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New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

C3

Verses Where the Divine Name Does Not Appear as Part of Direct or Indirect Quotations in the Book of Acts

ACTS 1:24 “You, O Jehovah, who know the hearts of all”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term “Lord” (Kyʹri·os) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The Hebrew Scriptures frequently identify Jehovah God as the one with the ability to read hearts. (Deuteronomy 8:2; 1 Samuel 16:7; 1 Kings 8:39; 1 Chronicles 28:9; Psalm 44:21; Jeremiah 11:20; 17:10) It would have been natural in this context, then, for those Hebrew-speaking Jews to use the divine name when praying to God. The Greek word kar·di·o·gnoʹstes (lit., “knower of hearts”) occurs only here and at Acts 15:8, where it clearly refers to God. Although existing Greek manuscripts of Acts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, the context and the Hebrew Scripture background, as well as the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, provide good reasons for using the divine name in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says of Acts 1:24: “Lord, you know the hearts of all. God is addressed by the Christian community as Kyrie [a form of Kyʹri·os], a title used by Luke elsewhere for Yahweh of the OT [Old Testament] (Luke 1:16, 32, 68; 4:8, 12; 10:27; 19:38; 20:37, 44; Acts 2:39; 3:22; 5:9).” With regard to the expression “know the hearts,” this reference work goes on to acknowledge that “it is a title for God appearing only in Christian writings.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 1:24 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, in Appendix 98, “Divine Names and Titles in New Testament,” lists Acts 1:24 on page 143, under the heading “LORD . . . Used of Jehovah.”

  • The Aramaic English New Testament (Third Edition), by Andrew Gabriel Roth, 2008, says in this verse: “You Master YHWH know that which is in the hearts of all.” The footnote on this verse says: “The early talmidim called on the Name of YHWH in prayer; however, this was obscured when generic Greek terms were implemented to replace the Personal and Covenant Name of YHWH. This was done in violation of the Commandments: Do not add to, nor take away from the Word D’varim/Deut. 4:2 and do not take the Name of YHWH in vain, Sh’mot [Ex] 20:7.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 22, 23, 29, 30, 32, 36, 44, 65, 66, 93, 96, 100, 106, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 2:39 “to all those whom Jehovah our God may call to himself”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, but as shown by the context (Acts 2:33-38), “the promise” Peter mentions in this verse refers to what is stated at Joel 2:28-32 about the outpouring of holy spirit. The phrase “to all those whom Jehovah our God may call to himself” therefore seems to echo the words found at the end of Joel 2:32. The Hebrew text of Joel 2:32 uses the divine name three times, specifically stating that Jehovah is the one who does the calling. Additionally, the combination of Kyʹri·os (Lord) and The·osʹ (God) along with a personal pronoun (here rendered “Jehovah our God”) is common in quotations from or allusions to the Hebrew Scriptures. (Compare the expressions “Jehovah your God” at Luke 4:8, 12; 10:27; and Acts 3:22.) It is also worth noting that the unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os makes the term tantamount to a proper name. So the Hebrew Scripture background of these words, the absence of the Greek definite article, and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os provide good reasons for using the divine name in the main text.​—See comment on Luke 1:16.

SUPPORT:

  • The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1934, on page 110, says of this verse: “Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς [Kyʹri·os ho The·osʹ] = Yahweh Haelohim . . . this covenant Lord and omnipotent God exercises his power in favor of Israel.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 2:39 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 2:39 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) in a note on Acts 1:24 lists Acts 2:39 as an example of where the title Kyʹri·os is “used by Luke elsewhere for Yahweh of the OT [Old Testament].”​—See comment on Acts 1:24.

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, uses capital and small capitals for the word “ADONAIin this verse. In the introduction to this Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAIis used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, uses capital and small capitals for LORD in the main text of Acts 2:39 to show that this occurrence refers to Jehovah. Appendix 98, “Divine Names and Titles in New Testament,” lists Acts 2:39 on page 143, under the heading “LORD . . . Used of Jehovah.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Acts 2:21: “‘Jehovah;’ so [verse] 39.”

  • The Scofield Reference Bible, by C. I. Scofield, 1909, says in a marginal note on Acts 2:39: “Jehovah. Joel 2.32.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 22-24, 32-35, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 48, 52, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 95, 100-102, 105, 106, 114, 115, 117, 125

ACTS 2:47 “Jehovah continued to add to them daily those being saved”

REASON(S): Although existing Greek manuscripts use the term “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) here, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In Acts chapter 2, Kyʹri·os occurs eight times. Two of these occurrences clearly refer to Jesus and are therefore rendered “Lord.” (Acts 2:34b, 36) Of the remaining six occurrences, four are in quotes from the Hebrew Scriptures (Acts 2:20, 21, 25, 34a), where the divine name occurs in the original Hebrew text, and are therefore rendered “Jehovah.” Another occurrence (Acts 2:39) clearly alludes to the words of Joel 2:32, where the divine name is used three times. Here at Acts 2:47, the context indicates that God is the one referred to by the word Kyʹri·os. Also, the phrase rendered “those being saved” echoes the last clause of Joel 2:32, the first part of which Peter quoted at Acts 2:21. Therefore, in view of the context and the Hebrew Scripture background, as well as the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.​—See comment on Acts 2:39.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 2:47 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, in Appendix 98, “Divine Names and Titles in New Testament,” lists Acts 2:47 on page 143, under the heading “LORD . . . Used of Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 31-33, 37, 41, 44, 48, 65, 94, 99-102, 115, 125

ACTS 3:19 “seasons of refreshing may come from Jehovah himself”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts literally read “from face of the Lord.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The Greek word used here for “Lord” (Kyʹri·os) is also used at Acts 3:22 in a quote from Deuteronomy 18:15, where the Tetragrammaton occurs in the original Hebrew text. (See study note on Acts 3:22.) Peter is explaining that if Jews who acted in ignorance when rejecting Jesus repented, God would grant them forgiveness. So the context of Acts 3:17-22 indicates that the Lord mentioned at Acts 3:19 refers to Jehovah God. In the Hebrew Scriptures, the phrase “the face of Jehovah” is a combination of the Hebrew word for “face” and the Tetragrammaton. (Genesis 3:8; Exodus 34:24; Judges 5:5; Psalm 34:16; Lamentations 4:16) Although existing copies of the Septuagint have Kyʹri·os in these verses, there is manuscript evidence that early copies of the Septuagint did contain the divine name. So both the context and the Hebrew Scripture background of this expression provide support for viewing Kyʹri·os here as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1934, on page 141, says of this verse: “Seasons of refreshing or cooling from the presence of the Lord (Yahweh).”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says in a comment on Acts 3:20 regarding this expression found at Acts 3:19: “Kyrios is used of Yahweh, the God of the OT [Old Testament], as in 2:39; Luke 1:16, 32, 68; 4:12; 10:27; 20:37.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, uses capital and small capitals for LORD in the main text of Acts 3:19 to show that this occurrence refers to Jehovah.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J14-18, 22, 23, 28-32, 34, 35, 38, 40, 41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 52, 65, 88, 93, 95, 96, 100-102, 105, 106, 114, 115

ACTS 4:29 “Now, Jehovah, give attention to their threats”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term “Lord” (Kyʹri·os) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. For example, these words are part of a prayer addressed to the “Sovereign Lord” (Acts 4:24b), a term that is rendered from the Greek word de·spoʹtes and that is also used to address God in a prayer recorded at Luke 2:29. In the prayer recorded at Acts 4:24b-30, Jesus is called “your holy servant.” This indicates that here Kyʹri·os refers, not to Jesus, but to Jehovah God. The disciples’ prayer recorded here includes a quote from Psalm 2:1, 2, where the divine name is used. (See study note on Acts 4:26.) In addition, this request that Jehovah “give attention to their threats,” that is, the threats of the Sanhedrin, uses terms that are similar to those used in prayers recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures. Examples can be found at 2 Kings 19:16, 19 and Isaiah 37:17, 20, where the divine name is used.​—See comment on Acts 1:24.

SUPPORT:

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Vol. II, p. 68) makes this comment on Acts 1:24: “It is quite true that in [Ac 4:29] Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is used in prayer plainly addressed to the Lord Jehovah.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says of Acts 4:29: “Compare 2 Kgs 19:19. The Christians call upon God to take notice of the threats that the Sanhedrin has leveled against Peter and John, and through them against all the rest of their number. They beseech God to be concerned about the ‘threats’ leveled against them.” The divine name appears in the Hebrew text of 2 Kings 19:19.

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 4:29 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 29-36, 40, 41, 43, 46, 61, 65, 66, 88, 93, 100-102, 114, 115, 132

ACTS 5:9 “the spirit of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the spirit of Lord” (to pneuʹma Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The same expression is found at Luke 4:18 as part of a quote from Isaiah 61:1, where the original Hebrew text uses the Tetragrammaton together with the word for “spirit.” (See study note on Luke 4:18.) The expression “the spirit of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s spirit”) occurs several times in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Some examples are found at Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6; 15:14; 1 Samuel 10:6; 16:13; 2 Samuel 23:2; 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 2:16; 2 Chronicles 20:14; Isaiah 11:2; 40:13; 63:14; Ezekiel 11:5; Micah 2:7; 3:8.) The combination of the Hebrew words for “spirit” and “Lord” appears only once in the Hebrew Scriptures. Even in that case, it is combined with the Tetragrammaton and reads “the spirit of the Sovereign Lord Jehovah.” (Isaiah 61:1) Also, it is noteworthy that in this verse (Acts 5:9) the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os (Lord), where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. So the Hebrew Scripture background and the unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os indicate that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says of Acts 5:9: “The ‘testing’ of God has an OT [Old Testament] background in Exod 17:2; Num 20:13, 24 (Israel’s rebellious tempting of God in the desert); Ps 106:32. Luke uses the same verb (peirazein) as is used of Israel in Deut 33:8 (LXX). Kyrios refers to Yahweh, whose Spirit has been put to the test.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 5:9 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • When commenting on the same expression that appears at 2 Corinthians 3:17, Margaret E. Thrall says in her book A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Second Epistle to the Corinthians: “This is the only occasion when he [Paul] designates the Spirit as the πνεῦμα κυρίου [pneuʹma ky·riʹou], and the designation indicates that he still has the OT [Old Testament] background in mind, since πνεῦμα κυρίου occurs frequently in the LXX as the rendering of ruaḥ yhwh, the Spirit of Yahweh.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 5:9 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, uses capital and small capitals for LORD in the main text of Acts 5:9 to show that this occurrence refers to Jehovah. Appendix 98, “Divine Names and Titles in New Testament,” lists Acts 5:9 on page 143, under the heading “LORD . . . Used of Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22-24, 29-34, 40-43, 46, 47, 52, 61, 65, 66, 88, 93-96, 100-102, 106, 114, 115, 132

ACTS 5:19 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts read “Lord’s angel” here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Starting at Genesis 16:7, this expression is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “angel” and the Tetragrammaton. When it occurs in early copies of the Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. That is how the expression is handled at Zechariah 3:5, 6 in a copy of the Septuagint found in a cave in Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert. This fragment is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this and many other verses, the definite article was not included where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background and the absence of the definite article here, the divine name is used in the main text. A number of Bible translations retain the divine name when rendering the expression “Jehovah’s angel” in this verse.

SUPPORT:

  • With regard to the expression “angel of the Lord,” R.C.H. Lenski also makes this comment on Luke 2:9 in The Interpretation of St. Luke’s Gospel (pp. 128-129): “Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] is the Greek term for Yahweh and as a genitive with unarticulated nouns forms one concept with them: ‘Jehovah-angel,’ ‘Jehovah-glory.’ . . . It was Jehovah’s angel who came upon them like a flash.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 5:19; 8:26; 12:7, 23 as verses where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22-24, 28-35, 41, 43, 46, 47, 52, 61, 65, 66, 88, 93-95, 100-104, 106, 114, 115, 117, 128, 132

ACTS 7:31 “Jehovah’s voice”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “voice of Lord” (pho·neʹ Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. This part of Stephen’s speech (Acts 7:30-33) refers to the account at Exodus 3:2-10. From the context of that account, it is clear that Jehovah is the one speaking by means of his angel. According to Exodus 3:6, Jehovah tells Moses what is quoted at Acts 7:32. The phrase “the voice of Jehovah” is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “voice” and the Tetragrammaton. (Some examples are Genesis 3:8; Exodus 15:26; Deuteronomy 5:25; 8:20; 15:5; 18:16; 26:14; 27:10; 28:1, 62; Joshua 5:6; 1 Samuel 12:15; 1 Kings 20:36; Psalm 106:25; Isaiah 30:31; Jeremiah 3:25; Daniel 9:10; Zechariah 6:15.) It is worth noting that when the expression “voice of Jehovah” occurs at Deuteronomy 26:14; 27:10; 28:1, 62 in an early fragment of the Septuagint (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266), the divine name is written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. This fragment is dated to the first century B.C.E. The expression “the voice of Jehovah” also occurs at Psalm 29:3 in a codex called Ambrosian O 39 sup., dated to the end of the ninth century C.E. That manuscript is kept at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, Italy. The codex contains five columns with different Greek translations of the Hebrew Scriptures, and in all those columns, the divine name is rendered by the Tetragrammaton written in square Hebrew characters () within the Greek text. It is noteworthy that here at Acts 7:31, the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. So the context, the Hebrew Scripture background, the manuscript evidence of how this expression is handled in ancient translations, and the absence of the Greek definite article all support the use of the divine name here.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31), says of Acts 7:31: “Lit., ‘there occurred the voice of the Lord.’ Again Kyrios is used for Yahweh.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 7:31 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • Word Pictures in the New Testament, by Archibald Thomas Robertson, 1930, (Vol. III) says on this verse: “Here the angel of Jehovah of verse 30 is termed Jehovah himself.” On verse 30, it says: “In Ex. 3:20 it is Jehovah who speaks.”

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Vol. II, p. 191) makes this comment on Acts 7:30: “Otherwise we can only say that Jehovah Himself speaks through the Angel.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 7:31 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

  • The Companion Bible, with notes by E. W. Bullinger, 1999 printing, uses capital and small capitals for LORD in the main text of Acts 7:31 to show that this occurrence refers to Jehovah. Appendix 98, “Divine Names and Titles in New Testament,” lists Acts 7:31 on page 143, under the heading “LORD . . . Used of Jehovah.”

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, uses capital and small capitals for the word “ADONAIin this verse. In the introduction to this Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAIis used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on Acts 7:31: “The sentence is without the article and therefore much more emphatic. ‘Lord’ is a solemn title. The expression amounts to ‘there came an utterance of Jehovah.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J11, 12, 14-18, 22-24, 28-36, 38, 40-44, 46, 47, 52, 61, 65, 66, 80, 88-90, 93-96, 100-103, 105, 106, 114, 115, 117, 125, 130, 132

ACTS 7:33 “Jehovah said to him”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) here, but the background of Stephen’s speech (Acts 7:30-34) gives support for using the divine name in the main text. The context of the original account referred to by Stephen is Exodus 3:2-10, where it is clear that Jehovah is the one speaking by means of His angel. Although most of the content of this verse is taken from Exodus 3:5, an equivalent of the introductory phrase can be found in the original Hebrew text at Exodus 3:7, literally reading: “And Jehovah said.” So the context and the Hebrew Scripture background, as well as the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, provide good reasons to view Kyʹri·os here as an equivalent of the divine name.

SUPPORT: See comment on Acts 7:31.

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 7:33 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The New King James Version, first printed in 1979, uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” in the main text of Acts 7:33. The Preface to this edition explains: “The covenant name of God was usually translated from the Hebrew as ‘LORD’ (using capital letters as shown) in the King James Old Testament. This tradition is maintained. In the present edition the name is so capitalized whenever the covenant name is quoted in the New Testament from a passage in the Old Testament.”

  • The NLT Study Bible, (Second Edition), 2008, uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” in the main text of Acts 7:33. In its “Introduction to the New Living Translation,” we find this explanation: “The Greek word kurios is consistently translated ‘Lord,’ except that it is translated ‘LORD’ wherever the New Testament text explicitly quotes from the Old Testament, and the text there has it in small capitals.” Explaining the significance of this, the Introduction also says: “We have generally rendered the tetragrammaton (YHWH) consistently as ‘the LORD,’ utilizing a form with small capitals that is common among English translations.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J11, 12, 14-18, 22, 23, 27-36, 38, 40-44, 46, 47, 52, 61, 65, 66, 80, 88, 93-95, 100-102, 105, 106, 114, 115, 117, 130, 132

ACTS 7:60 “Jehovah, do not charge this sin against them”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term “Lord” (Kyʹri·os) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Stephen here echoes Jesus’ words to his Father at Luke 23:34: “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing.” In Luke’s account of Stephen’s speech, recorded at Acts 7:2-53, the term Kyʹri·os is used three times​—all in quotations from or allusions to the Hebrew Scriptures that clearly refer to God. (See comments on Acts 7:31, 33 and study note on Acts 7:49.) Many commentators and translators support the view that in these contexts, Kyʹri·os refers to Jehovah. The term Kyʹri·os also occurs at Acts 7:59, where Stephen specifically says “Lord Jesus,” but this statement does not mean, as some claim, that Jesus is the one addressed as Kyʹri·os at Acts 7:60. There is a natural break between Stephen’s words in verse 59 and his words in verse 60. Stephen had been standing, so when he knelt in front of his enemies, it was likely in order to address Jehovah in prayer. (Compare Luke 22:41; Acts 9:40; 20:36; 21:5, where kneeling is connected with prayer to God.) Therefore, it seems that Stephen’s last words were a prayer to the almighty God, Jehovah. In addition, Acts 7:56 says that Stephen saw “the heavens opened up and the Son of man standing at God’s right hand,” so it is understandable that he would first address Jesus in verse 59 and then Jehovah in verse 60. A number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton in verse 60 but not in verse 59 when rendering the expression “Lord Jesus.”

SUPPORT:

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Vol. II, p. 204) makes this comment regarding Stephen’s speech as a whole: “The speech opens with a declaration of the divine majesty of Jehovah.”

  • Regarding the use of the Greek term Kyʹri·os (Lord) at Ac 7:59, 60, a German commentary on the book of Acts, Kommentar und Studien zur Apostelgeschichte (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 22), by Otto Bauernfeind, 1980, (p. 120) says: “In verse 59, Jesus is the κύριος; in verse 60, probably God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 18, 22, 23, 41, 46, 95, 96, 100, 101, 132

ACTS 8:22 “supplicate Jehovah”

REASON(S): Many Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou) here; others read “God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context indicates that God was the one whom Simon needed to supplicate. Simon had tried to buy something that was “the free gift of God.” (Acts 8:20) Peter then responded that Simon’s heart was “not straight in the sight of God.” (Acts 8:21) Also, the Greek verb for “supplicate” is used in the Septuagint in connection with prayers, requests, and pleadings addressed to Jehovah, and in these scriptures the divine name is often used in the Hebrew text. (Genesis 25:21; Exodus 32:11; Numbers 21:7; Deuteronomy 3:23; 1 Kings 8:59; 13:6) Some ancient translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures use the term “God” here, and some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton. So both the context and the Hebrew Scripture background support the conclusion that “the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou) in this verse refers to God and could be viewed as a substitute for the divine name.​—See comment on Acts 8:24.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 8:22 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J18, 22, 23, 36, 43, 46, 48, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 125, 132

ACTS 8:24 “Make supplication for me to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Many Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (ton Kyʹri·on) here; others read “God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ; here, the context points to God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” (See comment on Acts 8:22.) Some ancient translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures use the term “God” in this verse, and some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton. So both the context and the Hebrew Scripture background support the conclusion that “the Lord” (ton Kyʹri·on) in this verse refers to God and can be viewed as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 8:24 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, makes this comment on Acts 8:39: “The context will not sanction our supposing that, Simon imagined he had sinned against Jesus; or that Jesus was to be prayed to, (see v. 22), in order that the thought of his heart might be forgiven.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22, 23, 36, 43, 46, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 132

ACTS 8:25 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Many Greek manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ton loʹgon tou Ky·riʹou) here; a few manuscripts read “the word of God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The book of Acts also uses a synonymous expression, “the word of God,” supporting the conclusion that Kyʹri·os at Acts 8:25 refers to God. (Acts 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 13:5, 7, 46; 17:13; 18:11) Both expressions have their background in the Hebrew Scriptures. However, the expression “the word of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s word”) occurs far more often as a combination of the Hebrew term for “word” and the Tetragrammaton than does the expression “the word of God.” (The phrase “the word of Jehovah” [or, “Jehovah’s word”] appears in some 200 verses. Some examples are found at 2 Samuel 12:9; 24:11; 2 Kings 7:1; 20:16; 24:2; Isaiah 1:10; 2:3; 28:14; 38:4; Jeremiah 1:4; 2:4; Ezekiel 1:3; 6:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zechariah 9:1.) When this expression occurs at Zechariah 9:1 in an early copy of the Septuagint found at Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, the Greek word loʹgos is followed by the divine name written in ancient Hebrew characters (). This parchment scroll is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the above-mentioned manuscript evidence, and the background and ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used here in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 8:25 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 32, 41, 43, 46, 61, 65, 66, 95, 100, 101, 106, 114, 115, 132

ACTS 8:26 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): Starting at Genesis 16:7, this expression occurs a number of times in the Hebrew Scriptures. When it occurs in early copies of the Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this and many other verses, the definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would normally call for it. The absence of the definite article here and in other verses may therefore be another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT: See comments on Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:11; and Acts 5:19; 12:11.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22-24, 28-36, 40-43, 46, 47, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93, 95, 100-103, 106, 114, 115, 117, 125, 128, 132

ACTS 8:39 “Jehovah’s spirit”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “Lord’s spirit” (pneuʹma Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The same expression is found at Luke 4:18 as part of a quote from Isaiah 61:1, where the original Hebrew text has the Tetragrammaton together with the word for “spirit.” (See study note on Luke 4:18.) The expression “spirit of Jehovah” (or, Jehovah’s spirit) occurs many times in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Some examples are found at Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6; 15:14; 1 Samuel 10:6; 16:13; 2 Samuel 23:2; 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 2:16; 2 Chronicles 20:14; Isaiah 11:2; 40:13; 63:14; Ezekiel 11:5; Micah 2:7; 3:8.) The combination of the Hebrew words for “spirit” and “Lord” appears only once in the Hebrew Scriptures. Even in that case, it is combined with the Tetragrammaton and reads, “the spirit of the Sovereign Lord Jehovah.” (Isaiah 61:1) Also, it is noteworthy that in this verse (Acts 8:39) the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. So the Hebrew Scripture background and the unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os indicate that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 8:39 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 8:39 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

  • The Scofield Reference Bible, by C. I. Scofield, 1909, says in a marginal note on Acts 8:39: “Jehovah.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J15-18, 22-24, 28-34, 36, 40-42, 46, 47, 52, 61, 65, 66, 88, 93-96, 100-102, 106, 114, 115, 125, 128, 132

ACTS 9:31 “the fear of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the fear of the Lord” (toi phoʹboi tou Ky·riʹou). In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the term Kyʹri·os (Lord) can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background of this expression, however, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The expression “the fear of Jehovah” is found many times in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of a Hebrew word for “fear” and the Tetragrammaton. (Some examples are found at 2 Chronicles 19:7, 9; Psalm 19:9; 111:10; Proverbs 2:5; 8:13; 9:10; 10:27; 19:23; Isaiah 11:2, 3.) On the other hand, the expression “fear of the Lord” is never used in the Hebrew Scripture text. Although early copies of the Septuagint reflected the Hebrew text and contained the divine name, in later copies it was often replaced with Kyʹri·os. This indicates that Kyʹri·os came to be used as a substitute for the divine name. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says of Acts 9:31: “A new element is introduced into the description of the Christian church: the OT [Old Testament] idea of ‘the fear of the Lord’ (Prov 1:7, 29; 2:5; 9:10; 19:23; Ps 19:9).” The divine name appears in each of these citations in the original Hebrew text.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 18, 22, 32, 40-43, 65, 66, 96, 100, 101, 106, 114, 115, 132

ACTS 10:33 “commanded by Jehovah to say”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The context indicates that Kyʹri·os here refers to God. At Acts 10:31, Peter says that Cornelius’ gifts of mercy had been “remembered before God.” He also says: “God has shown me that I should call no man defiled or unclean.” (Acts 10:28) Cornelius himself says that “we are all present before God to hear all the things.” (Acts 10:33) That Kyʹri·os here refers to God is also supported by some Greek manuscripts that use the Greek word The·osʹ (“God”) in this verse. Also, some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. Therefore, in view of the context and in order to avoid ambiguity regarding whom Kyʹri·os refers to in this context, the divine name is used.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says of Acts 10:33: “Kyrios may refer to the risen Christ, but on the lips of Cornelius who has not yet heard the Christian proclamation, it is probably better understood as referring to Yahweh; see NOTES on 2:20, 36.” The note on Acts 2:20 says: “Kyrios is used of Yahweh, as in the LXX.”

  • The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1934, on page 417, says of this verse: “Those present intend to obey what the Lord (here referring to God) will communicate to them through Peter.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 10:33 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 18, 23, 33, 40, 43, 48, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 125, 132

ACTS 11:21 “the hand of Jehovah”

REASON(S): The phrase “the hand of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s hand”) is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “hand” and the Tetragrammaton. (Some examples are found at Exodus 9:3; Numbers 11:23; Judges 2:15; Ruth 1:13; 1 Samuel 5:6, 9; 7:13; 12:15; 1 Kings 18:46; Ezra 7:6; Job 12:9; Isaiah 19:16; 40:2; Ezekiel 1:3.) Available Greek manuscripts of Acts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, but the Hebrew Scripture background provides good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In connection with Acts 11:21, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is noteworthy because even though early copies of the Septuagint contained the divine name, when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os, the definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would call for it. (That is the case in the verses cited above.) This unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. The Greek expression rendered “the hand of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s hand”) also occurs at Luke 1:66 and Acts 13:11.​—See comments on Luke 1:6, 66.

SUPPORT:

  • The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1934, on page 451, says of this verse: “This was due to ‘the Lord’s hand,’ the anarthrous Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] signifying Yahweh, which Luke distinguishes from the articulated Κύριος which precedes and follows.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 11:21 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • A Translator’s Handbook on the Acts of the Apostles, by Barclay M. Newman and Eugene A. Nida, 1972, United Bible Societies, makes this comment on Acts 11:21: “The Lord’s power translates an Old Testament phrase, ‘the hand of the Lord,’ and probably refers to God the Father rather than to Jesus. On the other hand, in the phrase turned to the Lord, the Lord Jesus is meant.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 11:21 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22, 23, 28, 29, 32, 34, 41, 47, 65, 93, 95, 96, 100-102, 106, 115, 132

ACTS 12:7 “Jehovah’s angel”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts read “Lord’s angel” (agʹge·los Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Starting at Genesis 16:7, the expression “Jehovah’s angel” is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “angel” and the Tetragrammaton. When it occurs in early copies of the Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. That is how the expression is handled at Zechariah 3:5, 6 in a copy of the Septuagint found in a cave in Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert. This fragment is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os in this and many other verses, the definite article was not included where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background and the absence of the definite article, the divine name is used in the main text. As listed below, a number of other Bible translations also retain the divine name when rendering this verse.

SUPPORT: See comments on Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:11; and Acts 5:19; 12:11.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22-24, 28-34, 36, 41-43, 47, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93, 95, 100-102, 104, 106, 114, 115, 117, 125, 128, 132

ACTS 12:11 “Jehovah sent his angel”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, but there are a number of good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. First, as mentioned in the comment on Acts 12:7, when the term Kyʹri·os appears in that verse, it could appropriately be viewed as a substitute for the divine name. Therefore, when Kyʹri·os occurs here in the same context and describing the same event, it is logical to view it as an equivalent of God’s personal name. Second, the phrase “sent his angel” calls to mind similar acts of deliverance mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures. For example, at Daniel 3:28; 6:22, God is said to have “sent his angel” to rescue Daniel and his companions. (Compare Psalm 34:7.) Third, in several ancient authoritative Greek manuscripts, the definite article is here not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. This gives additional support for viewing Kyʹri·os in this verse as a substitute for the divine name. In addition, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. In view of the context, the Hebrew Scripture background, and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used here.

SUPPORT:

  • The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1934, on page 475, says of this verse: “Κύριος [Kyʹri·os] (Yahweh) had actually commissioned his angel.”

  • The Expositor’s Greek Testament, by W. Robertson Nicoll, 2002, (Vol. II, p. 275) makes this comment on Acts 12:11: “Κύριος [Kyʹri·os], see critical notes, if without the article . . . of God, Jehovah.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 12:11 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 12:11 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 18, 23, 28-34, 36, 41, 42, 47, 61, 65, 66, 88, 93, 95, 96, 100-102, 106, 115, 132

ACTS 12:17 “Jehovah had brought him out of the prison”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. As mentioned in the comment on Acts 12:7, when the term Kyʹri·os appears in that verse, it could appropriately be viewed as a substitute for the divine name. Therefore, when Kyʹri·os occurs here in the same context and describing the same event, it is logical to view it as an equivalent of God’s personal name. Some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. In view of the context, the background of this verse, and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 12:17 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 28-32, 41, 65, 93, 100-102, 106, 115, 132

ACTS 12:23 “the angel of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Starting at Genesis 16:7, this expression occurs a number of times in the Hebrew Scriptures. When it occurs in early copies of the Septuagint, the Greek word agʹge·los (angel; messenger) is followed by the divine name written in Hebrew characters. It is noteworthy that when later copies of the Greek Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this and many other verses, the Greek definite article was often not included where standard grammatical usage would normally call for one. The absence of the definite article here and in other verses may therefore be another indication that Kyʹri·os is used as a substitute for the divine name.

SUPPORT: See comments on Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1:11.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22-24, 28-36, 41-43, 47, 48, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93, 95, 96, 100-102, 104, 106, 114, 115, 117, 125, 128, 132

ACTS 12:24 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Some ancient manuscripts and translations read “word of the Lord,” whereas others read “word of God.” Either way, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text here. Both expressions have their background in the Hebrew Scriptures, where the expression “the word of Jehovah” occurs far more often as a combination of the Hebrew term for “word” and the Tetragrammaton than does the expression “the word of God.” The phrase “the word of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s word”) occurs in some 200 verses. (Some examples are found at 2 Samuel 12:9; 24:11; 2 Kings 7:1; 20:16; 24:2; Isaiah 1:10; 2:3; 28:14; 38:4; Jeremiah 1:4; 2:4; Ezekiel 1:3; 6:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zechariah 9:1.) When this expression occurs at Zechariah 9:1 in an early copy of the Septuagint found at Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, the Greek word loʹgos is followed by the divine name written in ancient Hebrew characters (). This parchment scroll is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the above-mentioned manuscript evidence, and the background and ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 12:24 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 23, 32, 33, 37, 48, 65, 94, 100, 101, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 13:2 “they were ministering to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the phrase “to the Lord” (toi Ky·riʹoi) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The Greek word lei·tour·geʹo, in this verse rendered “were ministering,” should be understood in the light of the background that this expression has in the Hebrew Scriptures. When used in the Septuagint to refer to service to God by priests and Levites at the tabernacle or the temple (Exodus 28:35; Numbers 8:22; 1 Kings 8:11), this word often appears in passages where the divine name can be found in the original Hebrew text. For example, at 2 Chronicles 13:10, the Greek words for “ministering to the Lord” at Acts 13:2 are used in the Septuagint to render the Hebrew phrase for “ministering to Jehovah.” At 2 Chronicles 35:3, the same Greek words are used to render the Hebrew phrase “serve Jehovah.” (See also 1 Samuel 2:11; 3:1; Ezekiel 45:4; Joel 2:17.) It is worth noting that when this expression is used in the Septuagint at Deuteronomy 18:5 to render the Hebrew phrase “to minister in the name of Jehovah,” the Septuagint rendering found in a first century B.C.E fragment (Papyrus Fouad Inv. 266) has the divine name written in square Hebrew characters within the Greek text. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the manuscript evidence of how this expression is handled in ancient translations, and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used here.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 13:2 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • Did the First Christians Worship Jesus? by James D. G. Dunn, 2010, says regarding this verse: “Is ‘the Lord’ here Jesus (as frequently in Acts)? Or does Luke speak of the worship of the Lord God? It is difficult to decide, although, as in the other ‘Lord’ = God references in Acts, the influence of Old Testament usage suggests that Luke was thinking of worship of God.”

  • The Acts of the Apostles​—A Commentary, by Ernst Haenchen, 1971, says of this expression: “In ‘ministered to the Lord’ Luke has borrowed an expression of special solemnity from LXX [Septuagint] as an allusion, above all, to prayer.” The footnote on this comment lists the following Scriptures: “II Chron. 5.14, 13.10 and 35.3; . . . Joel 1.13 and 2.17; Ezek. 40.46, 44.16 and 45.4; Dan. 7.10.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) says of this expression found at Acts 13:2: “Again, Kyrios is used in the sense of the God of Israel, not the risen Christ.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22, 23, 32, 34, 41, 43, 65, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 13:10 “the right ways of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. Scholars have noted that Paul’s reply to the Jewish sorcerer Bar-Jesus (recorded in verses 10 and 11) contains several expressions that have a background in the Hebrew Scriptures. Some examples are: The Greek phrase here rendered “distorting . . . ways” is found at Proverbs 10:9 (“making his ways crooked”) in the Septuagint. The Greek words that appear in the phrase “the right ways of Jehovah” also appear in the Septuagint rendering of Hosea 14:9. In that verse, the original Hebrew text uses the divine name (“For the ways of Jehovah are upright”). Scholars have also noted that a number of authoritative Greek manuscripts do not have the Greek definite article before the word Kyʹri·os in this verse (Acts 13:10), where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. The absence of the definite article here makes Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. Also, in the following verse (Acts 13:11), Kyʹri·os appears in an expression (“Jehovah’s hand”) that clearly has a background in the Hebrew Scriptures and can be viewed as an equivalent of the divine name. A number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. So the context (the words are addressed to a Jew) and the Hebrew Scripture background support the use of the divine name in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Acts of the Apostles, by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, 1884, says of Acts 13:10: “Κυρίου [Ky·riʹou, a form of Kyʹri·os] is not to be referred to Christ, but to God, whom the son of the devil resists, as is proved from ver. 11.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 13:10 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • The NET Bible, New English Translation, 1996, adds this note on the expression “paths of the Lord” as it appears at Acts 13:10: “This rebuke is like ones from the OT [Old Testament] prophets: Jer 5:27; Gen 32:11; Prov 10:7; Hos 14:9. . . . The closing rhetorical question of v. 10 (“will you not stop . . . ?”) shows how opposed he [Elymas] is to the way of God.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) makes this comment on Acts 13:10: “Kyrios: God or the risen Christ; probably the former, as in v 11.”

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 13:10 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on the expression “the right paths of [the] Lord,” as found at Acts 13:10: “Possibly ‘Jehovah.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22, 23, 28-34, 42, 43, 47, 65, 66, 93-96, 100-102, 106, 114, 115, 132

ACTS 13:11 “Jehovah’s hand”

REASON(S): The phrase “Jehovah’s hand,” as well as “the hand of Jehovah,” is often found in the Hebrew Scriptures as a combination of the Hebrew word for “hand” and the Tetragrammaton. (Some examples are: Exodus 9:3; Numbers 11:23; Judges 2:15; Ruth 1:13; 1 Samuel 5:6, 9; 7:13; 12:15; 1 Kings 18:46; Ezra 7:6; Job 12:9; Isaiah 19:16; 40:2; Ezekiel 1:3.) Available Greek manuscripts of Acts use the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) in this verse, but in view of the Hebrew Scripture background of this expression, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In connection with Acts 13:11, scholars have noted that the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. This is noteworthy because even though the earliest copies of the Septuagint contained the divine name, when later copies of the Septuagint replaced the divine name with Kyʹri·os, the definite article was in a similar way often not included where standard grammatical usage would call for it. (That is the case in the verses cited above.) This unexpected absence of the definite article before Kyʹri·os is another indication that Kyʹri·os is here used as a substitute for the divine name. The Greek expression rendered “hand of Jehovah” also occurs at Luke 1:66 and Acts 11:21.

SUPPORT:

  • ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΚΥΡΙΟΣ [I·e·sousʹ Kyʹri·os] Their Usage and Sense in Holy Scripture, by Herman Heinfetter, 1857, lists Acts 13:11 as one of the passages in which “the Omission of the Article before Κυριος [Kyʹri·os] . . . determines the Appellation to have reference to Almighty God.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 13:11 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The ‘Holy Scriptures,’ by J. N. Darby, 1949, says in a footnote on the expression “[the] Lord’s hand,” as found at Acts 13:11: “Possibly ‘Jehovah.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22-24, 28-34, 36, 42, 43, 47, 65, 66, 93-96, 100-102, 104, 114, 115, 132

ACTS 13:12 “the teaching of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the teaching of the Lord” (tei di·da·kheiʹ tou Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. In the preceding two verses, Kyʹri·os occurs twice. In both cases, it refers to God and can be viewed as a substitute for the divine name. (See comments on Acts 13:10, 11.) The expression “the teaching of Jehovah” is synonymous with “the word of God,” used at Acts 13:5. That verse says that when Paul and his companions arrived in Cyprus, they “began proclaiming the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews.” As a result, the proconsul Sergius Paulus was “eager to hear the word of God.” (Acts 13:7) So it is natural to conclude that after witnessing what Paul said and did, Sergius Paulus was astounded at what he had learned about Jehovah God and the teaching originating from Him. Some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. So in view of the context and the background of the expression and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 13:12 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • Holy Bible From the Ancient Eastern Text​—George M. Lamsa’s Translation From the Aramaic of the Peshitta uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” in this verse and says in a footnote: “Acts. 13:10, 11, 12, 49 - The Syriac and Aramaic form of the Divine Name, ‘Mar-Yah’ or ‘Mor-Yah’ literally means ‘Lord Yah,’ as in ‘Yahweh,’ ‘YHWH.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 29-31, 41, 43, 93, 100, 101, 106, 132

ACTS 13:44 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Many early Greek manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ton loʹgon tou Ky·riʹou) here. Some manuscripts read “the word of God” (ton loʹgon tou The·ouʹ). However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The book of Acts also uses a synonymous expression, “the word of God,” as at Acts 13:46, supporting the conclusion that Kyʹri·os here in verse 44 refers to God. (The expression also appears at Acts 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 13:5, 7; 17:13; 18:11.) Both expressions have their background in the Hebrew Scriptures. However, the expression “the word of Jehovah” occurs far more often as a combination of the Hebrew term for “word” and the Tetragrammaton than does the expression “the word of God.” (The phrase “the word of Jehovah” [or, “Jehovah’s word”] occurs in some 200 verses. Some examples are found at 2 Samuel 12:9; 24:11; 2 Kings 7:1; 20:16; 24:2; Isaiah 1:10; 2:3; 28:14; 38:4; Jeremiah 1:4; 2:4; Ezekiel 1:3; 6:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zechariah 9:1.) When this expression occurs at Zechariah 9:1 in an early copy of the Septuagint found at Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, the Greek word loʹgos is followed by the divine name written in ancient Hebrew characters (). This parchment scroll is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. Also, some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. So in view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the above-mentioned manuscript evidence, and the background and ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 13:44 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 22, 32, 33, 37, 48, 65, 94, 100, 101, 115, 125

ACTS 13:47 “Jehovah has commanded us”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. The quote that follows in this verse is taken from Isaiah 49:6, where the context of the original Hebrew text clearly identifies Jehovah as the one speaking. (Isaiah 49:5; compare Isaiah 42:6.) The fulfillment of the prophecy involves the work that Jehovah’s Servant, Jesus Christ, and his followers would do. (Isaiah 42:1; see study note on Luke 2:32.) Therefore, in this verse, Kyʹri·os must refer to God. In view of the context and the background of this expression in the Hebrew Scriptures, the divine name is used to avoid ambiguity.

SUPPORT:

  • The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1934, on page 551, says of this verse: “They must first square accounts with the great ʽEbed Yahweh, Jehovah’s Servant, who himself stated what Jehovah declared to him . . . And now the messengers of Jesus are proceeding in accordance with that will of Jehovah.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 13:47 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Acts of the Apostles Explained (Third Edition), by Joseph Addison Alexander, 1872, says of this verse: “The Lord, according to New Testament usage, might be understood to mean the Lord Jesus Christ . . . But as the words which follow are addressed to the Messiah, the Lord may be regarded as the usual translation of Jehovah.”

  • The Commentary on the Book of the Acts, by F. F. Bruce, 1954, page 283, says of this verse and the quotation from Isaiah 49:6: “It is noteworthy that in the context of this prophecy (the second Servant Song) the nation of Israel is first addressed as the servant of Jehovah . . . But Israel as a whole was a disobedient servant, and the prophecy found its particular fulfilment in the Messiah.”

  • The Complete Jewish Bible, by David H. Stern, 1998, uses capital and small capitals for the word “ADONAIin this verse. In the introduction to this Bible, the translator explains: “The word ‘ADONAIis used . . . wherever I, as the translator, believe ‘kurios’ is the Greek representation of the tetragrammaton.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 22, 23, 32, 35, 41, 43, 65, 68, 94, 100, 101, 106, 114, 115, 117, 132

ACTS 13:48 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ton loʹgon tou Ky·riʹou) here; other manuscripts read “the word of God” (ton loʹgon tou The·ouʹ). However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The context here points to Jehovah God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” In the preceding verse, Kyʹri·os is used about the one who gave the prophetic command recorded at Isaiah 49:6, that is, Jehovah. (See comment on Acts 13:47.) As shown in the comment on Acts 13:44, there is additional support for using the divine name in the expression “the word of Jehovah.” Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 13:48 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-17, 22, 23, 32, 33, 37, 41, 42, 65, 66, 94, 96, 100, 101, 106, 114, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 13:49 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ho loʹgos tou Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text, as shown in the comments on Acts 13:44, 48. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 13:49 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • Holy Bible From the Ancient Eastern Text​—George M. Lamsa’s Translation From the Aramaic of the Peshitta uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” in this verse and says in a footnote: “Acts. 13:10, 11, 12, 49 - The Syriac and Aramaic form of the Divine Name, ‘Mar-Yah’ or ‘Mor-Yah’ literally means ‘Lord Yah,’ as in ‘Yahweh,’ ‘YHWH.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 22, 23, 28-32, 41, 65, 66, 93-95, 100, 101, 106, 114, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 14:3 “by the authority of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Lit., “upon the Lord.” Available Greek manuscripts have the term Kyʹri·os (Lord) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The context here points to God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” In the book of Acts, the expression “undeserved kindness” is often connected with God (Acts 11:23; 13:43; 14:26; 20:24), and Acts 20:32 mentions “God and . . . the word of his undeserved kindness.” Also, at Acts 15:12, God is identified as being the source of “signs and wonders.” (See also Acts 2:19; 19:11.) In the context of Acts 14:3, the preposition e·piʹ (“upon”) is understood to indicate the grounds, or basis, on which the disciples were speaking boldly. The rest of the verse shows that God was bearing witness, or testifying, that what they preached was really his word and that they had his approval and support in doing so. (Compare Acts 4:29-31.) The Greek expression for “upon the Lord” can also be found in the Septuagint to render phrases where the Tetragrammaton appears in the original Hebrew text. (Psalm 31:6 [30:7, LXX]; Jeremiah 17:7) In line with this, some have suggested that this expression also conveys the idea of speaking “in reliance on Jehovah.” So in view of the context and the background of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text of this verse.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 23, 29-31, 41, 93-95, 100, 101, 106, 132

ACTS 14:23 “they entrusted them to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts read “to the Lord” (toi Ky·riʹoi), but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os (Lord) can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context points to God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” At Acts 14:26, the similar expression “entrusted to the undeserved kindness of God” is used. The Greek verb used here (Acts 14:23) is also used at Acts 20:32 in the phrase “I entrust you to God.” One lexicon defines this phrase: to “entrust someone to the care or protection of someone . . . Of divine protection . . . Ac 14:23; cp. [compare] 20:32.” The same verb is also used at Luke 23:46 to render Jesus’ words: “Father, into your hands I entrust my spirit.” This is a quote from Psalm 31:5, where the Septuagint (30:6, LXX) uses the same Greek word for “entrust” and where the divine name appears in the immediate context of the original Hebrew text. The concept of entrusting oneself to Jehovah is expressed several times in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Psalm 22:8; 37:5; Proverbs 16:3) In view of the context, the Hebrew Scripture background, and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in this account. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 41, 65, 100, 101, 106, 132

ACTS 15:17a “so that the men who remain may earnestly seek Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (ton Kyʹri·on) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. According to Acts 15:14, James mentions that Symeon related “how God . . . turned his attention to the nations,” and in verse 19, James refers to “the nations who are turning to God.” James is here quoting from Amos 9:11, 12, and in the original Hebrew text, the divine name appears once in the expression “declares [or, “says”] Jehovah.” Therefore, in view of the context, the Hebrew Scripture background, and the use of the term Kyʹri·os in the Septuagint, there are also good reasons for using the divine name for the first occurrence of Kyʹri·os in this verse, although there is no direct equivalent to it in the Hebrew text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 15:17a as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Acts of the Apostles, Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, 1884, makes this comment on Acts 15:14-17: “Amos predicts [that] . . . foreign nations will join themselves to it [the Davidic theocracy] and be converted to the worship of Jehovah. . . . Jehovah had withdrawn from His people; but now He promises by the prophet: I will return and build again the fallen, by desolation, tabernacle of David.”

  • The Jerome Biblical Commentary, edited by Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, 1968, says with regard to Acts 15:17: “This OT [Old Testament] expression (see 2 Chr 6:35; 7:14) denotes a consecration to Yahweh; Amos thus spoke of nations that belonged to God.”

  • The New King James Version, first printed in 1979, uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” twice in the main text of Acts 15:17. The Preface to this edition explains: “The covenant name of God was usually translated from the Hebrew as ‘LORD’ (using capital letters as shown) in the King James Old Testament. This tradition is maintained. In the present edition the name is so capitalized whenever the covenant name is quoted in the New Testament from a passage in the Old Testament.”

  • The NLT Study Bible (Second Edition), 2008, uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” twice in the main text of Acts 15:17. In its “Introduction to the New Living Translation,” we find this explanation: “The Greek word kurios is consistently translated ‘Lord,’ except that it is translated ‘LORD’ wherever the New Testament text explicitly quotes from the Old Testament, and the text there has it in small capitals.” Explaining the significance of this, the Introduction also says: “We have generally rendered the tetragrammaton (YHWH) consistently as ‘the LORD,’ utilizing a form with small capitals that is common among English translations.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J11, 12, 14-18, 22, 23, 28-31, 34, 35, 38, 41-43, 47, 59, 61, 65, 66, 88, 90, 93, 94, 96, 100-102, 104-106, 114, 115, 126, 132

ACTS 15:35 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ton loʹgon tou Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The book of Acts also uses a synonymous expression, “the word of God,” supporting the conclusion that Kyʹri·os at Acts 15:35 refers to God. (Acts 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 13:5, 7, 46; 17:13; 18:11) Both expressions have their background in the Hebrew Scriptures. However, the expression “the word of Jehovah” occurs as a combination of the Hebrew term for “word” and the Tetragrammaton far more often than the expression “the word of God.” (The phrase “the word of Jehovah” [or, “Jehovah’s word”] occurs in some 200 verses. Some examples are found at 2 Samuel 12:9; 24:11; 2 Kings 7:1; 20:16; 24:2; Isaiah 1:10; 2:3; 28:14; 38:4; Jeremiah 1:4; 2:4; Ezekiel 1:3; 6:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zechariah 9:1.) When this expression occurs at Zechariah 9:1 in an early copy of the Septuagint found at Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, the Greek word loʹgos is followed by the divine name written in ancient Hebrew characters (). This parchment scroll is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. The Syriac Peshitta uses the expression “the word of God.” In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the above-mentioned manuscript evidence, and the background and ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 15:35 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • The New Testament in Basic English, 1946, says “the word of God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 18, 22, 23, 31, 32, 41, 65, 66, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 132

ACTS 15:36 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ton loʹgon tou Ky·riʹou) here, but as shown in the comment on Acts 15:35, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the expression “the word of Jehovah.” The context of this verse identifies Jehovah as the Source of the word. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. The Syriac Peshitta uses the expression “the word of God.”

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 15:36 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • The New Testament in Basic English, 1946, says “the word of God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 22, 23, 32, 41, 65, 66, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 132

ACTS 15:40 “the undeserved kindness of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Many Greek manuscripts read “of the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou); others read “of God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os (Lord) can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context points to God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” In the book of Acts, the expression “undeserved kindness” is most often connected with God. (Acts 11:23; 13:43; 20:24) At Acts 14:26, the similar expression “entrusted to the undeserved kindness of God” is found. Also, some ancient manuscripts and translations into other languages use “God” (The·osʹ) here instead of “Lord” (Kyʹri·os), supporting the conclusion that “the undeserved kindness” referred to is God’s. A number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew also use the divine name here. So in view of the context and the background and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 15:40 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Orthodox Jewish Bible, 2011, uses “Hashem” to represent the divine name at Acts 15:40. The term “Hashem” comes from the Hebrew expression hash·Shemʹ, meaning “the Name,” often used by Jews as a substitute for YHWH.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 18, 22, 32, 48, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 16:14 “Jehovah opened her heart wide”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context points to Jehovah God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” Lydia is identified as “a worshipper of God,” an expression indicating that she was a Jewish proselyte. (Compare Acts 13:43.) On the Sabbath, she had gathered with other women at a place of prayer at a river outside Philippi. (Acts 16:13) She may have become acquainted with the worship of Jehovah in her home city, Thyatira, which had a large Jewish population and a Jewish meeting place. So in view of the context, Lydia’s background, and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used here. A number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 16:14 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Orthodox Jewish Bible, 2011, uses “Hashem” to represent the divine name at Acts 16:14. The term “Hashem” comes from the Hebrew expression hash·Shemʹ, meaning “the Name,” often used by Jews as a substitute for YHWH.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 23, 32, 33, 48, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 105, 106, 115, 125, 130

ACTS 16:15 “faithful to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts use the phrase “to the Lord” (toi Ky·riʹoi) here; a few manuscripts read “to God.” However, there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context points to Jehovah God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” As shown in the comment on Acts 16:14, Lydia’s background as a Jewish proselyte makes it logical that she had Jehovah in mind. She had just heard about Jesus Christ from Paul’s preaching but had not yet shown that she was faithful to Jesus. It seems reasonable, then, to assume that she was referring to her faithfulness to Jehovah, the God whom she had already been worshipping. So in view of the context, Lydia’s background, and the background and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 16:15 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Orthodox Jewish Bible, 2011, uses “Hashem” to represent the divine name at Acts 16:15. The term “Hashem” comes from the Hebrew expression hash·Shemʹ, meaning “the Name,” often used by Jews as a substitute for YHWH.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 32, 41, 65, 94, 100, 101, 106, 115

ACTS 16:32 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most ancient manuscripts read “the word of the Lord” (ton loʹgon tou Ky·riʹou). In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os (Lord) can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Although Jesus is mentioned in the preceding verse as “the Lord Jesus” (ton Kyʹri·on I·e·sounʹ), there are good reasons for using the divine name in this verse. A few Greek manuscripts read “the word of God” (ton loʹgon tou The·ouʹ). In the book of Acts, the expressions “the word of the Lord” and “the word of God” are used as synonymous expressions, supporting the conclusion that Kyʹri·os here at Acts 16:32 refers to God. (Acts 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 13:5, 7, 46; 17:13; 18:11) Both expressions have their background in the Hebrew Scriptures, where the expression “the word of Jehovah” as a combination of the Hebrew term for “word” and the Tetragrammaton occurs far more often than does the expression “the word of God.” (The phrase “the word of Jehovah” [or, “Jehovah’s word”] occurs in some 200 verses. Some examples are found at 2 Samuel 12:9; 24:11; 2 Kings 7:1; 20:16; 24:2; Isaiah 1:10; 2:3; 28:14; 38:4; Jeremiah 1:4; 2:4; Ezekiel 1:3; 6:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zechariah 9:1.) When this expression occurs at Zechariah 9:1 in an early copy of the Septuagint found at Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, the Greek word loʹgos is followed by the divine name written in ancient Hebrew characters (). This parchment scroll is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the above-mentioned manuscript evidence, and the background and ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 16:32 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is possibly “used of Yahweh.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 22, 23, 28-30, 32, 41, 65, 66, 93-95, 100, 101, 106, 115

ACTS 18:21 “if Jehovah is willing”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts literally read “God willing”; this expression has also been translated “if it is God’s will” or “God willing.” In such expressions, as used in the Christian Greek Scriptures, both the term Kyʹri·os (Lord) and the term The·osʹ (God) appear. (Acts 21:14; 1 Corinthians 4:19; 16:7; Hebrews 6:3; James 4:15) In the Septuagint, the Greek verb here rendered “is willing” and the Greek noun for “will” are often used to render Hebrew Scripture passages where the divine name appears. Also, some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the Tetragrammaton here. Therefore, in view of the Hebrew Scripture background and the similar expressions appearing in the Christian Greek Scriptures, the divine name can appropriately be used here.​—See comment on Acts 21:14.

SUPPORT:

  • A Handbook on the Letter From James, by I-Jin Loh and Howard A. Hatton, produced by the United Bible Societies, 1997, makes this comment on the expression “if the Lord wills” as it appears at James 4:15: “If the Lord wills . . . is not merely a casual formula but a conviction and acknowledgment that God has the final say on everything, and that the future is in the hand of God . . . The Lord here refers not to Jesus as in 2.1, but to God.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J17, 32, 33, 37, 48, 65, 94, 100, 101, 115, 125

ACTS 18:25 “the way of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts read “the way of the Lord” (ten ho·donʹ tou Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. Here the context points to God as the one referred to as “the Lord.” At Acts 18:26, the expression “the way of God” is used as a synonym. As shown in the book of Acts, the Christian way of life is centered on worship of the only true God, Jehovah, and on faith in his Son, Jesus Christ, and it is referred to as “The Way” or “this Way.” (Acts 19:9, 23; 22:4; 24:22; see study note on Acts 9:2.) Also, the expression rendered “the way of Jehovah” (but without the definite article in Greek) appears four times in the Gospel accounts, where it is part of a quote from Isaiah 40:3. (See study notes on Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23.) At Isaiah 40:3, the original Hebrew text uses the Tetragrammaton. The expression “the way of Jehovah” (or, “Jehovah’s way”) also occurs at Judges 2:22 and Jeremiah 5:4, 5. Additionally, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew here use the divine name or an equivalent of the Tetragrammaton and read “the way of Jehovah.” So in view of the context and the Hebrew Scripture background, the divine name is used here in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 18:25 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • Holy Bible From the Ancient Eastern Text​—George M. Lamsa’s Translation From the Aramaic of the Peshitta uses capital and small capitals for “LORD” in this verse and says in a footnote: “The Syriac and Aramaic form of the Divine Name, ‘Mar-Yah’ or ‘Mor-Yah’ literally means ‘Lord Yah,’ as in ‘Yahweh,’ ‘YHWH.’”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 24, 29, 30, 32, 41, 42, 48, 65, 93, 94, 96, 100, 101, 115, 125, 132

ACTS 19:20 “the word of Jehovah”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the Lord” (tou Ky·riʹou) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The book of Acts also uses a synonymous expression, “the word of God,” supporting the conclusion that Kyʹri·os at Acts 19:20 refers to God. (Acts 4:31; 6:2, 7; 8:14; 11:1; 13:5, 7, 46; 17:13; 18:11) Both expressions have their background in the Hebrew Scriptures, where the expression “the word of Jehovah” as a combination of the Hebrew term for “word” and the Tetragrammaton occurs far more often than does the expression “the word of God.” (The phrase “the word of Jehovah” [or, “Jehovah’s word”] occurs in some 200 verses. Some examples are found at 2 Samuel 12:9; 24:11; 2 Kings 7:1; 20:16; 24:2; Isaiah 1:10; 2:3; 28:14; 38:4; Jeremiah 1:4; 2:4; Ezekiel 1:3; 6:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1; Zechariah 9:1.) When this expression occurs at Zechariah 9:1 in an early copy of the Septuagint found at Nahal Hever, Israel, in the Judean Desert near the Dead Sea, the Greek word loʹgos is followed by the divine name written in ancient Hebrew characters (). This parchment scroll is dated between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. Also, a number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here. The Latin Vulgate and the Syriac Peshitta read “the word of God.” In view of the Hebrew Scripture background, the above-mentioned manuscript evidence, and the background and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used here in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, p. 329) lists Acts 19:20 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used in the NT [New Testament] of Yahweh/God.”

  • The Orthodox Jewish Bible, 2011, uses “Hashem” to represent the divine name at Acts 19:20. The term “Hashem” comes from the Hebrew expression hash·Shemʹ, meaning “the Name,” often used by Jews as a substitute for YHWH.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 15-18, 23, 31, 32, 41, 48, 65, 94-96, 100, 101, 115, 125

ACTS 21:14 “Let the will of Jehovah take place”

REASON(S): Most Greek manuscripts read “the Lord’s will,” but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os (Lord) can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The Greek term for “will” (theʹle·ma), as used in the Christian Greek Scriptures, is most often connected with God’s will. (Matthew 7:21; 12:50; Mark 3:35; Romans 12:2; 1 Corinthians 1:1; Hebrews 10:36; 1 Peter 2:15; 4:2; 1 John 2:17) Therefore, it is logical to conclude that Kyʹri·os in this expression refers to God. In the Septuagint, the Greek term theʹle·ma is often used to translate Hebrew expressions for God’s will, or delight, and can be found in passages where the divine name occurs. (Psalm 40:8, 9 [39:9, 10, LXX]; 103:21 [102:21, LXX]; 143:9-11 [142:9-11, LXX]; Isaiah 44:24, 28; Jeremiah 9:24 [9:23, LXX]; Malachi 1:10) So in view of the way the Greek word for “will” is used in the Bible, the background of this expression in the Hebrew Scriptures, and the background and the ambiguity of the term Kyʹri·os, the divine name is used in the main text. Also, some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew use the divine name here.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1998, (Vol. 31) makes this comment on Acts 21:14: “In this case, Kyrios refers to God the Father.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Acts 21:14 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The New Testament in Basic English, 1946, says: “Let the purpose of God be done.”

  • The Orthodox Jewish Bible, 2011, uses “Hashem” to represent the divine name at Acts 21:14. The term “Hashem” comes from the Hebrew expression hash·Shemʹ, meaning “the Name,” often used by Jews as a substitute for YHWH.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 17, 18, 23, 32, 43, 65, 94-96, 100, 101, 115, 132