harvest and then the wheat harvest. The Festival of Pentecost was celebrated on the 50th day counted from Nisan 16, the day when a sheaf of the firstfruits of the barley harvest was offered. (Le 23:15, 16) On the Hebrew calendar, Pentecost falls on Sivan 6. (See App. B15.) Instructions for this festival are found at Le 23:15-21; Nu 28:26-31; and De 16:9-12. The Festival of Pentecost drew great multitudes of Jews and proselytes from distant lands to Jerusalem. The festival was intended to promote hospitality and kindness to people, regardless of their position or background​—whether they were free, slaves, poor, fatherless, widows, Levites, or foreign residents. (De 16:10, 11) This made Pentecost 33 C.E. in Jerusalem an ideal occasion for the birth of the Christian congregation with its mission to bear witness to all people “about the magnificent things of God.” (Ac 1:8; 2:11) The Jews traditionally hold that Pentecost corresponded to the time of the giving of the Law at Mount Sinai when Israel was set apart as God’s chosen nation. It was early in the third month (Sivan) that the Israelites gathered at Mount Sinai and received the Law. (Ex 19:1) Just as Moses as mediator was used to introduce Israel to the Law covenant, so Jesus Christ as Mediator of spiritual Israel now brought that new nation into the new covenant.

languages: Or “tongues.” In the Bible, the Greek word glosʹsa can refer to the “tongue” as an organ of speech. (Mr 7:33; Lu 1:64; 16:24) But it can also be used figuratively to refer to a language or to a people speaking a certain language. (Re 5:9; 7:9; 13:7; ftns.) This Greek word is found at Ac 2:3, describing “tongues as if of fire” that became visible. So the outpouring of holy spirit was made evident by these “tongues” resting on each one of the disciples and by their speaking in different tongues, or languages.

languages: Or “tongues.” In the Bible, the Greek word glosʹsa can refer to the “tongue” as an organ of speech. (Mr 7:33; Lu 1:64; 16:24) But it can also be used figuratively to refer to a language or to a people speaking a certain language. (Re 5:9; 7:9; 13:7; ftns.) This Greek word is found at Ac 2:3, describing “tongues as if of fire” that became visible. So the outpouring of holy spirit was made evident by these “tongues” resting on each one of the disciples and by their speaking in different tongues, or languages.

his own native language: Lit., “our own language in which we were born.” The Greek word here rendered “language” is di·aʹle·ktos. (See study note on Ac 2:4.) Many who heard the disciples may have spoken an international tongue, perhaps Greek. Being “devout Jews,” they may also have been able to understand the Hebrew services at the temple in Jerusalem. (Ac 2:5) But hearing the good news in the language they had known from childhood caught their attention.

province of Asia: See Glossary, “Asia.”

proselyte: Or “convert.” The Greek word pro·seʹly·tos denotes a Gentile who has converted to Judaism, which included circumcision for male proselytes.

proselytes: See study note on Mt 23:15.

sweet wine: Or “new wine.” The Greek word gleuʹkos, which occurs only here in the Christian Greek Scriptures, refers to sweet new wine that is in the process of fermentation.

the third hour of the day: That is, about 9:00 a.m. In the first century C.E., the Jews used the count of 12 hours to the day, starting with sunrise at about 6:00 a.m. (Joh 11:9) Therefore, the third hour would be about 9:00 a.m., the sixth hour about noon, and the ninth hour about 3:00 p.m. Since people did not have precise timepieces, only the approximate time of an event was usually given.​—Joh 1:39; 4:6; 19:14; Ac 10:3, 9.

all flesh: Or “all mankind; all people.” This expression is also found at Lu 3:6, which is a quote from Isa 40:5, where a Hebrew term with the same meaning is used.​—Compare study note on Joh 1:14.

all sorts of men: Or “people of all sorts.” Jesus declares that he will draw people of all backgrounds to himself, regardless of nationality, race, or economic status. (Ac 10:34, 35; Re 7:9, 10; see study note on Joh 6:44.) It is worth noting that on this occasion, “some Greeks” worshipping at the temple wanted to see Jesus. (See study note on Joh 12:20.) Many translations render the Greek word pas (“everyone; all [people]”) in a way that indicates that every human will ultimately be drawn to Jesus. This idea, however, would not agree with the rest of the inspired Scriptures. (Ps 145:20; Mt 7:13; Lu 2:34; 2Th 1:9) While the Greek word literally means “all; everyone” (Ro 5:12), Mt 5:11 and Ac 10:12 clearly show that it can mean “every sort” or “all sorts”; in these verses many translations use renderings such as “every sort of; all kinds of.”​—Joh 1:7; 1Ti 2:4.

Prophesy . . . Who struck you?: Here “prophesy” does not mean to make a prediction but to identify by divine revelation who had hit him. The parallel accounts at Mr 14:65 and Lu 22:64 show that Jesus’ persecutors had covered his face, evidently explaining their taunt to identify who had hit him.

Prophesy!: Here “prophesy” does not imply making a prediction but, rather, identifying by divine revelation. The context shows that Jesus’ persecutors had covered his face, and the parallel account at Mt 26:68 reveals that the taunt they addressed to him was, in full: “Prophesy to us, you Christ. Who struck you?” They were thus challenging the blindfolded Jesus to identify who was hitting him.​—See study notes on Mt 26:68; Lu 22:64.

Prophesy!: Here “prophesy” does not imply making a prediction but, rather, identifying by divine revelation. The context shows that Jesus’ persecutors had covered his face. They were thus challenging the blindfolded Jesus to identify who had hit him.​—See study note on Mt 26:68.

elders: Lit., “older men.” In the Bible, the Greek term pre·sbyʹte·ros refers primarily to those who hold a position of authority and responsibility in a community or a nation. Although the term sometimes refers to physical age (as at Lu 15:25; Ac 2:17), it is not limited to those who are elderly. Here it refers to the leaders of the Jewish nation who are often mentioned together with chief priests and scribes. The Sanhedrin was made up of men from these three groups.​—Mt 21:23; 26:3, 47, 57; 27:1, 41; 28:12; see Glossary, “Elder; Older man.”

in the last days: In this quote from Joel’s prophecy, Peter under inspiration uses the phrase “in the last days” rather than the expression “after that,” which is used in the original Hebrew and in the Septuagint. (Joe 2:28 [3:1, LXX]) Joel’s prophecy was fulfilled when holy spirit was poured out at Pentecost. Therefore, Peter’s use of the term “the last days” indicates that this special time period had begun and that it would precede “the great and illustrious day of Jehovah.” This “day of Jehovah” would apparently bring “the last days” to their conclusion. (Ac 2:20) Peter was speaking to natural Jews and Jewish proselytes, so his inspired words must have had an initial fulfillment involving them. His statement apparently indicated that the Jews were living in “the last days” of the system of things that had its center of worship in Jerusalem. Earlier, Jesus himself foretold the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple. (Lu 19:41-44; 21:5, 6) That destruction took place in 70 C.E.

my spirit: The Greek word pneuʹma here refers to God’s holy spirit, or active force. At Joe 2:28, quoted here, the corresponding Hebrew word ruʹach is used. Both the Hebrew and the Greek words convey the basic idea of that which is invisible to human sight and gives evidence of force in motion.​—See Glossary, “Spirit.”

every sort of flesh: Or “all sorts (kinds) of people.” Lit., “all flesh.” The Greek word sarx (often rendered “flesh”) is here used of living humans, so “all flesh” would generally refer to all mankind. (See study note on Joh 17:2.) But in this context, the Greek phrase “all flesh” has a more restricted use. God did not pour out his spirit on all humans on earth or even on all humans in Israel, so it does not refer to all humans without exception. Rather, the phrase here refers to all sorts of humans without distinction. God poured out holy spirit on ‘sons and daughters, young men and old men, male slaves and female slaves,’ that is, all sorts of people. (Ac 2:17, 18) A similar use of the Greek word for “all” (pas) is found at 1Ti 2:3, 4, according to which it is God’s will that “all sorts of people should be saved.”​—See study note on Joh 12:32.

prophesy: The Greek term pro·phe·teuʹo literally means “to speak out.” In the Scriptures, it is used of making known messages from a divine source. While it often includes the thought of foretelling the future, the basic meaning of the word is not that of prediction. The Greek word can also refer to identifying a matter by divine revelation. (See study notes on Mt 26:68; Mr 14:65; Lu 22:64.) In this context, holy spirit impelled some to prophesy. By declaring “the magnificent things” that Jehovah had done and would still do, they would serve as spokesmen for the Most High. (Ac 2:11) The Hebrew word for “to prophesy” carries a similar idea. For example, at Ex 7:1, Aaron is referred to as Moses’ “prophet” in the sense that he became Moses’ spokesman, or mouthpiece, rather than in the sense of foretelling future events.

old men: Or “older men; elders.” Here the Greek term pre·sbyʹte·ros likely refers to men of advanced physical age in contrast with the “young men” mentioned earlier in the verse. In other contexts, the same term is used to refer to men holding a position of authority and responsibility in a community or a nation.​—Ac 4:5; 11:30; 14:23; 15:2; 20:17; see study note on Mt 16:21.

wonders: Or “portents.” In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the Greek word teʹras is consistently used in combination with se·meiʹon (“sign”), both terms being used in the plural form. (Mt 24:24; Joh 4:48; Ac 7:36; 14:3; 15:12; 2Co 12:12) Basically, teʹras refers to anything that causes awe or wonderment. When the term clearly refers to something portending what will happen in the future, the alternate rendering “portent” is used in a study note.

Jehovah: In this quote from Joe 2:31, the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text.​—See App. C.

Jehovah: In this quote from Joe 2:32, the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text.​—See App. C.

the Nazarene: A descriptive epithet applied to Jesus and later to his followers. (Ac 24:5) Since many Jews had the name Jesus, it was common to add a further identification; the practice of associating people with the places from which they came was customary in Bible times. (2Sa 3:2, 3; 17:27; 23:25-39; Na 1:1; Ac 13:1; 21:29) Jesus lived most of his early life in the town of Nazareth in Galilee, so it was natural to use this term regarding him. Jesus was often referred to as “the Nazarene,” in different situations and by various individuals. (Mr 1:23, 24; 10:46, 47; 14:66-69; 16:5, 6; Lu 24:13-19; Joh 18:1-7) Jesus himself accepted the name and used it. (Joh 18:5-8; Ac 22:6-8) On the sign that Pilate placed on the torture stake, he wrote in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek: “Jesus the Nazarene the King of the Jews.” (Joh 19:19, 20) From Pentecost 33 C.E. onward, the apostles as well as others often spoke of Jesus as the Nazarene or as being from Nazareth.​—Ac 2:22; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 10:38; 26:9; see also study note on Mt 2:23.

wonders: Or “portents.” In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the Greek word teʹras is consistently used in combination with se·meiʹon (“sign”), both terms being used in the plural form. (Mt 24:24; Joh 4:48; Ac 7:36; 14:3; 15:12; 2Co 12:12) Basically, teʹras refers to anything that causes awe or wonderment. When the term clearly refers to something portending what will happen in the future, the alternate rendering “portent” is used in a study note.

the Nazarene: See study note on Mr 10:47.

wonders: Or “portents.” The miracles that God caused Jesus to perform served as credentials that he was sent by God. These miraculous cures and resurrections also showed, or portended, what Jesus would do on a greater scale in the future.​—See study note on Ac 2:19.

all the counsel of God: Or “the whole purpose (will) of God.” Here referring to all that God has purposed to do by means of his Kingdom, including everything that he has decided is essential for salvation. (Ac 20:25) The Greek word bou·leʹ is rendered “counsel [or, “direction; guidance,” ftn.]” at Lu 7:30 and “purpose” at Heb 6:17.

will: Or “counsel.” The Greek word bou·leʹ is rendered “counsel [or, “direction; guidance,” ftn.]” at Lu 7:30 and “purpose” at Heb 6:17.​—See study note on Ac 20:27.

the pangs of death: Although the Bible clearly states that there is no consciousness or feeling of pain in death (Ps 146:4; Ec 9:5, 10), here “death” is said to cause “pangs” or “pain.” This wording was likely used because death is presented as a bitter and distressing experience. (1Sa 15:32, ftn.; Ps 55:4; Ec 7:26) That is so not only in the pain usually preceding it (Ps 73:4, 5) but also in the loss of all activity and freedom that its paralyzing grip brings (Ps 6:5; 88:10). It is apparently in this sense that Jesus’ resurrection released him from “the pangs of death,” freeing him from its distressing and restraining grip. While the Greek word (o·dinʹ), here translated “pangs,” is elsewhere used to mean the pains of childbirth (1Th 5:3), it may also refer to pain, calamity, or distress in a general sense (Mt 24:8). The expression “pangs of death” is found in the Septuagint at 2Sa 22:6 and Ps 18:4 (17:5, LXX), where the Hebrew Masoretic text reads “ropes of the Grave” and “ropes of death.” Interestingly, in ancient Hebrew manuscripts, which were written without vowels, the term for “rope” (cheʹvel) has the same consonantal spelling as the Hebrew term for “pang.” This may explain the rendering found in the Septuagint. In either case, the expressions “pangs of death” and “ropes of death” convey the same overall idea, namely, the bitter and distressing experience of death.

Jehovah: In this quote from Ps 16:8, the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text.​—See App. C.

I: Lit., “my flesh.” Peter introduces this quote from Ps 16 by saying: “David says about him,” that is, about the Messiah, Jesus. (Ac 2:25) In this verse (Ac 2:26) and at Ps 16:9, the Greek and Hebrew texts use the term “flesh,” which may denote a person’s body or the person himself. Even though Jesus knew that he would be put to death as the ransom sacrifice, he resided in hope. Jesus knew that his Father would resurrect him, that his sacrifice would successfully serve as a ransom for mankind, and that his flesh, or body, would not see corruption, or decay.​—Ac 2:27, 31.

me: Or “my soul.” In this quote from Ps 16:10, the Greek word psy·kheʹ is used to render the Hebrew word neʹphesh, both traditionally rendered “soul.” The psalmist used “soul” to refer to himself. On the day of Pentecost when declaring Christ’s resurrection to the Jews, Peter applied this psalm of David to Jesus.​—Ac 2:24, 25; see Glossary, “Soul,” and App. A2.

the Grave: Or “Hades.” The Greek term haiʹdes, perhaps meaning “the unseen place,” occurs ten times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (See Mt 11:23; 16:18; Lu 10:15; 16:23; Ac 2:27, 31; Re 1:18; 6:8; 20:13, 14) This verse quotes Ps 16:10, which uses the corresponding Hebrew term “Sheol,” also rendered “the Grave.” The Septuagint generally uses the Greek “Hades” as the equivalent of the Hebrew “Sheol.” In the Scriptures, both terms refer to the common grave of mankind; other original-language terms denote an individual grave. Some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew (referred to as J7, 8, 11, 12, 14-18, 22 in App. C4) use the term “Sheol” here.​—See App. A2.

in your presence: Lit., “with (before) your face.” In this quote from Ps 16:11, the Greek text renders the Hebrew text literally. The Hebrew expression “with one’s face” is an idiom meaning “in someone’s presence.”

God: Available Greek manuscripts here use the word The·osʹ, “God.” It is worth noting that some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew (referred to as J7, 8, 10 in App. C4) here use the Tetragrammaton.

one of his offspring: David received the promise that one of his descendants would become the Messianic “offspring” promised at Ge 3:15. (2Sa 7:12, 13; Ps 89:3, 4; 132:11) This promise was fulfilled in Jesus in that both his mother and his adoptive father descended from King David. The Greek phrase rendered “offspring” reflects a Hebrew idiom that literally reads “fruitage of his loins.” In the human body, the loins contain the reproductive organs. (Ge 35:11, ftn.; 1Ki 8:19, ftn.) A person’s offspring is also referred to as “the fruit of the womb [or, “body”],” and there are other similar expressions in which “fruit” refers to the product of human reproduction.​—Ge 30:2, ftn.; De 7:13, ftn.; Ps 127:3; La 2:20, ftn.; Lu 1:42.

the Grave: Or “Hades.” The Greek term haiʹdes, perhaps meaning “the unseen place,” occurs ten times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (See Mt 11:23; 16:18; Lu 10:15; 16:23; Ac 2:27, 31; Re 1:18; 6:8; 20:13, 14) This verse quotes Ps 16:10, which uses the corresponding Hebrew term “Sheol,” also rendered “the Grave.” The Septuagint generally uses the Greek “Hades” as the equivalent of the Hebrew “Sheol.” In the Scriptures, both terms refer to the common grave of mankind; other original-language terms denote an individual grave. Some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew (referred to as J7, 8, 11, 12, 14-18, 22 in App. C4) use the term “Sheol” here.​—See App. A2.

the Grave: Or “Hades,” that is, the common grave of mankind.​—See study note on Ac 2:27 and Glossary, “Grave.”

nor did his flesh see corruption: Or “nor did his body experience decay.” Jehovah did not allow the physical body of Jesus to decay into dust as did the bodies of Moses and David, men who foreshadowed Christ. (De 34:5, 6; Ac 2:27; 13:35, 36) In order for Jesus to be “the last Adam” (1Co 15:45) and to be “a corresponding ransom” for all mankind (1Ti 2:5, 6; Mt 20:28), his fleshly body had to be a real human body. It had to be perfect, for it was to be presented to Jehovah God as the purchase price to buy back what Adam had lost. (Heb 9:14; 1Pe 1:18, 19) No imperfect descendant of Adam could provide the needed ransom price. (Ps 49:7-9) For this reason, Jesus was not conceived in the normal manner. Instead, as he said to his Father, apparently when presenting himself for baptism: “You [Jehovah] prepared a body for me,” that is, Jesus’ perfect human body that would be given in sacrifice. (Heb 10:5) When the disciples went to Jesus’ tomb, they discovered that Jesus’ body had disappeared, but they found the linen cloths with which his body had been wrapped. Jehovah apparently disposed of the fleshly body of his beloved Son before it began to decay.​—Lu 24:3-6; Joh 20:2-9.

Jehovah: The divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text at Ps 110:1, quoted here. However, as explained in App. A5, most Bible translations do not use God’s name in what is commonly called the New Testament, not even in quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures. It is worth noting, though, that some 17th-century editions of the King James Version have the rendering “the LORD” in capital and small capitals here and at three other places where Ps 110:1 is quoted in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Mt 22:44; Mr 12:36; Lu 20:42) Later editions continued this practice. Since “the LORD” is used in the Hebrew Scriptures of that translation to indicate where the original Hebrew text uses the divine name, writing “the LORD” in the Christian Greek Scriptures would indicate that the translators thought that it is Jehovah who is being referred to. It is also noteworthy that the New King James Version, first published in 1979, extends this use of “the LORD” to all occurrences of that word when it refers to the divine name in quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures.​—See App. C.

executed on a stake: Or “to be fastened on a stake (pole).” This is the first of over 40 occurrences of the Greek verb stau·roʹo in the Christian Greek Scriptures. This is the verb for the Greek noun stau·rosʹ, rendered “torture stake.” (See study notes on Mt 10:38; 16:24; 27:32 and Glossary, “Stake”; “Torture stake.”) The verb form is used in the Septuagint at Es 7:9, where the order was given to hang Haman on a stake that was over 20 m (65 ft) tall. In classical Greek, it meant “to fence with pales, to form a stockade, or palisade.”

executed on a stake: Or “fastened on a stake (pole).”​—See study note on Mt 20:19 and Glossary, “Stake”; “Torture stake.”

baptism in symbol of repentance: Lit., “baptism of repentance.” Baptism did not wash away sins. Rather, those baptized by John publicly repented over sins against the Law, showing their determination to change their behavior. This repentant attitude helped lead them to the Christ. (Ga 3:24) John was thereby preparing a people to see “the salvation” that God had provided.​—Lu 3:3-6; see study notes on Mt 3:2, 8, 11 and Glossary, “Baptism; Baptize”; “Repentance.”

fruit that befits repentance: Refers to evidence and actions that would indicate a change of mind or attitude on the part of those listening to John.​—Lu 3:8; Ac 26:20; see study notes on Mt 3:2, 11 and Glossary, “Repentance.”

repentance: Lit., “change of mind.”​—See study notes on Mt 3:2, 8 and Glossary.

Repent: The Greek word me·ta·no·eʹo used here could literally be rendered “to change one’s mind,” signifying a change in thinking, attitude, or purpose. Previously, John the Baptist had been “preaching baptism in symbol of repentance for forgiveness of sins.” (See study note on Mr 1:4.) This baptism involved repentance for straying far from obedience to the precepts of the Law of Moses, and this repentance prepared God’s people for what was to come. (Mr 1:2-4) But Peter here pointed out that in harmony with Jesus’ command found at Mt 28:19, God’s people would need to repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for forgiveness of . . . sins. Since the Jews had rejected Jesus as the Messiah, repenting and exercising faith in him was a new and vital factor in seeking and receiving God’s forgiveness. They could give public evidence of such faith by being immersed in water in the name of Jesus Christ. In that way, they would symbolize their personal dedication to God through Christ.​—See study notes on Mt 3:8, 11 and Glossary, “Repentance.”

Jehovah: Available Greek manuscripts use the term “Lord” (Greek, Kyʹri·os) here. However, as explained in App. C, there are a number of reasons to believe that the divine name was originally used in this verse and later replaced by the title Lord. Therefore, the name Jehovah is used in the main text. As shown by Ac 2:33-38, the promise Peter mentions in this verse refers to what is stated at Joe 2:28-32 about the outpouring of holy spirit. The phrase to all those whom Jehovah our God may call to himself therefore seems to echo the words found at the end of Joe 2:32. The Hebrew text of Joe 2:32 uses the divine name three times, specifically stating that Jehovah is the one who does the calling.​—See App. C3 introduction; Ac 2:39.

people: Or “souls.” The Greek word psy·kheʹ, traditionally rendered “soul,” here refers to a living person.​—See Glossary, “Soul.”

to have a meal: Lit., “to break bread.” Bread was the staple of the diet in the ancient Middle East; hence, this expression came to denote any kind of meal. Bread was generally formed into flat loaves that were baked hard, so the bread was often broken rather than cut with a knife. Therefore, breaking the loaves to eat them was customary and something that Jesus often did. (See study note on Mt 14:19; see also Mt 15:36; Lu 24:30.) When Jesus instituted the Lord’s Evening Meal, he took a loaf and broke it. Since this was the normal way to divide a loaf, there is no spiritual significance to Jesus’ breaking the bread. (See study note on Mt 26:26.) Some claim that when this expression occurs in certain places in the book of Acts, it refers to the observance of the Lord’s Evening Meal. (Ac 2:42, 46; 20:7, 11) Every time the Lord’s Evening Meal is mentioned, though, breaking bread is associated with drinking wine from a cup. (Mt 26:26-28; Mr 14:22-25; Lu 22:19, 20; 1Co 10:16-21; 11:23-26) The two actions are equally significant. So when breaking bread is mentioned without any reference to drinking from a cup, this is a reference, not to the Lord’s Evening Meal, but to an ordinary meal. Moreover, there is nothing to indicate that Jesus intended the Memorial of his death to be observed more often than the festival it replaced, the Passover, which was observed just once a year.

to associating together: Or “to sharing with one another.” The basic meaning of the Greek word koi·no·niʹa is “sharing; fellowship.” Paul used this word several times in his letters. (1Co 1:9; 10:16; 2Co 6:14; 13:14) The context of this passage shows that this fellowship involves close friendship rather than just casual acquaintance.

the taking of meals: Lit., “the breaking of the bread.”​—See study note on Ac 20:7.

wonders: Or “portents.” In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the Greek word teʹras is consistently used in combination with se·meiʹon (“sign”), both terms being used in the plural form. (Mt 24:24; Joh 4:48; Ac 7:36; 14:3; 15:12; 2Co 12:12) Basically, teʹras refers to anything that causes awe or wonderment. When the term clearly refers to something portending what will happen in the future, the alternate rendering “portent” is used in a study note.

everyone: Or “every soul.” The Greek word psy·kheʹ, traditionally rendered “soul,” here refers to a living person.​—See Glossary, “Soul.”

wonders: Or “portents.”​—See study note on Ac 2:19.

from house to house: This expression translates the Greek phrase katʼ oiʹkon, literally, “according to house.” Several lexicons and commentators state that the Greek preposition ka·taʹ can be understood in a distributive sense. For example, one lexicon says that the phrase refers to “places viewed serially, distributive use . . . from house to house.” (A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Third Edition) Another reference says that the preposition ka·taʹ is “distributive (Acts 2:46; 5:42: . . . house to house/in the [individual] houses.” (Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Horst Balz and Gerhard Schneider) Bible scholar R.C.H. Lenski made the following comment: “Never for a moment did the apostles cease their blessed work. ‘Every day’ they continued, and this openly ‘in the Temple’ where the Sanhedrin and the Temple police could see and hear them, and, of course, also κατ’ οἴκον, which is distributive, ‘from house to house,’ and not merely adverbial, ‘at home.’” (The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, 1961) These sources support the sense that the disciples’ preaching was distributed from one house to another. A similar use of ka·taʹ occurs at Lu 8:1, where Jesus is said to have preached “from city to city and from village to village.” This method of reaching people by going directly to their homes brought outstanding results.​—Ac 6:7; compare Ac 4:16, 17; 5:28.

from house to house: Or “in different houses.” The context shows that Paul had visited the houses of these men to teach them “about repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus.” (Ac 20:21) Therefore, he is not referring solely to social calls or visits to encourage fellow Christians after they became believers, since fellow believers would already have repented and exercised faith in Jesus. In his book Word Pictures in the New Testament, Dr. A. T. Robertson comments as follows on Ac 20:20: “It is worth noting that this greatest of preachers preached from house to house and did not make his visits merely social calls.” (1930, Vol. III, pp. 349-350) In The Acts of the Apostles With a Commentary (1844), Abiel Abbot Livermore made this comment on Paul’s words at Ac 20:20: “He was not content merely to deliver discourses in the public assembly . . . but zealously pursued his great work in private, from house to house, and literally carried home the truth of heaven to the hearths and hearts of the Ephesians.” (p. 270)​—For an explanation of rendering the Greek expression katʼ oiʹkous (lit., “according to houses”), see study note on Ac 5:42.

in different homes: Or “from house to house.” Here the preposition ka·taʹ, as used in the Greek phrase katʼ oiʹkon (lit., “according to house”), can be understood in a distributive sense. Apparently, during this time of need, the disciples met and shared meals at different homes of fellow believers who lived in or around Jerusalem.​—See study notes on Ac 5:42; 20:20.

Jehovah: Available Greek manuscripts use the term “the Lord” (Greek, ho . . . Kyʹri·os) here. However, as explained in App. C, there are several reasons to believe that the divine name was originally used in this verse and later replaced by the title Lord. Therefore, the name Jehovah is used in the main text.​—See App. C3 introduction; Ac 2:47.

Media

Theodotus Inscription to Greek-Speaking Jews
Theodotus Inscription to Greek-Speaking Jews

The text shown here, carved on a limestone slab measuring 72 cm (28 in.) in length and 42 cm (17 in.) in width, is known as the Theodotus Inscription. It was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century on the hill of Ophel in Jerusalem. The text, written in Greek, refers to Theodotus, a priest who “built the synagogue for the reading of the Law and for teaching the commandments.” The inscription has been dated to the time before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. It confirms the presence of Greek-speaking Jews in Jerusalem in the first century C.E. (Ac 6:1) Some believe that this synagogue was “the so-called Synagogue of the Freedmen.” (Ac 6:9) The inscription also mentions that Theodotus, as well as his father and his grandfather, had the title ar·khi·sy·naʹgo·gos (“presiding officer of the synagogue”), a title used a number of times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. (Mr 5:35; Lu 8:49; Ac 13:15; 18:8, 17) The inscription also states that Theodotus built accommodations for those visiting from abroad. The lodging mentioned in the inscription would likely have been used by Jews visiting Jerusalem, especially those who came during the yearly festivals.—Ac 2:5.

Pentecost 33 C.E. and the Spreading of the Good News
Pentecost 33 C.E. and the Spreading of the Good News

At Pentecost 33 C.E., “Jews from every nation under heaven were staying in Jerusalem.” (Ac 2:5) After holy spirit was poured out on the Christian disciples, miraculously they were able to speak the languages of the Jews visiting Jerusalem. (Ac 2:4, 8) The crowds were astounded to hear the good news in their own native languages. Ac 2:9-11 indicates that the visitors came from 15 different regions. Many of those visitors who became believers no doubt took the good news back with them to their home territories, shown on this map and numbered according to the order in which they are mentioned at Ac 2:9-11.—Ac 2:41, 44, 47.