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Tomemi—Alekee Wokunɛ?

Tomemi—Alekee Wokunɛ?

 Tomemi​—Alekee Wokunɛ?

“KEKELI nedo!” Le ƒe alafa 19 lia me le United States la, eva hiã be woadi akaɖimemi yeye aɖe si axɔ ɖe akaɖimemi siwo woɖena tso aminuwo, bosomi, kple nu bubuwo me, siwo mexɔna nyuie o la teƒe. Ami kae wòanye? Eyae nye tomemi! Afikae woakpɔe le?

Le ƒe 1859 me la, Edwin L. Drake, si nye ketekemɔdzikpɔla si xɔ dzudzɔ le dɔme, zã dokumɔ̃ xoxo aɖe tsɔ ku do yi tome meta 22 heke ɖe tomemi ŋu zi gbãtɔ le teƒe aɖe si te ɖe Titusville ŋu, le Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Nenemae amikudɔa dze egɔmee. Keke ɖe tomemi ŋu le xexeame ƒe teƒe geɖe nye nusi kpɔ ŋusẽ gã aɖe ɖe dukɔwo ƒe ganyawo kple dunyahenyawo dzi. Eva nye akaɖimemi tsoƒe nyui aɖe si dim xexeame nɔ vevie la.

Eteƒe medidi o amewo nɔ anyigbawo ƒlem kpatakpata henɔ amidowo kum kple ŋkubiã le United States ƒe teƒe siwo wobe wonye nuto siwo me ami nɔ. Le ƒe mawo me la, ebɔ be woase be ame aɖewo va zu kesinɔtɔwo kpata eye be ame mawo dometɔ aɖewo gadze anyi kpata. Nukutɔe la, Edwin Drake, si nye ŋutsu si ku amido gbãtɔ le Pennsylvania hã va dze anyi le hokpɔkpɔ kpata megbe.

Alesi amisitsatsa va nɔ dzidzedze kpɔm etɔxɛe, alo ɖewohĩ le ekuku le agbɔsɔsɔ gã aɖe me tae o, amikudɔwɔƒe si le Pennsylvania va dze anyi kpata zi gbãtɔ. Ami ƒe asi ɖiɖi tso dɔlar 20 gago ɖeka va ɖo cent 10 gago ɖeka! Amia kuku le agbɔsɔsɔ gã ŋutɔ me kple amisitsatsa ŋuti nyatakaka masɔmasɔwo na eƒe asi va yi to, eye ami vɔ le amido aɖewo me kpata. Ɣeyiɣi mawo ŋuti ŋkuɖodzinu tɔxɛ aɖee nye Pithole City si le  Pennsylvania, si zu aƒedo egbea. Du like sia si me nuwo yi edzi le nyuie la gbã—le ƒe ɖeka kple afã ko megbe. Nuwo ƒe dziyiyi kple toyiyi mawo gbɔna amisitsatsa ƒe ŋutinya ƒe akpa vevi aɖe nye ge.

Le ƒe 1870 me la, John D. Rockefeller kple ame ʋɛ aɖewo ɖo amisitsaha si ŋkɔe nye Standard Oil Company. Adzɔha sia koe dzraa kerosene vaseɖe esime ame bubuwo va nɔ edzram, vevietɔ tso Russia amikuhawo dome. Wo dometɔ ɖekae nye Marcus Samuel, amesi ɖo Royal Dutch/Shell Group si li egbea anyi. Gakpe ɖe eŋu la, le Nobel dadaviwo * ƒe aɖaŋudzedze ta la, woɖo amisitsaha sẽŋu aɖe le Russia, eye amikuƒe si le Baku gbɔe woƒlea ami tsonae.

Esiae nye amisitsaha vovovowo ƒe ŋutinya ƒe gɔmedzedze. Tso ɣemaɣi la, wova ɖo ƒuƒoƒowo kple habɔbɔwo bena woato wo dzi aƒo asa na ami ƒe asi kple ekuku ƒe kemalimali si nɔ anyi le gɔmedzedzea me. Wo dometɔ ɖekae nye Mɔ̃memi Ðoɖedutadukɔwo ƒe Habɔbɔ (OPEC, le Eŋlisigbe me), si me tɔ 11 ƒe anyigba me ami si wokpɔ le xexeame katã la ƒe akpa gãtɔ le.—Kpɔ aɖaka si le axa 7.

Ami Agbɔsɔsɔ Kae Kpɔtɔ Le Tome, eye Afikae Wòle?

Le ƒe alafa 19 lia ƒe nuwuwu la, anye ne elektrikkaɖi ƒe teƒe geɖe ɖoɖo na amisitsahawo dze anyi kloe. Gake mɔ̃ vevi aɖe ƒe toto na meva dzɔ nenema o—si nye mɔ̃ si nɔa lɔriwo me. Petrol, si nye mɔ̃memi si woɖe tso tomemi me, va hiã ŋutɔ na lɔriwo, siwo nɔ dukɔ deŋgɔwo me xoxo le ƒe 1920-awo ƒe nuwuwu. Fifia ami agbɔsɔsɔ geɖe va hiã hena mɔzɔzɔ le xexeame godoo, gake afikae woakpɔe le?

Esi ƒeawo va nɔ yiyim la, ami ƒe nuvevinyenye le xexeame ƒe asitsanyawo  me gasẽ ɖe edzi le amikuƒe yeye siwo ŋu wole kekem ɖo le xexeame ƒe teƒe vovovowo—siwo ade 50,000 la ta! Gake menye amikuƒe agbɔsɔsɔ si ŋu woke ɖoe nye nu vevitɔa le amikudɔ me o, ke ami agbɔsɔsɔ si woakpɔ le teƒeae. Ami agbɔsɔsɔ kae woate ŋu akpɔ le teƒe mawo?

Amikuƒe siwo woate ŋu akpɔ ami gago biliɔn atɔ̃ ya teti le—si woyɔna be amikuƒe gãwo—la nye amikuƒe lolotɔwo kekeake le hatsotso siwo me woma wo ɖo dome, eye woyɔa esi kplɔe ɖo (afisi woate ŋu akpɔ tso gago miliɔn alafa atɔ̃ dzi yi gago biliɔn atɔ̃ le) la be amikuƒe siwo ƒe lolome kplɔ gãtɔ kekeake ɖo. Togbɔ be wotɔ asi dukɔ 70 aɖewo dzi le “Anyigbaŋutinumekuku si United States Wɔ le 2000 me tso Xexeame ƒe Aminyawo Ŋu” me be ami le woƒe anyigba me hã la, wo dometɔ ʋɛ aɖewo koe lolo. (Kpɔ aɖaka si le axa 7.) Amikuƒe gãtɔwo kekeake ƒe akpa gãtɔ ƒe ƒuƒoƒo le Arabia kple Iran tɔwo ƒe anyigba ƒe tsiteƒewo, si nye Persia-ƒukɔme ƒe nutowo me.

Amikuƒe yeyewo didi metɔ o. Ke boŋ mɔ̃ɖaŋununya deŋgɔwo va wɔe be ele ŋgɔ yim ŋutɔ. Fifia la, Caspian-ƒua ƒe nutowo, afisi dukɔ siwo nye Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, kple Uzbekistan lee amikuhawo trɔ susu ɖo vevie. United States ƒe Dzɔdzɔmeŋusẽ Ŋuti Nyatakakanaha gblɔ be ami kple gas geɖe ŋutɔ le nuto siawo me woate ŋu aku. Wole afisi woate ŋu atsɔ ami si woaku la atoe ayi dukɔ bubuwo me, abe etsɔtsɔ ato Afghanistan ene, ŋuti numekuku wɔm. Woke ɖe teƒe bubu siwo woagate ŋu akpɔ ami le ŋu le Titina Ɣedzeƒe, Greenland, kple Afrika ƒe teƒe aɖewo. Ke hã alesi woatrɔ asi le tomemi si nye haidrodzin kple karbɔn bablawo ŋu wòazu ŋusẽtsoƒe kple nuzazã siwo ŋudɔ wowɔna le gbesiagbegbenɔnɔ me hã nye nya bubu kura.

 Alekee Wokua Amii?

Anyigbaŋutinunyalawo kple anyigbadzidzelawo diaa teƒe siwo woate ŋu akpɔ ami le le tome. Ne wodzidze teƒea hekpɔ nusiwo woado akpɔ vɔ la, wokua doa be woakpɔ ɖa be ami le teƒea nyateƒe hã. Le ami kuku ƒe gɔmedzedze la, ne woku do ke ɖe ami ŋu la, ba kple ami te ŋu dona kpoyi hlẽna ɖe mo na ame, eye ami si ŋu woke ɖo te ŋu gbagbana ɖe anyigba. Gake to nudzidzemɔ̃wo kple dɔwɔnu tɔxɛ aɖewo zazã me la, mɔ siwo dzi wotona kua ami egbea wɔnɛ be esia megadzɔna o. Dokunuwo li wozãna egbea tsɔ kua do siwo mekekena o evɔ wodea to la hãe.

Ʋɛʋɛʋɛ la, ŋusẽ si naa ami kple gas dona le amidoa me nu va ɖiɖina, eye be woakpɔ egbɔ be ŋusẽa nagayi to o la, wodoa tsi, atike aɖewo, carbon dioxide, alo gas bubuwo abe nitrogen ene ɖe toa me. Ami ƒe totome te ŋu nɔna vovovo, le teƒe si wole ekum le ƒe nɔnɔme nu. Zi geɖe la, ami si le tsroloe koŋue dzea amikulawo ŋu, elabena ekuku kple eɖaɖa le bɔbɔe wu.

Abe alesi Amerika Tomemi Ŋuti Numekuƒe ɖe nu mee ene la, egbegbemikumɔnuwo dometɔ aɖee nye be woaɖe doa wòanye do ɖeka si ayi to tẽ gbã, eye ne eɖo goglome aɖe la, woaɖee wòamlɔ anyi lɔbɔɔ abe alesi wodzea tsitoƒee ene, si wɔnɛ be womegaɖea do vovovowo ɖe teƒea hafi kena ɖe ami ŋu o. Amikuku le ƒugɔme, si dze egɔme le ƒe 1947 me le Mexico-ƒukɔme na amikudɔa dzi ɖe edzi geɖe. Enye nyateƒe be amikumɔnu si wozã va kpɔa ŋusẽ ɖe asi si dzi wodzraa amia ɖo la dzi. *

Aleke Wokɔa Ami Yia Teƒeteƒewoe?

Le ƒe 1863 me le Pennsylvania la, wowɔ atipɔmpi siwo ƒe do le suesue si me wotsɔa ami tonae, elabena atipɔmpiawo mexɔ asi fũ o eye wozazã le bɔbɔe wu be woakɔ amia ɖe galɔn 42 gagowo me atsɔ ade kekewo me sɔwo nahe. * Wotrɔ asi le pɔmpi mɔnu sia ŋu egbea ŋutɔ eye wowɔ wo le agbɔsɔsɔ geɖe me. Le Amipɔmpiwɔlawo ƒe Habɔbɔ ƒe nya nu la, pɔmpi siwo United States dukɔa ɖeɖe zãna le ami tsɔtsɔ yi teƒewoe me ƒe didime nye kilometa 300,000!

Menye tomemi si woku koe wotsɔna toa pɔmpi mawo siwo wowɔ kple gakpowo me yina amiɖaƒewoe o, ke wotsɔa ami si woɖa hã toa wo me yia edzralawo hã gbɔe. Wowɔ mɔ̃ aɖewo kpe ɖe egbegbe amipɔmpiwo ŋu siwo léa ŋku ɖe ami ƒe sisi kple ŋusẽ si wòtsɔ le sisim to pɔmpiawo mee ŋu. Wonye mɔ̃ sue aɖewo siwo toa amipɔmpigakpo siwo didi kilometa alafa geɖewo la me heléa ŋku ɖe gakpoawo ŋu, Mɔ̃ si Dea Dzesi Gakpoa ƒe Akpa Siwo Ŋɔ Sue gɔ̃ hã, kple esi léa ŋku ɖe gakpoa ƒe akpa siwo gbã ŋu hã li. Gake ɖewohĩ nusi mɔ̃memizãlawo akpɔ adze sii koe nye nyanyanadzesi be amipɔmpigakpo to toa me eye be mele be woaku do le teƒe ma ƒe akpa aɖeke o.

 Togbɔ be amipɔmpigakpowo ɖea vi hã la, womate ŋu azãe atsɔ aɖo ami gbogbowo ɖe ƒugodo o. Gake adzɔha siwo nye amisitsaha gbãtɔwo kpɔ ta na esia hã—eyae nye amitsɔmeli gãwo. Wowɔ meli siawo etɔxɛe be woƒe didime te ŋu ɖona meta 400. Amitsɔmeliwoe nye meli gãtɔwo kekeake siwo toa ƒu dzi eye wote ŋu tsɔa ami gago miliɔn ɖeka alo wu nenema. Ke hã, togbɔ be amitsɔmeliwo dzena ʋu sesẽwoe hã la, kuxi aɖe le wo ŋu si womete ŋu kpɔ ta na haɖe o, abe alesi aɖaka si nye “Ami ƒe Gbeƒuƒu” ɖee fia ene. Tɔdziʋuwo kple ketekewo hã tsɔa ami le agbɔsɔsɔ me. Ke hã dɔ siwo wòlɔ ɖe eme be tomemi nazu nu woazã ƒe akpa aɖe koe ekɔkɔ tso ekuƒe ayi eɖaƒee nye.

Gakpo kɔkɔ si me dzo le bibim le le yame vlavlavla—afisi wotɔa dzo ami gbegblẽwo le—nye dzesi be amiɖaƒee nye ma kpɔm nèle. Zi geɖe le amiɖaƒe gã siawo la, wololoa tomemi henaa wòtoa amiɖamɔ̃ vovovo me, eye mɔ̃ siawo ɖea ami hamehame siwo wokpɔna le tomemi babla me la ɖe vovo tso wo nɔewo gbɔ. Akpa vovovo siawo dometɔ aɖewo tsoa matomatoa—gas ƒomeviwo abe butane ene—dzi va ɖoa tototɔwo, siwo wotsɔna wɔa mɔ̃memiwo kple nu bubuwoe dzi. (Kpɔ axa 8-9.) Gake biabiaa gali kokoko be, Yayra kple fiƒodee ami nyea?

[Etenuŋɔŋlɔwo]

^ mm. 6 Wo dometɔ ɖeka, Alfred Bernhard Nobel, ye va nye Nobel Nunanawo ɖoanyila.

^ mm. 16 “Wobu akɔnta be xɔ kɔkɔ aɖe si wode sekee ɖe Mexico-ƒukɔme ƒe teƒe si goglo meta 300 kple edzivɔwo dzi mee wonɔna kua ami si ƒe agbɔsɔsɔ ade esi wokuna le Titina Ɣedzeƒe ƒe teƒe 65.”—The Encyclopædia Britannica.

^ mm. 18 Le amikuku ƒe gɔmedzeɣi la, atigagowo mee wokɔa ami ɖo hetsɔna yia teƒeteƒewoe, abe alesi wodea wein atigagowo mee ene.—Kpɔ aɖaka si le axa 5.

[Aɖaka/Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 5]

GAGO ALO TƆN?

Galɔn 48 weingagowo mee Pennsylvania amikuha gbãtɔwo dea amii tsɔ yina teƒe vovovowo. Mlɔeba la, galɔn 42 koe wova dena gagoa me be wòaganɔ ɖuɖum ne wokɔe yinae o. Gago (si me galɔn 42 nɔna) zãmee wogale egbea le amisitsatsa me.

Tso gɔmedzedzea me la, ƒu dzie wotsɔa ami si wotsɔna yia Europae la tonae, eye zi geɖe la, tɔn mee wodzidzenɛ ɖo hedanɛ kpɔa eƒe kpekpeme, abe alesi wowɔnɛ egbea ene.

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Nyawo tsoƒe: American Petroleum Institute

[Aɖaka si le axa 6]

ALEKE TOMEMI WƆNA ZUA TOMEMI?

Dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyala akpa gãtɔ ƒe nukpɔsusu tso keke ƒe 1870-awo me enye esi woyɔna be biogenic nukpɔsusu. Nukpɔsusu sia fia be “dzɔdzɔmenu aɖe le atiwo kple lãwo me si va zua tomemi kple gas ne wonyunyɔ ɖe tome le ƒe geɖewo megbe, eye kpetomedo suesuewo mee woxana ɖo le [Anyigbaa ƒe] tume.” Mɔ sia dzie tomemi—si nye haidrodzin kple karbɔn babla—tona zua tomemi. Gake tso ƒe 1970-awo me la, dzɔdzɔmeŋutinunyala aɖewo va le ɖi kem nukpɔsusu sia.

Le magazine si nye Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, August 20, 2002 ƒe tata me la, wota nyati si nye “Alesi Haidrodzin Kple Karbɔn Wɔna Zua Tomemi.” Magazinea ŋlɔlawo ʋli nya be “Anyigbaa ƒe tume ʋĩe tomemi dzea egɔme le” eye menye alesi ame geɖe xɔe se be edzea egɔme le teƒe si meɖo anyigbaa ƒe tume ʋĩ o la ene o.

Dzɔdzɔmeŋusẽŋununyala Thomas Gold gblɔ nukpɔsusu aɖe si ŋu nyahehe geɖe fɔ ɖo eye wòɖe eme le eƒe agbalẽ si nye The Deep Hot Biosphere—The Myth of Fossil Fuels me. Eŋlɔ be: “United States kple Europa ƒe teƒe geɖe xɔ nukpɔsusu si nye be dzɔdzɔmenu aɖe si le atiwo kple lãwo me si nyunyɔ ɖe tome ƒe gbogbowoe va zua haidrodzin kple karbɔn si nye tomemi la de eme ale gbegbe be wodzudzɔ nukpɔsusu bubu ŋuti numekuku wɔwɔ. Mele alea le dukɔ siwo nye Soviet Union tsã la me o.” Nusitae “wòanɔ nenemae nye be nukpɔsusu bubu si nye abiogenic dzie Russiatɔ bubume atikedokpɔla Mendeleyev xɔ se ke [menye be tomemi do tso dzɔdzɔmenu aɖe si le ati kple lãwo me si nyunyɔ ɖe tome ƒe geɖe megbe me o]. Numeɖeɖe siwo wòna la de to ale gbegbe egbea gɔ̃ hã, le alesi nyatakaka siwo le mía si la keke tae ta.” Nukae nye abiogenic nukpɔsusua?

Gold gblɔ be: “Abiogenic nukpɔsusua fia be haidrodzin kple karbɔn nye nusiwo wotsɔ wɔ anyigba la ŋutɔe, siwo nɔ bablam vivivi le ƒe siwo ade biliɔn 4.5 siwo va yi me.” Le nukpɔsusu sia nu la, nusiwo va zu tomemi la nɔ anyigbaa ƒe tume tso keke anyigbaa wɔɣi ke. *

[Etenuŋɔŋlɔwo]

^ mm. 37 Nyɔ! medea nukpɔsusuawo dometɔ aɖeke dzi o. Wo ŋuti nyatakaka koe wònana.

 [Aɖaka/Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 10, 11]

AMI ƑE GBEƑUƑU

▪ Ami si ɖuɖu le amitsɔmeliwo me tso ƒe 1970 me va ɖo ƒe 2000 me ƒe agbɔsɔsɔe nye tɔn 5,322,000

▪ Ami agbɔsɔsɔ gãtɔ kekeake ƒe gbeƒuƒu dzɔ le ƒe 1979 me esime amitsɔmeli si nye Atlantic Empress do go kple meli bubu si nye Aegean Captain le Carib-ƒua dzi, si me ami tɔn 287,000 ƒu gbe le

Exxon Valdez nye amitsɔmeli gãtɔ kekeake siwo me ami ɖuɖu le 34 lia

▪ Togbɔ be ami ƒe ɖuɖu le amitsɔmeliwo me ƒe akpa gãtɔ tsoa dɔwo abe ami kɔkɔ ɖe meliawo me, ami ɖeɖe le wo me, kple ami kɔkɔ ɖe meli ƒe amidzraɖoƒe ene gbɔ hã la, amitsɔmeliwo ƒe gododo kple ke sisi koŋ gbɔe ami ƒe gbeƒuƒu gãtɔ kekeake tsona

▪ Nusiwo gbɔ ami ƒe gbeƒuƒu gã aɖewo tso tsɔ wu amitsɔmeliwo:

● Ixtoc I, si nye amikutɔdziʋu si gbã le Mexico-ƒukɔme le ƒe 1979 me. Ami agbɔsɔsɔ si ƒu gbe: Galɔn 140,000,000

● Amikuƒe aɖe si gbã le Persia-ƒukɔmea dzi le ƒe 1983 me. Ami agbɔsɔsɔ si ƒu gbe: Galɔn 80,000,000

● Ami si woɖo koŋ trɔ kɔ ɖe Persia-ƒukɔmea me le ƒe 1991 me. Ami agbɔsɔsɔ si do: Galɔn 240,000,000

[Nɔnɔmetata]

Amitsɔmeli “Erika” si nyrɔ le afisi gogo Penmarch Point, France, December 13, 1999

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Ny awo tsoƒe: International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited, “Oil Spill Intelligence Report,” “The Encarta Encyclopedia”

© La Marine Nationale, France

 [Nuwo ƒe nɔnɔme/Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 8, 9]

(Edze nyuie le agbalẽa ŋutɔ me)

AMIKUKU MƆNUAWO ME ÐEÐE BƆBƆE

1​—TOMEMITEƑEWO DIDI

YAMENYATAKAKAXƆÐOÐAMƆ̃

Mɔ̃ si Xɔa Mɔfiame Tsoa Yamenyatakakaxɔɖoɖamɔ̃ Gbɔ si naa mɔfiame nyuiwo hena tomemiteƒewo didi le xexeame godoo

GBEÐIÐILÉMƆ̃WO

ƲU GÃ SI ƲUƲUA ANYIGBA

TSIMEGBEÐIÐILÉMƆ̃WO

ƑUDZIMITEƑEDIƲU

Anyigbaʋuʋudzidzemɔ̃ zazã mɔnu, enye mɔnu aɖe si wozãna tsɔ léa gbeɖiɖi ƒomevi vovovo siwo yia edzi le tome ne woku ʋu kpekpe aɖewo to teƒea, si naa anyigbaa ʋuʋuna bena woalé to ɖe gbeɖiɖiawo ŋu anya ne ami le teƒea

2​—TOMEMIKUKU

ANYIGBA ƑUƑUIWO DZI AMIDOWO

ƑUDZIMIKUƑE

ƑUGƆMEMIDO

Wokua ami le teƒe vovovo siawo siwo nye anyigba ƒuƒui dzi, ƒuta, kple tɔ gɔme. Be ami nayi edzi anɔ amidoa me vam le agbɔsɔsɔ me la, wokɔa gas alo tsi ɖe amidoa me

[Nɔnɔmetata]

ƑUGƆMEMIDO

Wozãa ƒugɔmeʋu siwo wote ŋu nɔa gota fea mɔ̃ na wòwɔa dɔ tsɔ ɖia tɔgɔmemikuƒe ƒe dɔwɔnuwo ɖe atsiaƒua gɔmee

[Nɔnɔmetata]

AMIDO ÐEÐE

Mɔ̃ɖaŋudɔwɔla nɔa adzɔge fea mɔ̃ na dokumɔ̃a eye mɔ̃ bubuwo le dokumɔ̃a ŋu siwo léa ŋku ɖe kpeawo ƒe nɔnɔme ŋu

3​—AMI KƆKƆ TSO EKUƑE YI TEƑEWO

AMIPƆMPIGAKPOWO

AMITSƆMELI

Amipɔmpigakpo siwo dzena le anyigba, esiwo woɖina ɖe tome, kple esiwo woɖina ɖe ƒu gɔme mee woyɔa ami tonae yia teƒeteƒewoe. Mɔnu bubu siwo dzi wotona kɔa ami tsoa ekuƒe yia teƒewoe nye amitsɔʋuwo, meliwo, kple ketekewo

4​—AMIÐAÐA

AMIÐAƑE

Wololoa tomemi heɖea amimenu ƒomevi vovovo siwo wote ŋu zãna tsɔ wɔa gbesiagbenuzazã vovovowoe tsoa eme

AMIÐAGAGO

Ne wololo tomemi si nye haidrodzin kple karbɔn babla dade, yibɔ le kpodzo me la, etrɔna zua gas ƒomevi vovovo siwo ƒe nɔnɔme nɔna abe afu ene. Ne gas siawo le amiɖamɔ̃ vovovo siwo ƒe dzoxɔxɔ le vovovo me tom la, wogbugbɔna blana zua amitsi. Esia mee wotona kpɔa ami ƒomevi vovovowo tsona tomemi mee

20°C GAS SIWO WOÐANA Wo dometɔ aɖewoe nye methane,

ethane, propane, kple butane

 

↑ ↑

20°-70°C → PETROL Enye mɔ̃memi si lɔriwo zãna

kple aŋenuwo wɔnu

↑ ↑

70°-160°C NAPHTHA Wote ŋu tsɔnɛ wɔa aŋenuwo,

mɔ̃memi, kple atike aɖewoe

↑ ↑

160°-250°C → KEROSENE Wotrɔa asi le eŋu wònyea mɔ̃memi

si yameʋuwo zãna kple stov dzodomi

↑ ↑

250°-350°C GAS OIL Wotrɔa asi le eŋu wòzua diesel

kpakple amiɖakpodzo dzodomi

↑ ↑

400°C → AMIBA Wotrɔa asi le eŋu hezãna le amiɖamɔ̃wo me,

↑ ↑ wotsɔnɛ wɔa mɔ̃memi totowo,

AMIÐAKPODZO bosomikaɖiwɔnuwo, grease, kple aŋɔ

TOMEMIBABLATUNU

Wotsɔa afu si dona le tsi fiefie me tsakana kple atikewɔ xɔdzo aɖe tsɔ tua tomemii. Mɔ sia dzie wotona haidrodzin kple karbɔn babla si nye tomemia tuna nyuie woɖana

Wotsɔ atikewɔa tsaka haidrodzin kple karbɔn babla kpakple afu si dona le tsi fiefie me

↓ ↓

ETHANOL AŊE MƆ̃MEMIDZROTIKE

Wozãa tomemi me Tomemi me nu Wotsɔa atike sia

nu sia tsɔ wɔa aŋɔ siwowoyɔna be dzroa tomemi me

siwo wosina na nuwo, benzene kple nu si woyɔna be

atsyɔ̃ɖomiwo, ami ethylene ye Octane si wɔnɛ

ʋeʋĩwo, adzalẽ wotsakana tsɔ be eƒe dzoléleŋusẽ

ƒomeviwo, kple wɔa aŋenu aɖewoe nu ɖiɖina le mɔ̃wo me,

ama siwo wodea nui henaa mɔ̃wo wɔa dɔ nyuie

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Photo Courtesy of Phillips Petroleum Company

[Akɔntabubu si le axa 7]

(Edze nyuie le agbalẽa ŋutɔ me)

TEƑE SIWO KOŊ WOKUA AMI LE

Agbɔsɔsɔawo fia ami gago biliɔn geɖe si le dukɔa si. Esiwo ŋu womeke ɖo haɖe o mele eme o

▪ OPEC habɔbɔ me tɔ

• Dukɔ si si amikuƒe gã ɖeka alo sɔgbɔ le

Amido si me ami dzina ɖo vivivi

◆ Amiteƒewo

▪ • ◆ 332.7 SAUDI ARABIA

• ◆ 216.5 UNITED STATES

• ◆ 192.6 RUSSIA

▪ • ◆ 135.9 IRAN

▪ • ◆ 130.6 VENEZUELA

▪ • ◆ 125.1 KUWAIT

▪ • ◆ 122.8 IRAQ

▪ • ◆ 113.3 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

• ◆ 70.9 MEXICO

• ◆ 42.9 CHINA

▪ • ◆ 41.9 LIBYA

▪ ◆ 33.4 NIGERIA

◆ 21.2 CANADA

▪ ◆ 21.0 INDONESIA

◆ 20.5 KAZAKHSTAN

▪ • ◆ 18.3 ALGERIA

◆ 17.6 NORWAY

◆ 16.9 UNITED KINGDOM

[Nɔnɔmetata siwo le axa 4]

Amikuƒe gbãtɔ, Titusville, Pennsylvania, ƒe 1859

Ami ƒe dodo sesĩe kpoyi le amido aɖe me le Texas

[Afi Si Míexɔ Mɔɖeɖe Tso]

Brown Brothers

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 5]

Amikuƒe gbãtɔwo dometɔ ɖeka, Beaumont, Texas

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 5]

Amitsɔkeke si hem sɔwo le

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 10]

Amikuƒe si lé dzo le Kuwait

[Nɔnɔmetata Tsoƒe si le axa 5]

Fotoawo katã: Brown Brothers