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New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (Study Edition)

C3

Verses Where the Divine Name Does Not Appear as Part of Direct or Indirect Quotations in the Book of Romans

ROMANS 10:16 “Jehovah, who has put faith in the thing heard from us?”

REASON(S): Paul here quotes the first part of Isaiah 53:1. In the original Hebrew text, the divine name appears in the second part of the verse, in the expression “the arm of Jehovah.” At John 12:38, John quotes from Isaiah 53:1 in its entirety. Both John and Paul apparently quote from the Septuagint translation of Isaiah’s prophecy, where the Greek text begins with the form of the word Kyʹri·os (Lord) used for direct address. The translators of the Septuagint may have inserted the divine name in this first occurrence in order to clarify to the reader that the prophet addresses his questions to God. As previously noted, Kyʹri·os in later copies of the Septuagint is often used as a substitute for the Tetragrammaton in the original Hebrew text (as is the case in the expression “arm of Jehovah” at Isaiah 53:1). Therefore, the divine name has here been used in the main text.

SUPPORT:

  • The Bible Commentary, edited by F. C. Cook, 1981 printing, makes this comment on the first occurrence of “Lord” in that quotation: “The word ‘Lord,’ added here and in the Greek versions of Isai. liii. I [Isaiah 53:1], shows the prophet turning to Jehovah, as the sender of the message . . . The addition is in harmony with the original meaning of the passage, and with St. Paul’s comment upon it in V. 17.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, by R.C.H. Lenski, says of this verse: “Paul adds ‘Lord’ to the quotation since the prophet’s question was addressed to Yahweh.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Romans 10:16 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1993, (Vol. 33) says of Romans 10:16: “Paul shows that a message sent by God is not always received with faith, even the one about the suffering Servant of Yahweh.”

  • The NLT Study Bible, Second Edition, 2008, puts “LORD” in capital and small capitals in this verse. The translation committee for this Bible makes this comment in the “Introduction to the New Living Translation”: “We have generally rendered the tetragrammaton (YHWH) consistently as ‘the LORD,’ utilizing a form . . . that is common among English translations.” Commenting on the New Testament, the committee translating this Bible says: “The Greek word kurios is consistently translated ‘Lord,’ except that it is translated ‘LORD’ wherever the New Testament text explicitly quotes from the Old Testament, and the text there has it in small capitals.”​—Italics ours.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 14-18, 23, 30-32, 34, 35, 41, 42, 46, 52, 59, 60, 65, 66, 88, 93, 100-102, 105, 106, 114, 115, 117, 118, 122, 130, 133

ROMANS 12:11 “Slave for Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts read “for the Lord” (toi Ky·riʹoi) here, but there are good reasons for using the divine name in the main text. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, Kyʹri·os can refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. At Romans 12:1, 2, Paul urges his readers to present their bodies as a sacrifice “to God” and to make sure of what is “the good and acceptable and perfect will of God.” Verse 3 goes on to say “as God has given to [each one] a measure of faith.” Additionally, the closest other occurrence of Kyʹri·os in this context is at Romans 12:19, which quotes from Deuteronomy 32:35, where the context shows that Jehovah is speaking. (See comment on Romans 12:19.) Also, scholars have noted that the Greek verb dou·leuʹo, “to slave for”; “to serve,” is used in the Septuagint to render Hebrew expressions where the Tetragrammaton is used in the Hebrew text. (Judges 2:7; 1 Samuel 7:4; 12:20; 2 Chronicles 30:8; Psalm 2:11; 100:2 [99:2, LXX]; 102:22 [101:22, LXX]) Therefore, both the context and the Hebrew Scripture background of this expression point to the fact that “the Lord” referred to at Romans 12:11 is, not Jesus, but Jehovah God.​—See App. C1.

SUPPORT:

  • Commenting on the Hebrew Scripture background of the overall idea of Romans 12:11, Believer’s Bible Commentary, by William MacDonald, says: “Here we are reminded of the words of Jeremiah 48:10.” That verse says: “Cursed is the one who carries out the mission of Jehovah neglectfully!” It uses the name Jehovah in the Hebrew text.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10, 16, 18, 32, 44, 65, 94, 95, 100-102, 106, 115, 125

ROMANS 12:19 “says Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts here read “says Lord” (leʹgei Kyʹri·os), but the divine name is used in the main text for the following reasons: Paul is quoting from Deuteronomy 32:35. In that verse, the phrase “says Jehovah” does not appear in the original Hebrew text, but the context makes it clear that the words Paul quotes were spoken by Jehovah. (Deuteronomy 32:19-34; compare study note on Matthew 1:22.) Paul obviously adds this phrase to identify the speaker. In later copies of the Septuagint, the term Kyʹri·os (Lord) is often used as a substitute for the divine name in the original Hebrew text, as is the case in the many passages quoted from the Hebrew Scriptures. It is also worth noting that in this verse, the Greek definite article is not used before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage, making Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. At Hebrews 10:30, Paul uses the same quotation from Deuteronomy 32:35 and then quotes words from verse 36 (“Jehovah will judge his people”), where the divine name is used.​—See App. C1.

SUPPORT:

  • The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, by R.C.H. Lenski, says of this verse: “‘Says the Lord’ is added by Paul in order to state who uttered this word. God has long ago settled the whole matter about exacting justice from wrongdoers.”

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Romans 12:19 as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • In The New Interpreter’s Bible Commentary, 2015, (Vol. 9), N. T. Wright makes this comment on Romans 12:19, 20: “Taking this course of action will heap coals of fire on the enemy’s head (‘and YHWH will reward you,’ adds Proverbs).”

  • The NLT Study Bible, Second Edition, 2008, puts “LORD” in capital and small capitals in this verse. The translation committee for this Bible makes this comment in the “Introduction to the New Living Translation”: “We have generally rendered the tetragrammaton (YHWH) consistently as ‘the LORD,’ utilizing a form . . . that is common among English translations.” Commenting on the New Testament, that committee says: “The Greek word kurios is consistently translated ‘Lord,’ except that it is translated ‘LORD’ wherever the New Testament text explicitly quotes from the Old Testament, and the text there has it in small capitals.”​—Italics ours.

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J7, 8, 10-12, 14-18, 22-24, 30-35, 38, 40-44, 46, 52, 54, 57, 59-61, 65-67, 88, 90, 94-96, 99-101, 106, 114, 115, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133

ROMANS 14:4 “for Jehovah can make him stand”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term “the Lord” (ho Kyʹri·os); other manuscripts use “the God” (ho The·osʹ). And some ancient translations into other languages use an equivalent for “God.” In the Christian Greek Scriptures, the title Lord often refers to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. In this case, the context (Romans 14:1-12) clearly points to Jehovah God as the Lord referred to. Paul discusses the importance of not judging one another in matters of conscience. Verse 3 states that “God has welcomed” both “the one eating” and “the one not eating.” Paul continues to discuss this subject, and at Romans 14:10, he mentions that each one will “stand before the judgment seat of God.” At Romans 14:12, Paul concludes by saying that each one “will render an account for himself to God.” Thus, the verses surrounding Romans 14:4 indicate that Jehovah is “the Lord” spoken of here at Romans 14:4. Another reason for coming to this conclusion is the Hebrew Scripture background. At Romans 14:11, Paul quotes from Isaiah 45:23, the context of which shows Jehovah God as the one speaking. (Isaiah 45:18-22; see study note on Romans 14:11.) In view of the factors pointing to the conclusion that ho Kyʹri·os here refers to Jehovah God, the divine name is used in the main text. Also, some translations of the Christian Greek Scriptures into Hebrew and other languages use the divine name here.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Romans 14:4b as a verse where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1993, (Vol. 33) says of Romans 14:6: “Ever since [verse] 4 Paul has been speaking of Kyrios, and one may wonder whether he means God or Christ. In view of the parallelism in this verse, it seems best to understand Kyrios in the [Old Testament] sense of God. This reading is suggested too by [verse] 11, where Paul uses Isa 49:18.”

  • With regard to this verse, The ESV Study Bible, 2008, makes this comment on page 2180: “The strong stand or fall before God, and they will stand righteous before God on the last day because God will give them grace.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES: J18, 23, 32, 48, 95, 100, 101, 115

ROMANS 14:6 “observes it to Jehovah . . . eats to Jehovah . . . does not eat to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term “Lord” (Kyʹri·os) three times in this verse. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, this title is often used to refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The identity of Kyʹri·os in this verse is related to the identity of Kyʹri·os in the whole context of Romans 14:4-11. From the beginning of chapter 14, Paul discusses the importance of not judging one another. At Romans 14:3, he points out that “God has welcomed” both “the one eating” and “the one not eating.” Then, at Romans 14:4, he mentions that a servant “stands or falls” to “his own master” and that the Lord “Jehovah can make him stand.” (See comment on Romans 14:4.) Continuing along this line of reasoning, Romans 14:10 states that each one will “stand before the judgment seat of God.” At Romans 14:11, Paul quotes from Isaiah 45:23, where the context makes it clear that Jehovah is the one speaking. (Isaiah 45:18-22; see study note on Romans 14:11.) At Romans 14:12, Paul concludes by saying that each one “will render an account for himself to God.” It is also worth noting that here at Romans 14:6, the Greek definite article was not included before Kyʹri·os, where it would be expected according to standard grammatical usage. Its omission makes Kyʹri·os tantamount to a proper name. So the overall context, the Hebrew Scripture background mentioned, and the unexpected absence of the definite article in Greek all support the use of the divine name here.

SUPPORT:

  • The reference work Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1991, (Vol. 2, pp. 329-330) lists Romans 14:6a, 14:6b, and 14:6c as occurrences where Kyʹri·os is “used of Yahweh.”

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1993, (Vol. 33) says of Romans 14:6: “Ever since [verse] 4 Paul has been speaking of Kyrios, and one may wonder whether he means God or Christ. In view of the parallelism in this verse, it seems best to understand Kyrios in the [Old Testament] sense of God. This reading is suggested too by [verse] 11, where Paul uses Isa 49:18.”

  • The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, by R.C.H. Lenski, 1936, page 823, says of this verse: “Note that the emphasis is on the three Κυρίῳ [ky·riʹou] (minus the article = Yahweh, God).”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES:

ROMANS 14:6a

J7, 8, 10, 16, 18, 22, 24, 32, 33, 41, 44, 65, 66, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 125

ROMANS 14:6b

J7, 8, 10, 16, 18, 22, 24, 32, 33, 41, 44, 65, 66, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 125

ROMANS 14:6c

J7, 8, 10, 16, 18, 22, 24, 32, 33, 41, 44, 65, 66, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115, 125

ROMANS 14:8 “we live to Jehovah, . . . we die to Jehovah . . . we belong to Jehovah”

REASON(S): Available Greek manuscripts use the term Kyʹri·os (“Lord,” preceded by the definite article in Greek) three times in this verse. In the Christian Greek Scriptures, this title is often used to refer to Jehovah God or to Jesus Christ, depending on the context. The identity of Kyʹri·os in this verse is related to the identity of Kyʹri·os at Romans 14:4, 6. The reasons for concluding that Kyʹri·os in those verses refers to Jehovah God are discussed in the comments on Romans 14:4, 6. Additionally, the concepts of living to, dying to, and belonging to God agree with what the Bible teaches elsewhere. (Psalm 100:3; 146:2; Romans 6:11; Galatians 2:19; 1 Peter 4:2) So although Greek manuscripts use Kyʹri·os (preceded by the definite article in Greek), the ambiguity of the term, the context, and the Scriptures as a whole support the use of the divine name in this verse.

SUPPORT:

  • The Anchor Yale Bible, by Joseph A. Fitzmyer, 1993, (Vol. 33) says of Romans 14:8: “This passage implies the service of God in all things . . . In life and in death, the Christian exists tō Kyriō, i.e., to praise, honor, and serve God, the creator and maker of all.” It goes on to say: “Christians belong to and must acknowledge their relation to God as Kyrios.”

SUPPORTING REFERENCES:

ROMANS 14:8a

J7, 8, 10, 14-16, 18, 32, 41, 44, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115

ROMANS 14:8b

J7, 8, 10, 14-16, 18, 32, 41, 44, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 115

ROMANS 14:8c

J7, 8, 10, 14-16, 18, 32, 44, 65, 94, 95, 100, 101, 106, 115