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Jehovah’s Witnesses

English
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

According to Luke 22:1-71

22  Now the Festival of the Unleavened Bread, which is called Passover,+ was getting near.+  And the chief priests and the scribes were looking for an effective way to get rid of him,+ because they were afraid of the people.+  Then Satan entered into Judas, the one called Is·carʹi·ot, who was numbered among the Twelve,+  and he went off and talked with the chief priests and temple captains about how to betray him to them.+  They were delighted at this and agreed to give him silver money.+  So he consented and began looking for a good opportunity to betray him to them without a crowd around.  The day of the Unleavened Bread now arrived, on which the Passover sacrifice must be offered;+  so Jesus sent Peter and John, saying: “Go and get the Passover ready for us to eat.”+  They said to him: “Where do you want us to get it ready?” 10  He said to them: “Look! When you enter into the city, a man carrying an earthenware water jar will meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters.+ 11  And say to the landlord of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you: “Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 12  And that man will show you a large, furnished upper room. Get it ready there.” 13  So they left and found it just as he had told them, and they prepared for the Passover. 14  So when the hour came, he reclined at the table along with the apostles.+ 15  And he said to them: “I have greatly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16  for I tell you, I will not eat it again until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God.” 17  And accepting a cup, he gave thanks and said: “Take this and pass it from one to the other among yourselves, 18  for I tell you, from now on, I will not drink again from the product of the vine until the Kingdom of God comes.”+ 19  Also, he took a loaf,+ gave thanks, broke it, and gave it to them, saying: “This means my body,+ which is to be given in your behalf.+ Keep doing this in remembrance of me.”+ 20  Also, he did the same with the cup after they had the evening meal, saying: “This cup means the new covenant+ by virtue of my blood,+ which is to be poured out in your behalf.+ 21  “But look! the hand of my betrayer is with me at the table.+ 22  For, indeed, the Son of man is going his way according to what has been determined;+ all the same, woe to that man through whom he is betrayed!”+ 23  So they began to discuss among themselves which one of them could really be about to do this.+ 24  However, there also arose a heated dispute among them over which one of them was considered to be the greatest.+ 25  But he said to them: “The kings of the nations lord it over them, and those having authority over them are called Benefactors.+ 26  You, though, are not to be that way.+ But let the one who is the greatest among you become as the youngest,+ and the one taking the lead as the one ministering.+ 27  For which one is greater, the one dining* or the one serving? Is it not the one dining?* But I am among you as the one serving.+ 28  “However, you are the ones who have stuck with me+ in my trials;+ 29  and I make a covenant with you, just as my Father has made a covenant with me, for a kingdom,+ 30  so that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom,+ and sit on thrones+ to judge the 12 tribes of Israel.+ 31  “Simon, Simon, look! Satan has demanded to have all of you to sift you as wheat.+ 32  But I have made supplication for you that your faith may not give out;+ and you, once you have returned, strengthen your brothers.”+ 33  Then he said to him: “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death.”+ 34  But he said: “I tell you, Peter, a rooster will not crow today until you have denied knowing me three times.”+ 35  He also said to them: “When I sent you out without a money bag and a food pouch and sandals,+ you did not lack anything, did you?” They said: “No!”* 36  Then he said to them: “But now let the one who has a money bag take it, likewise a food pouch, and let the one who has no sword sell his outer garment and buy one. 37  For I tell you that what is written must be accomplished in me, namely, ‘He was counted with lawless ones.’+ For this is being fulfilled concerning me.”+ 38  Then they said: “Lord, look! here are two swords.” He said to them: “It is enough.” 39  On leaving, he went as was his custom to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples also followed him.+ 40  On arriving at the place, he said to them: “Carry on prayer so that you do not enter into temptation.”+ 41  And he withdrew from them about a stone’s throw away, and he bent his knees and began to pray, 42  saying: “Father, if you want to, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, let, not my will, but yours take place.”+ 43  Then an angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him.+ 44  But he was in such agony that he kept praying more earnestly;+ and his sweat became as drops of blood falling to the ground. 45  When he rose from prayer and went to the disciples, he found them slumbering, exhausted from grief. 46  He said to them: “Why are you sleeping? Get up and keep praying, so that you do not enter into temptation.”+ 47  While he was still speaking, look! a crowd, and the man called Judas, one of the Twelve, was leading them, and he approached Jesus to kiss him.+ 48  But Jesus said to him: “Judas, are you betraying the Son of man with a kiss?” 49  When those around him saw what was going to happen, they said: “Lord, should we strike with the sword?” 50  One of them even struck the slave of the high priest, taking off his right ear.+ 51  But in reply Jesus said: “That is enough.” And he touched the ear and healed him. 52  Jesus then said to the chief priests and captains of the temple and elders who had come there for him: “Did you come out with swords and clubs as against a robber?+ 53  While I was with you in the temple day after day,+ you did not lay your hands on me.+ But this is your hour and the authority of darkness.”+ 54  Then they arrested him and led him off,+ and they brought him into the house of the high priest; but Peter was following at a distance.+ 55  When they lit a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter was sitting among them.+ 56  But a servant girl, seeing him sitting in the light of the fire, looked closely at him and said: “This man was also with him.” 57  But he denied it, saying: “I do not know him, woman.”+ 58  After a short time another person saw him and said: “You too are one of them.” But Peter said: “Man, I am not.”+ 59  And after about an hour had passed, another man began insisting strongly: “Certainly this man was also with him, for he is, in fact, a Gal·i·leʹan!” 60  But Peter said: “Man, I do not know what you are saying.” And instantly, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 61  At this the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter recalled the statement of the Lord when he had said to him: “Before a rooster crows today, you will disown me three times.”+ 62  And he went outside and wept bitterly. 63  Now the men who held Jesus in custody began to mock him,+ hitting him;+ 64  and after covering his face, they kept asking: “Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?” 65  And they said many other blasphemous things against him. 66  And when it became day, the assembly of elders of the people, both chief priests and scribes, gathered together,+ and they led him into their Sanʹhe·drin hall and said: 67  “If you are the Christ, tell us.”+ But he said to them: “Even if I told you, you would not believe it at all. 68  Moreover, if I questioned you, you would not answer. 69  However, from now on the Son of man+ will be seated at the powerful right hand of God.”+ 70  At this they all said: “Are you, therefore, the Son of God?” He said to them: “You yourselves are saying that I am.” 71  They said: “Why do we need further testimony? For we ourselves have heard it out of his own mouth.”+

Footnotes

Or “reclining at the table.”
Or “reclining at the table.”
Or “They said: ‘Nothing!’”

Study Notes

the Festival of the Unleavened Bread, which is called Passover: Strictly speaking, the Passover, celebrated on Nisan 14, was distinct from the Festival of the Unleavened Bread, which lasted from Nisan 15 to 21. (Le 23:5, 6; Nu 28:16, 17; see App. B15.) In Jesus’ time, however, these two festivals had become so closely connected that all eight days, including Nisan 14, were treated as one festival. Josephus speaks of “a feast for eight days, which is called the feast of unleavened bread.” The events described at Lu 22:1-6 occurred on Nisan 12, 33 C.E.—See App. B12.

temple captains: Here the Greek text literally reads “captains,” but Lu 22:52 adds “of the temple,” to indicate what kind of captains were referred to. Thus, “temple” was added here for clarification. Luke alone mentions these officials. (Ac 4:1; 5:24, 26) They were leaders of the temple guards. They may have been included in the discussion with Judas to make their planned arrest of Jesus appear legal.

the Festival of the Unleavened Bread, which is called Passover: Strictly speaking, the Passover, celebrated on Nisan 14, was distinct from the Festival of the Unleavened Bread, which lasted from Nisan 15 to 21. (Le 23:5, 6; Nu 28:16, 17; see App. B15.) In Jesus’ time, however, these two festivals had become so closely connected that all eight days, including Nisan 14, were treated as one festival. Josephus speaks of “a feast for eight days, which is called the feast of unleavened bread.” The events described at Lu 22:1-6 occurred on Nisan 12, 33 C.E.—See App. B12.

The day of the Unleavened Bread now arrived: As mentioned in the study note on Lu 22:1, the Passover (Nisan 14) and the Festival of the Unleavened Bread (Nisan 15-21) had become so closely connected in Jesus’ time that all eight days, including Nisan 14, were sometimes referred to as “the Festival of the Unleavened Bread.” (See App. B15.) The day mentioned here refers to Nisan 14 because it is said to be the day on which the Passover sacrifice must be offered. (Ex 12:6, 15, 17, 18; Le 23:5; De 16:1-7) What is described in verses 7-13 likely took place on the afternoon of Nisan 13 in preparation for the Passover meal in the evening, that is, at sunset when Nisan 14 started.—See App. B12.

accepting a cup: The cup mentioned here was part of the Passover celebration in Jesus’ day. (Lu 22:15) The Bible does not state that wine was used at the Passover in Egypt; nor did Jehovah command that it be used during the festival. Therefore, the custom of passing a number of cups of wine among the Passover participants was evidently introduced later on. Jesus did not condemn the use of wine with the meal. Rather, he drank the Passover wine with his apostles after giving thanks to God. He later offered them a cup to drink as he instituted the Lord’s Evening Meal.—Lu 22:20.

after breaking the loaves: Bread was often made in flat loaves that were baked hard. Therefore, breaking the loaves to eat them was customary.Mt 15:36; 26:26; Mr 6:41; 8:6; Lu 9:16.

took a loaf . . . broke it: The loaves common in the ancient Near East were thin and, if unleavened, brittle. There was no spiritual significance to Jesus’ breaking the bread; this was the normal way to divide that type of loaf.—See study note on Mt 14:19.

means: The Greek word e·stinʹ (literally meaning “is”) here has the sense of “signifies; symbolizes; stands for; represents.” This meaning was evident to the apostles, since on this occasion Jesus’ perfect body was there in front of them and so was the unleavened bread that they were about to eat. Therefore, the bread could not have been his literal body. It is worth noting that the same Greek word is used at Mt 12:7, and many Bible translations render it “means.”

the evening meal: Evidently referring to the Passover meal that Jesus ate with his disciples before instituting the Lord’s Evening Meal. Thus Jesus celebrated the Passover according to the accepted custom of the time. He did not alter it or interrupt it by introducing anything new into the observance. In this way, he kept the Law as one who was born a Jew. However, when the Passover had been observed according to the Mosaic Law, Jesus was free to introduce the new evening meal for memorializing his approaching death on that same Passover Day.

new covenant by virtue of my blood: Luke is the only Gospel writer to record that Jesus on this occasion referred to a “new covenant,” an allusion to Jer 31:31. The new covenant, between Jehovah and anointed Christians, was made operative by Jesus’ sacrifice. (Heb 8:10) Jesus here uses the terms “covenant” and “blood” in a way similar to the way Moses used the terms when acting as mediator and inaugurating the Law covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai. (Ex 24:8; Heb 9:19-21) Just as the blood of bulls and goats validated the Law covenant between God and the nation of Israel, Jesus’ blood made valid the new covenant that Jehovah would make with spiritual Israel. That covenant went into effect at Pentecost 33 C.E.—Heb 9:14, 15.

. . . poured out in your behalf: The words from the middle of verse 19 (“which is to be given . . .”) to the end of verse 20 are missing in some manuscripts, but this passage has strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.

But look! the hand of my betrayer is with me: What is described in verses 21-23 evidently does not follow in strict chronological order. A comparison of Mt 26:20-29 and Mr 14:17-25 with Joh 13:21-30 indicates that Judas departed before Jesus instituted the Lord’s Evening Meal. Judas had definitely left by the time Christ commended the group for having ‘stuck with him in his trials,’ something that could not have been said about Judas; nor would Judas have been taken into the “covenant . . . for a kingdom.”—Lu 22:28-30.

is going his way: According to some scholars, this is a euphemism for “is going to his death.”

ministering: Or “serving.” Related to the Greek verb di·a·ko·neʹo, used here, is the noun di·aʹko·nos (minister; servant), which refers to one who does not let up in humbly rendering service in behalf of others. The term is used to describe Christ (Ro 15:8); ministers or servants of Christ, both male and female (Ro 16:1; 1Co 3:5-7; Col 1:23); ministerial servants (Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:8); as well as household servants (Joh 2:5, 9) and government officials.—Ro 13:4.

ministering: Or “serving.” Related to the Greek verb di·a·ko·neʹo, used here, is the noun di·aʹko·nos (minister; servant), which refers to one who does not let up in humbly rendering service in behalf of others. The term is used to describe Christ (Ro 15:8); ministers or servants of Christ, both male and female (Ro 16:1; 1Co 3:5-7; Col 1:23); ministerial servants (Php 1:1; 1Ti 3:8); as well as household servants (Joh 2:5, 9) and government officials.—Ro 13:4.

serving: Or “ministering.” The Greek verb di·a·ko·neʹo occurs twice in this verse.—See study note on Lu 22:26.

I make a covenant with you . . . for a kingdom: The Greek verb di·a·tiʹthe·mai, here rendered “make a covenant,” is related to the noun di·a·theʹke, “covenant.” At Ac 3:25, Heb 8:10, and 10:16, both the verb and the noun are used in the phrase “to make [or “conclude” (lit., “covenant”)] a covenant.” Here Jesus apparently makes reference to two covenants, one between him and his Father, and one between him and his anointed followers, who are to join him as corulers in the Kingdom.

eat and drink at my table: To eat a meal with someone signified friendship and peace between those involved. Therefore, one who was privileged to eat regularly at the table of a king was especially favored and enjoyed a very close bond with the monarch. (1Ki 2:7) This is the kind of relationship that Jesus here promised his faithful disciples.—Lu 22:28-30; see also Lu 13:29; Re 19:9.

returned: Or “turned back (around).” It appears that Jesus is referring to Peter’s returning or recovering from his fall that would be caused largely by his overconfidence combined with a fear of man.—Compare Pr 29:25.

drink the cup: In the Bible, “cup” is often used figuratively of God’s will, or the “assigned portion,” for a person. To “drink the cup” here means to submit to God’s will. In this case, the “cup” involved not only Jesus’ suffering and death under the false charge of blasphemy but also his being resurrected to immortal life in heaven.

remove this cup from me: In the Bible, “cup” is often used figuratively of God’s will, or the “assigned portion,” for a person. (See study note on Mt 20:22.) Jesus no doubt felt great concern over the reproach that his death as one charged with blasphemy and sedition could bring on God, moving him to pray that this “cup” be removed from him.

an angel: Of the four Gospel writers, only Luke mentions the angel appearing from heaven and strengthening Jesus.

his sweat became as drops of blood: Luke may have been drawing a comparison by indicating that Christ’s perspiration formed like drops of blood or by describing how the dripping of Jesus’ sweat resembled the dripping of blood from a wound. On the other hand, some have suggested that Jesus’ blood may have exuded through his skin and may have been mixed with his sweat, a condition that has reportedly occurred in certain cases of extreme mental stress. Blood or the elements thereof will seep through unruptured walls of blood vessels in a condition called diapedesis. In a condition known as hematidrosis, there is an excreting of perspiration tinged with blood pigment or blood or of bodily fluid mingled with blood, thus resulting in the ‘sweating of blood.’ These, of course, are only possible explanations for what may have taken place in Jesus’ case.

. . . falling to the ground: Verses 43, 44 appear in some early manuscripts, though others omit them. However, they are found in most Bible translations.

and healed him: Of the four Gospel writers, only Luke mentions that Jesus healed the slave of the high priest.—Mt 26:51; Mr 14:47; Joh 18:10.

hour: The Greek word hoʹra is here used figuratively to refer to a relatively short period of time.

the authority of darkness: Or “the power of darkness,” that is, of those who are in spiritual darkness. (Compare Col 1:13.) At Ac 26:18, darkness is mentioned together with “the authority of Satan.” Satan exercised his authority by influencing human agents to carry out the works of darkness that led to the execution of Jesus. For example, the account at Lu 22:3 says that “Satan entered into Judas, the one called Iscariot,” who then betrayed Jesus.—Ge 3:15; Joh 13:27-30.

Prophesy . . . Who struck you?: Here “prophesy” does not mean to make a prediction but to identify by divine revelation who had hit him. The parallel accounts at Mr 14:65 and Lu 22:64 show that Jesus’ persecutors had covered his face, evidently explaining their taunt to identify who had hit him.

Prophesy!: Here “prophesy” does not imply making a prediction but, rather, identifying by divine revelation. The context shows that Jesus’ persecutors had covered his face. They were thus challenging the blindfolded Jesus to identify who had hit him.—See study note on Mt 26:68.

the Supreme Court: The full Sanhedrin—the judicial body in Jerusalem made up of the high priest and 70 elders and scribes. The Jews considered its rulings to be final.—See Glossary, “Sanhedrin.”

assembly of elders: Or “council (body) of elders.” The Greek word pre·sby·teʹri·on used here is related to the term pre·sbyʹte·ros (lit., “older man”), which in the Bible primarily refers to those who hold a position of authority and responsibility in a community or a nation. Although the term sometimes refers to physical age (as at Lu 15:25 and Ac 2:17), it is not limited to those who are elderly. The expression “assembly of elders” here evidently refers to the Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court in Jerusalem, which was made up of the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders. These three groups are often mentioned together.—Mt 16:21; 27:41; Mr 8:31; 11:27; 14:43, 53; 15:1; Lu 9:22; 20:1; see Glossary, “Elder; Older man,” and study note on their Sanhedrin hall in this verse.

their Sanhedrin hall: Or “their Sanhedrin.” The Sanhedrin was the Jewish high court in Jerusalem. The Greek word rendered “Sanhedrin hall” or “Sanhedrin” (sy·neʹdri·on) literally means a “sitting down with.” Although it was a general term for an assembly or a meeting, in Israel it could refer to a religious judicial body or court. The Greek word can refer to the people making up the court itself or to the building or location of the court.—See study note on Mt 5:22 and Glossary, “Sanhedrin”; see also App. B12 for the possible location of the Sanhedrin Hall.

right hand of power: To be on a ruler’s right hand meant being second in importance to the ruler himself. (Ps 110:1; Ac 7:55, 56) The Greek word for “power” in this context may be understood to refer to God himself, and it could be rendered “the Power” or “the Powerful One.” The Greek expression for “right hand of power” also occurs in the parallel account at Lu 22:69, but with the addition of the word for “God.” It is rendered “the powerful right hand of God.” The phrase “right hand of power” may also imply that Jesus would be infused with power, or authority, because of being at the right hand of the Powerful One, God.

Son of man: Or “Son of a human.” This expression occurs about 80 times in the Gospels. Jesus used it to refer to himself, evidently emphasizing that he was truly human, born from a woman, and that he was a fitting human counterpart to Adam, having the power to redeem humankind from sin and death. (Ro 5:12, 14-15) The same expression also identified Jesus as the Messiah, or the Christ.Da 7:13, 14; see Glossary.

at the powerful right hand of God: Or “at the right hand of the power of God.” To be on a ruler’s right hand meant being second in importance only to the ruler himself. (Ps 110:1; Ac 7:55, 56) The Greek expression for “powerful right hand” also appears in the parallel accounts, Mt 26:64 and Mr 14:62, where it is rendered “right hand of power.” That the Son of man is seated “at the powerful right hand of God” implies that Jesus would be infused with power, or authority.—Mr 14:62; see study note on Mt 26:64.

Media

Upper Room
Upper Room

Some homes in Israel had an upper story. That room was accessed by means of an inside ladder or wooden staircase or an outside stone staircase or a ladder. In a large upper chamber, possibly similar to the one depicted here, Jesus celebrated the last Passover with his disciples and instituted the commemoration of the Lord’s Evening Meal. (Lu 22:12, 19, 20) On the day of Pentecost 33 C.E., about 120 disciples were apparently in an upper chamber of a house in Jerusalem when God’s spirit was poured out on them.Ac 1:15; 2:1-4.

The Sanhedrin
The Sanhedrin

Seventy-one members constituted the Jewish high court called the Great Sanhedrin. It was located in Jerusalem. (See Glossary, “Sanhedrin.”) According to the Mishnah, the seating was arranged in a semicircle three rows deep, and two scribes were present to record the court’s rulings. Some of the architectural features shown here are based on a structure discovered in Jerusalem that is considered by some to be the Council Chamber from the first century.—See Appendix B12, map “Jerusalem and Surrounding Area.”

1. High priest

2. Members of the Sanhedrin

3. A defendant

4. Clerks