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Jehovah’s Witnesses

English
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

According to John 6:1-71

6  After this Jesus set out across the Sea of Galʹi·lee, or Ti·beʹri·as.+  And a large crowd kept following him,+ because they were observing the miraculous signs he was performing in healing the sick.+  So Jesus went up on a mountain and sat down there with his disciples.  Now the Passover,+ the festival of the Jews, was near.  When Jesus raised his eyes and saw that a large crowd was coming to him, he said to Philip:+ “Where will we buy bread for these people to eat?”+  However, he was saying this to test him, for he knew what he was about to do.  Philip answered him: “Two hundred de·narʹi·i worth of bread is not enough for each of them to get even a little.”  One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him:  “Here is a little boy who has five barley loaves and two small fish. But what are these among so many?”+ 10  Jesus said: “Have the men sit down.” As there was a lot of grass in that place, the men sat down there, about 5,000 in number.+ 11  Jesus took the bread, and after giving thanks, he distributed it to those who were sitting there; he did likewise with the small fish, and they had as much as they wanted. 12  But when they had eaten their fill, he said to his disciples: “Gather together the fragments left over, so that nothing is wasted.” 13  So they gathered them together and filled 12 baskets with fragments left over by those who had eaten from the five barley loaves. 14  When the people saw the sign he performed, they began to say: “This really is the Prophet who was to come into the world.”+ 15  Then Jesus, knowing that they were about to come and seize him to make him king, withdrew+ again to the mountain all alone.+ 16  When evening fell, his disciples went down to the sea,+ 17  and boarding a boat, they set out across the sea for Ca·perʹna·um. By now it had grown dark, and Jesus had not yet come to them.+ 18  Also, the sea was getting rough because a strong wind was blowing.+ 19  However, when they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and getting near the boat, and they became fearful. 20  But he said to them: “It is I; do not be afraid!”+ 21  Then they were willing to take him into the boat, and right away the boat arrived at the land to which they had been heading.+ 22  The next day the crowd that had stayed on the other side of the sea saw that there was no other boat there except a small one, and that Jesus had not boarded the boat with his disciples, but his disciples had left by themselves. 23  Boats from Ti·beʹri·as, however, arrived near the place where they ate the bread after the Lord had given thanks. 24  So when the crowd saw that neither Jesus nor his disciples were there, they boarded their boats and came to Ca·perʹna·um to look for Jesus. 25  When they found him across the sea, they said to him: “Rabbi,+ when did you get here?” 26  Jesus answered them: “Most truly I say to you, you are looking for me, not because you saw signs, but because you ate from the loaves and were satisfied.+ 27  Work, not for the food that perishes,+ but for the food that remains for everlasting life,+ which the Son of man will give you; for on this one the Father, God himself, has put his seal of approval.”+ 28  So they said to him: “What must we do to carry out the works of God?” 29  In answer Jesus said to them: “This is the work of God, that you exercise faith in the one whom he sent.”+ 30  Then they said to him: “What are you performing as a sign,+ so that we may see it and believe you? What work are you doing? 31  Our forefathers ate the manna in the wilderness,+ just as it is written: ‘He gave them bread from heaven to eat.’”+ 32  Jesus then said to them: “Most truly I say to you, Moses did not give you the bread from heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread from heaven. 33  For the bread of God is the one who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.”+ 34  So they said to him: “Lord, always give us this bread.” 35  Jesus said to them: “I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will not get hungry at all, and whoever exercises faith in me will never get thirsty at all.+ 36  But as I said to you, you have even seen me and yet do not believe.+ 37  All those whom the Father gives me will come to me, and I will never drive away the one who comes to me;+ 38  for I have come down from heaven+ to do, not my own will, but the will of him who sent me.+ 39  This is the will of him who sent me, that I should lose none out of all those whom he has given me,+ but that I should resurrect+ them on the last day. 40  For this is the will of my Father, that everyone who recognizes the Son and exercises faith in him should have everlasting life,+ and I will resurrect+ him on the last day.” 41  Then the Jews began to murmur about him because he had said: “I am the bread that came down from heaven.”+ 42  And they began saying: “Is this not Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know?+ How does he now say, ‘I have come down from heaven’?” 43  In response Jesus said to them: “Stop murmuring among yourselves. 44  No man can come to me unless the Father, who sent me, draws him,+ and I will resurrect him on the last day.+ 45  It is written in the Prophets: ‘They will all be taught* by Jehovah.’+ Everyone who has listened to the Father and has learned comes to me. 46  Not that any man has seen the Father,+ except the one who is from God; this one has seen the Father.+ 47  Most truly I say to you, whoever believes has everlasting life.+ 48  “I am the bread of life.+ 49  Your forefathers ate the manna in the wilderness and yet they died.+ 50  This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that anyone may eat of it and not die. 51  I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread he will live forever; and for a fact, the bread that I will give is my flesh in behalf of the life of the world.”+ 52  Then the Jews began to argue with one another, saying: “How can this man give us his flesh to eat?” 53  So Jesus said to them: “Most truly I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves.+ 54  Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has everlasting life, and I will resurrect+ him on the last day; 55  for my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. 56  Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood remains in union with me, and I in union with him.+ 57  Just as the living Father sent me and I live because of the Father, so also the one who feeds on me will live because of me.+ 58  This is the bread that came down from heaven. It is not as when your forefathers ate and yet died. Whoever feeds on this bread will live forever.”+ 59  He said these things as he was teaching in a synagogue in Ca·perʹna·um. 60  When they heard this, many of his disciples said: “This speech is shocking; who can listen to it?” 61  But Jesus, knowing in himself that his disciples were murmuring about this, said to them: “Does this stumble you?* 62  What, therefore, if you should see the Son of man ascending to where he was before?+ 63  It is the spirit that is life-giving;+ the flesh is of no use at all. The sayings that I have spoken to you are spirit and are life.+ 64  But there are some of you who do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the beginning those who did not believe and the one who would betray him.+ 65  He went on to say: “This is why I have said to you, no one can come to me unless it is granted him by the Father.”+ 66  Because of this, many of his disciples went off to the things behind+ and would no longer walk with him. 67  So Jesus said to the Twelve: “You do not want to go also, do you?” 68  Simon Peter answered him: “Lord, whom shall we go away to?+ You have sayings of everlasting life.+ 69  We have believed and have come to know that you are the Holy One of God.”+ 70  Jesus answered them: “I chose you twelve, did I not?+ Yet one of you is a slanderer.”+ 71  He was, in fact, speaking of Judas the son of Simon Is·carʹi·ot, for this one was going to betray him, although he was one of the Twelve.+

Footnotes

Or “be those taught.”
Or “Does this offend you; Does this cause you to be offended?”

Study Notes

the Sea of Galilee: A freshwater inland lake in northern Israel. (The Greek word translated “sea” may also mean “lake.”) It has been called the Sea of Chinnereth (Nu 34:11), the lake of Gennesaret (Lu 5:1), and the Sea of Tiberias (Joh 6:1). It lies an average of 210 m (700 ft) below sea level. It is 21 km (13 mi) long from N to S and 12 km (8 mi) wide, and its greatest depth is about 48 m (157 ft).—See App. A7, Map 3B, “Activity at the Sea of Galilee.”

the Sea of Galilee, or Tiberias: The Sea of Galilee was sometimes called the Sea of Tiberias—after the city on its western shore that was named for Roman Emperor Tiberius Caesar. (Joh 6:23) The name Sea of Tiberias occurs here and at Joh 21:1.—See study note on Mt 4:18.

the Passover: Jesus started his preaching activity after his baptism in the fall of 29 C.E., so this reference to a Passover early in his ministry must have been to the one celebrated in the spring of 30 C.E. (See study note on Lu 3:1 and App. A7.) A comparison of the four Gospel accounts indicates that four Passovers were celebrated during Jesus’ earthly ministry, leading to the conclusion that his ministry was three and a half years long. The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke (often called the synoptic Gospels) do not mention any Passover except the final one, at which Jesus died. John’s account specifically mentions three Passovers (Joh 2:13; 6:4; 11:55), and a fourth one is most likely referred to by the expression “a festival of the Jews” at Joh 5:1. This example highlights the value of comparing the Gospel accounts to gain a more complete picture of Jesus’ life.—See study notes on Joh 5:1; 6:4; 11:55.

a festival of the Jews: Although John does not specify which festival is referred to, there are good reasons to conclude that it is the Passover of 31 C.E. John’s account was generally in chronological order. The context places this festival shortly after Jesus said that there were “yet four months before the harvest.” (Joh 4:35) The harvest season, particularly the barley harvest, got under way about Passover time (Nisan 14). So it seems that Jesus’ statement was made about four months before that, about the month of Chislev (November/December). Two other festivals, the festivals of Dedication and of Purim, fell during the time period from Chislev to Nisan. However, these festivals did not require an Israelite to go up to Jerusalem. So in this context, the Passover seems to be the most likely “festival of the Jews” that required Jesus to attend in Jerusalem according to God’s Law to Israel. (De 16:16) It is true that John records only a few events before the next mention of the Passover (Joh 6:4), but a consideration of the chart in App. A7 shows that John’s account of Jesus’ early ministry was abbreviated, and many events already covered by the other three Gospel writers were not mentioned. In fact, the great amount of activity of Jesus recorded in the other three Gospels lends weight to the conclusion that an annual Passover did indeed come between the events recorded at Joh 2:13 and those at Joh 6:4.—See App. A7 and study note on Joh 2:13.

the Passover: That is, Passover 33 C.E., apparently the fourth Passover mentioned in the Gospel of John.—See study notes on Joh 2:13; 5:1; 6:4.

the Passover: Apparently referring to the Passover of 32 C.E., the third Passover during Jesus’ earthly ministry.—See study notes on Joh 2:13; 5:1; 11:55 and App. A7.

denarii: See Glossary, “Denarius” and App. B14.

the men sat down there, about 5,000 in number: Only Matthew’s account adds “as well as women and young children” when reporting this miracle. (Mt 14:21) It is possible that the total number of those miraculously fed was well over 15,000.

world: The Greek word koʹsmos here refers to the world of mankind. In this context, the expression come into the world seems to refer primarily to Jesus’ going out among mankind at the time of his baptism rather than to his birth as a human. After his baptism, he carried out his assigned ministry, acting as a light bearer to the world of mankind.—Compare Joh 3:17, 19; 6:14; 9:39; 10:36; 11:27; 12:46; 1Jo 4:9.

the Prophet: Many Jews in the first century C.E. expected that the prophet like Moses, mentioned at De 18:15, 18, would be the Messiah. In this context, the expression come into the world seems to refer to the expected appearance of the Messiah. Only John recorded the events mentioned in this verse.—See study note on Joh 1:9.

to make him king: Only John recorded this incident. Jesus resolutely refused to get involved in the politics of his homeland. He would accept kingship only in God’s way and in God’s due time. Jesus later emphasized that his followers were to take the same position.—Joh 15:19; 17:14, 16; 18:36.

the Sea of Galilee: A freshwater inland lake in northern Israel. (The Greek word translated “sea” may also mean “lake.”) It has been called the Sea of Chinnereth (Nu 34:11), the lake of Gennesaret (Lu 5:1), and the Sea of Tiberias (Joh 6:1). It lies an average of 210 m (700 ft) below sea level. It is 21 km (13 mi) long from N to S and 12 km (8 mi) wide, and its greatest depth is about 48 m (157 ft).—See App. A7, Map 3B, “Activity at the Sea of Galilee.”

the Sea of Galilee, or Tiberias: The Sea of Galilee was sometimes called the Sea of Tiberias—after the city on its western shore that was named for Roman Emperor Tiberius Caesar. (Joh 6:23) The name Sea of Tiberias occurs here and at Joh 21:1.—See study note on Mt 4:18.

the sea: That is, the Sea of Galilee.—See study notes on Mt 4:18; Joh 6:1.

the Sea of Galilee: A freshwater inland lake in northern Israel. (The Greek word translated “sea” may also mean “lake.”) It has been called the Sea of Chinnereth (Nu 34:11), the lake of Gennesaret (Lu 5:1), and the Sea of Tiberias (Joh 6:1). It lies an average of 210 m (700 ft) below sea level. It is 21 km (13 mi) long from N to S and 12 km (8 mi) wide, and its greatest depth is about 48 m (157 ft).—See App. A7, Map 3B, “Activity at the Sea of Galilee.”

about three or four miles: About 5 or 6 km. Lit., “about 25 or 30 stadia.” The Greek word staʹdi·on denotes a linear measurement that equaled 185 m (606.95 ft), or one eighth of a Roman mile. Since the Sea of Galilee is about 12 km (8 mi) wide, the disciples may have been in about the middle of the lake.—Mr 6:47; see study note on Mt 4:18 and App. A7 and B14.

Tiberias: A city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, about 15 km (9.5 mi) S of Capernaum and just N of some hot springs that were famous in ancient times. It was built by Herod Antipas sometime between 18 and 26 C.E. as his new capital and residence. He named the city in honor of Tiberius Caesar, Roman emperor at the time, and it is still called Tiberias (Hebrew: Teverya). Though it was the largest city in the region, this is the only mention of it in the Scriptures. It is never stated that Jesus visited Tiberias, perhaps because of its strong foreign influence. (Compare Mt 10:5-7.) According to Josephus, the city of Tiberias had been built on the site of tombs; therefore, many Jews had been reluctant to move there. (Num 19:11-14) After the Jewish revolt in the second century C.E., Tiberias was declared cleansed and became the leading city of Jewish scholarship and the seat of the Sanhedrin. The Mishnah and the Palestinian (Jerusalem) Talmud were compiled here, as well as the Masoretic text that was later used for translating the Hebrew Scriptures.—See App. B10.

food that perishes . . . food that remains for everlasting life: Jesus understood that some people were associating with him and his disciples solely for material advantage. While physical food sustains people day by day, “food” from God’s Word will make it possible for humans to stay alive forever. Jesus urges the crowd to work . . . for “the food that remains for everlasting life,” that is, to put forth effort to satisfy their spiritual need and to exercise faith in what they learn.—Mt 4:4; 5:3; Joh 6:28-39.

Our forefathers ate the manna: The Jews wanted a Messianic King who could supply them with material food. As a justification, they reminded Jesus that God had given their forefathers manna in the wilderness of Sinai. Quoting from Ps 78:24, they referred to the miraculously provided manna as bread [or, “grain”] from heaven. When requesting “a sign” from Jesus (Joh 6:30), they may have had in mind the miracle he had performed just the day before when he multiplied five barley loaves and two small fish into enough food to feed thousands.—Joh 6:9-12.

the world came into existence through him: Here the Greek word koʹsmos (“world”) refers to the world of mankind, which is evident later in the verse where it says that the world did not know him. The Greek term was sometimes used in secular writings to refer to the universe and creation in general, and the apostle Paul may have used it in that sense when he was addressing a Greek audience. (Ac 17:24) However, in the Christian Greek Scriptures, the term generally refers to the world of mankind or a part of it. It is true that Jesus did share in the production of all things, including the heavens and the earth and all things in it. But the focus of this verse is his role in bringing humankind into existence.—Ge 1:26; Joh 1:3; Col 1:15-17.

the world: In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the Greek word koʹsmos generally refers to the world of mankind or a part of it. (See study note on Joh 1:10.) At Joh 1:29, Jesus as the Lamb of God is said to take away “the sin of the world.” At Joh 6:33, Jesus is described as the bread of God, Jehovah’s channel of life and blessings to mankind.

the bread of life: This expression occurs only twice in the Scriptures. (Joh 6:35, 48) In this context, life refers to “everlasting life.” (Joh 6:40, 47, 54) During this discussion, Jesus refers to himself as “the true bread from heaven” (Joh 6:32), “the bread of God” (Joh 6:33), and “the living bread” (Joh 6:51). He points out that the Israelites were given the manna in the wilderness (Ne 9:20); yet, this divinely provided food did not sustain their lives forever (Joh 6:49). By contrast, Christ’s faithful followers have available to them heavenly manna, or “bread of life” (Joh 6:48-51, 58), which makes it possible for them to live forever. They ‘eat of this bread’ by exercising faith in the redeeming power of Jesus’ flesh and blood that he sacrificed.

I know he will rise: Martha thought that Jesus was talking about the future resurrection, on the last day. (See study note on Joh 6:39.) Her faith in that teaching was remarkable. Some religious leaders of her day, called Sadducees, denied that there would be a resurrection, though it is a clear teaching in the inspired Scriptures. (Da 12:13; Mr 12:18) On the other hand, the Pharisees believed in the immortality of the soul. Martha knew, however, that Jesus taught the resurrection hope and had even performed resurrections, although not of anyone who had been dead as long as Lazarus had been.

I should resurrect them on the last day: Jesus states four times that he will resurrect people on the last day. (Joh 6:40, 44, 54) At Joh 11:24, Martha too refers to “the resurrection on the last day.” (Compare Da 12:13; see study note on Joh 11:24.) At Joh 12:48, this “last day” is associated with a time of judgment, which will apparently include the Thousand Year Reign of Christ when he will judge mankind, including all those resurrected from the dead.—Re 20:4-6.

everlasting life: On this occasion, the expression “everlasting life” is used four times (Joh 6:27, 40, 47, 54) by Jesus and once (Joh 6:68) by one of his disciples. The expression “everlasting life” occurs 17 times in the Gospel of John compared with 8 times in the three other Gospels combined.

draws him: Although the Greek verb for “draw” is used in reference to hauling in a net of fish (Joh 21:6, 11), it does not suggest that God drags people against their will. This verb can also mean “to attract,” and Jesus’ statement may allude to Jer 31:3, where Jehovah said to his ancient people: “I have drawn you to me with loyal love.” (The Septuagint uses the same Greek verb here.) Joh 12:32 shows that in a similar way, Jesus draws men of all sorts to himself. The Scriptures show that Jehovah has given humans free will. Everyone has a choice when it comes to serving Him. (De 30:19, 20) God gently draws to himself those who have a heart that is rightly disposed. (Ps 11:5; Pr 21:2; Ac 13:48) Jehovah does so through the Bible’s message and through his holy spirit. The prophecy from Isa 54:13, quoted in Joh 6:45, applies to those who are drawn by the Father.—Compare Joh 6:65.

Jehovah: In this quote from Isa 54:13, the divine name, represented by four Hebrew consonants (transliterated YHWH), occurs in the original Hebrew text. Existing Greek manuscripts of the Gospel of John use the word the·osʹ here (perhaps reflecting the term used at Isa 54:13 in copies of the Septuagint), which explains why most translations say “God.” However, in view of the Hebrew Scripture background of this quotation, the divine name is used in the main text.

has life in himself: Or “has in himself the gift of life.” Jesus has “life in himself” because his Father granted him powers that originally only Jehovah had. These powers no doubt include the authority to give humans the opportunity to have a fine standing before God and thus gain life. They would also include the ability to impart life by resurrecting the dead. About a year after Jesus made the statement recorded here, he indicated that his followers could have life in themselves.—For the meaning of the expression “life in yourselves” as it applies to Jesus’ followers, see study note on Joh 6:53.

life in yourselves: At Joh 5:26, Jesus said that he was granted “life in himself” just as his father has “life in himself.” (See study note on Joh 5:26.) Now, about a year later, Jesus uses the same expression regarding his followers. Here he equates having “life in yourselves” with gaining “everlasting life.” (Joh 6:54) Rather than denoting the power to impart life, in this context the expression “life in oneself” seems to refer to entering into the very fullness of life, or being fully alive. Anointed Christians become fully alive when they are resurrected to immortal life in heaven. Faithful ones with an earthly hope will be fully alive after they pass the final test that will occur right after the end of the Millennial Reign of Christ.—1Co 15:52, 53; Re 20:5, 7-10.

feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood: The context indicates that those who feed and drink do so in a figurative sense by exercising faith in Jesus Christ. (Joh 6:35, 40) Jesus made this statement in 32 C.E., so he was not discussing the Lord’s Evening Meal, which he would institute a year later. He made this declaration just prior to “the Passover, the festival of the Jews” (Joh 6:4), so his listeners would likely have been reminded of the impending festival and the significance of the lamb’s blood in saving lives on the night that Israel left Egypt (Ex 12:24-27). Jesus was emphasizing that his blood would likewise play an essential role in making it possible for his disciples to gain everlasting life.

in union with me: Or “in me.” This expression indicates close association, harmony, and unity.

a synagogue: Or possibly, “public assembly.” The Greek noun sy·na·go·geʹ used here literally means “a bringing together; an assembly.” In most occurrences in the Christian Greek Scriptures, it refers to the building or place where Jews assembled for Scripture reading, instruction, preaching, and prayer. (See Glossary, “Synagogue.”) Although the term in this context could be used in a broader sense to refer to any type of gathering that was accessible to the public, it most likely refers to “a synagogue” where Jesus was addressing a Jewish audience who were under the Mosaic Law.

what this means: Lit., “what is.” Here the Greek word e·stinʹ (literally meaning “is”) has the sense of “signifies; means.”—See study note on Mt 26:26.

means: The Greek word e·stinʹ (literally meaning “is”) here has the sense of “signifies; symbolizes; stands for; represents.” This meaning was evident to the apostles, since on this occasion Jesus’ perfect body was there in front of them and so was the unleavened bread that they were about to eat. Therefore, the bread could not have been his literal body. It is worth noting that the same Greek word is used at Mt 12:7, and many Bible translations render it “means.”

the spirit: Apparently referring to God’s holy spirit. Jesus adds that in contrast with the power and wisdom that God grants through his spirit, the flesh is of no use at all. This indicates that the power as well as the wisdom of humans, as reflected in their writings, philosophies, and teachings, cannot lead to everlasting life.

the flesh: This expression seems to refer broadly to things connected with the limitations of a fleshly or human existence, including human reasoning and achievements. The sum total of human experience and wisdom, all its writings, philosophies, and teachings, are of no use at all as a means to gain eternal life.

are spirit and are life: The Greek word rendered “are” (e·stinʹ) may here have the sense of “mean,” so this phrase could be rendered “means spirit and means life.” (See study notes on Mt 12:7; 26:26.) Jesus is apparently indicating that his sayings are inspired by holy spirit and that these sayings are life-giving.

a slanderer: Or “a devil.” The Greek word di·aʹbo·los, most often used with reference to the Devil, means “slanderer.” It is rendered “slanderers” (2Ti 3:3) or “slanderous” (1Ti 3:11; Tit 2:3) in the few other occurrences where the term does not refer to the Devil. In Greek, when used about the Devil, it is almost always preceded by the definite article. (See study note on Mt 4:1 and Glossary, “Definite Article.”) Here the term is used to describe Judas Iscariot, who had developed a bad quality. It is possible that at this point Jesus detected that Judas was starting down a wrong course, one that later allowed Satan to use Judas as an ally in having Jesus killed.—Joh 13:2, 11.

he knew: Since Jesus could discern the thinking and attitudes of those around him, it is clear that Judas did not have a treasonous attitude when he was selected to be an apostle. (Mt 9:4; Mr 2:8; Joh 2:24, 25) However, when Judas later began to develop a bad attitude, Jesus detected it and was able to identify his betrayer. Despite knowing that Judas would betray him, Jesus still washed the feet of this traitor.—See study notes on Joh 6:64; 6:70.

Jesus knew . . . the one who would betray him: Jesus was referring to Judas Iscariot. Jesus spent the entire night in prayer to his Father before selecting the 12 apostles. (Lu 6:12-16) So at first, Judas was faithful to God. However, Jesus knew from Hebrew Scripture prophecies that he would be betrayed by a close associate. (Ps 41:9; 109:8; Joh 13:18, 19) When Judas started to go bad, Jesus, who could read hearts and thoughts, detected this change. (Mt 9:4) By use of his foreknowledge, God knew that a trusted companion of Jesus would turn traitor. But it is inconsistent with God’s qualities and past dealings to think that Judas had to be the one who would fail, as if his failure were predestined.

from the beginning: This expression does not refer to Judas’ birth or to his being selected as an apostle, which happened after Jesus had prayed the entire night. (Lu 6:12-16) Rather, it refers to the start of Judas’ acting treacherously, which Jesus immediately discerned. (Joh 2:24, 25; Re 1:1; 2:23; see study notes on Joh 6:70; 13:11.) This also shows that Judas’ actions were premeditated and planned, not the result of a sudden change of heart. The meaning of the term “beginning” (Greek, ar·kheʹ) in the Christian Greek Scriptures is relative, depending on the context. For example, at 2Pe 3:4, “beginning” refers to the start of creation. But in most instances, it is used in a more limited sense. For instance, Peter said that the holy spirit fell on the Gentiles “just as it did also on us in the beginning.” (Ac 11:15) Peter was not referring to the time of his birth or to the time when he was called to be an apostle. Rather, he was referring to the day of Pentecost 33 C.E., that is, “the beginning” of the outpouring of holy spirit for a specific purpose. (Ac 2:1-4) Other examples of how the context affects the meaning of the term “beginning” can be found at Lu 1:2; Joh 15:27; and 1Jo 2:7.

Devil: From the Greek word di·aʹbo·los, meaning “slanderer.” (Joh 6:70; 2Ti 3:3) The related verb di·a·balʹlo means “to accuse; bring charges against” and is rendered “was accused” at Lu 16:1.

a slanderer: Or “a devil.” The Greek word di·aʹbo·los, most often used with reference to the Devil, means “slanderer.” It is rendered “slanderers” (2Ti 3:3) or “slanderous” (1Ti 3:11; Tit 2:3) in the few other occurrences where the term does not refer to the Devil. In Greek, when used about the Devil, it is almost always preceded by the definite article. (See study note on Mt 4:1 and Glossary, “Definite Article.”) Here the term is used to describe Judas Iscariot, who had developed a bad quality. It is possible that at this point Jesus detected that Judas was starting down a wrong course, one that later allowed Satan to use Judas as an ally in having Jesus killed.—Joh 13:2, 11.

Media

Baskets
Baskets

In the Bible, a number of different words are used to describe various types of baskets. For example, the Greek word identifying the 12 vessels used to gather leftovers after Jesus miraculously fed about 5,000 men indicates that they may have been relatively small wicker handbaskets. However, a different Greek word is used to describe the seven baskets that contained the leftovers after Jesus fed about 4,000 men. (Mr 8:8, 9) This word denotes a large basket or hamper, and the same Greek word is used to describe the kind of basket in which Paul was lowered to the ground through an opening in the wall of Damascus.Ac 9:25.