Bethphage: The name of this village on the Mount of Olives comes from Hebrew, probably meaning “House of the Early Figs.” Tradition locates Bethphage between Jerusalem and Bethany on the SE slope of the Mount of Olives, near the peak, about 1 km (less than 1 mi) from Jerusalem.
Bethany: A village on the ESE slope of the Mount of Olives at a distance of about 3 km (2 mi) from Jerusalem. (Joh 11:18, ftn.) The home of Martha, Mary, and Lazarus, located in this village, appears to have been Jesus’ base in Judea. (Joh 11:1) Today the site is marked by a small village with an Arabic name meaning “The Place of Lazarus.”
a donkey tied and a colt with her: Only Matthew’s account mentions both the donkey and its colt. (Mr 11:2-7; Lu 19:30-35; Joh 12:14, 15) Evidently, since Jesus rode only on the colt, Mark, Luke, and John mention only one animal.
a colt: That is, a young donkey. The accounts of Mark, Luke (19:35), and John (12:14, 15) mention only one animal, the colt, when describing this event. Matthew’s account (21:
Save, we pray: Lit., “Hosanna.” That Greek term comes from a Hebrew expression that means “save, we pray” or “save, please.” Here the term is used as a plea to God for salvation or victory; it could be rendered “please, grant salvation to.” In time, it became an expression of both prayer and praise. The Hebrew expression is found at Ps 118:25, which was part of the Hallel Psalms sung regularly during Passover season. Therefore, these words readily came to mind on this occasion. One way God answered this prayer to save the Son of David was by resurrecting him from the dead. At Mr 12:10, 11, Jesus himself quotes Ps 118:22, 23 and applies it to the Messiah.
the coming Kingdom of our father David: The earliest and most reliable manuscripts support the main text reading but there are a few ancient manuscripts that read: “The kingdom of our father David that comes in the name of the Lord.” This reading is reflected in some English Bible translations. A number of translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew (referred to as J7, 8, 10-
he found nothing but leaves: Although it was unusual for a fig tree to bear fruit at that time of year, the tree had leaves
temple: Probably referring to the part of the temple area known as the Court of the Gentiles.
money changers: Many different types of coins were in use, but apparently only a certain type of coin could be used to pay the annual temple tax or to buy sacrificial animals. Therefore, Jews traveling to Jerusalem would have to exchange their currency for money that would be accepted at the temple. Jesus evidently felt that the fees charged by the money changers were exorbitant and that their actions amounted to extortion.
carry a utensil through the temple: Evidently, some used the temple courtyard as a shortcut to transport items for personal or commercial use. Jesus did not allow this, since it detracted from the sanctity of God’s house.
a house of prayer for all the nations: Of the three Gospel writers who quote Isa 56:7, only Mark includes the phrase “for all the nations [peoples].” (Mt 21:13; Lu 19:46) The temple in Jerusalem was meant to be a place where both Israelites and God-fearing foreigners could worship and pray to Jehovah. (1Ki 8:
cave of robbers: Or “den of thieves.” Jesus here alludes to Jer 7:11. He likely called the merchants and money changers “robbers” because they made unjust profit from selling animals for sacrifice and charged exorbitant fees for exchanging currencies. Jesus was also indignant that Jehovah’s house of prayer, or place of worship, had been wrongly turned into a center for commercial activity.
late in the day: That is, late on Nisan 10. Jesus and his disciples went out of Jerusalem, returning to Bethany on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives. Jesus likely spent the night at the home of his friends Lazarus, Mary, and Martha.
early in the morning: That is, on Nisan 11. Jesus and his disciples are heading back to Jerusalem for the final day of Jesus’ public ministry before he celebrates the Passover, institutes the Memorial of his death, and faces trial and execution.
stand praying: Among the Hebrews and many of the other nations mentioned in the Bible, there was no set form of posture for prayer. All the attitudes that they assumed were highly respectful. Standing to pray was common.
Some ancient manuscripts here read: “But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father who is in the heavens forgive your trespasses.” These words do not appear in the earliest and most reliable manuscripts and are evidently not part of the original text of Mark. Similar words, though, can be found at Mt 6:
elders: Lit., “older men.” In the Bible, the Greek term pre·sbyʹte·ros refers primarily to those who hold a position of authority and responsibility in a community or a nation. Although the term sometimes refers to physical age (as at Lu 15:25; Ac 2:17), it is not limited to those who are elderly. Here it refers to the leaders of the Jewish nation who are often mentioned together with chief priests and scribes. The Sanhedrin was made up of men from these three groups.
elders: Lit., “older men.” In the Bible, the Greek term pre·sbyʹte·ros refers primarily to those who hold a position of authority and responsibility in a community or a nation. Although the term sometimes refers to physical age (as at Lu 15:25; Ac 2:
The donkey is a hard-hoofed animal of the horse family, distinguished from the horse by its smaller size, shorter mane, longer ears, and shorter tail-hair, with only the end half of the tail having a brush. Although the donkey’s stupidity and stubbornness are proverbial, its intelligence is actually considered to be superior to that of the horse, and it is usually a patient creature. Both men and women, even prominent Israelites, rode donkeys. (Jos 15:18; Jg 5:10; 10:3, 4; 12:14; 1Sa 25:42) Solomon, the son of David, rode to his anointing on his father’s she-mule, a hybrid offspring of a male donkey. (1Ki 1:33-40) It was therefore most appropriate that Jesus, the one greater than Solomon, fulfill the prophecy of Zec 9:9 by riding, not on a horse, but on a young donkey.
In Bible times, flutes might be made of reed, cane, or even bone or ivory. The flute was one of the most popular of all musical instruments. It was played on joyous occasions, such as at banquets and weddings (1Ki 1:40; Isa 5:12; 30:29), a custom imitated by children in public places. It was also played at times of sadness. Professional mourners were often accompanied by flutists playing mournful tunes. The piece of a flute shown here was found in Jerusalem in a layer of rubble that dates to when the temple was destroyed by the Romans. It is about 15 cm (6 in.) long and is likely made from a bone that was part of the front leg of a cow.