the first day of the week: That is, Nisan 16. For the Jews, the day immediately after the Sabbath was the first day of the week.
tomb: Or “memorial tomb.” A vault, or chamber, cut into the soft limestone rock, rather than a natural cave. Such tombs often contained benchlike shelves or niches where bodies could be laid.
of the Lord Jesus: Some manuscripts do not include these words, but the longer reading has strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
He is not here, but has been raised up: Some manuscripts do not include these words, but they have strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
executed on a stake: Or “to be fastened on a stake (pole).” This is the first of over 40 occurrences of the Greek verb stau·roʹo in the Christian Greek Scriptures. This is the verb for the Greek noun stau·rosʹ, rendered “torture stake.” (See study notes on Mt 10:38; 16:24; 27:32 and Glossary, “Stake”; “Torture stake.”) The verb form is used in the Septuagint at Es 7:9, where the order was given to hang Haman on a stake that was over 20 m (65 ft) tall. In classical Greek, it meant “to fence with pales, to form a stockade, or palisade.”
from the tomb: Some manuscripts do not include these words, but they have strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
. . . what had occurred: Some manuscripts do not include the words of this verse, but the verse has strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
interpreted: The Greek word di·er·me·neuʹo can be used in the sense “to translate from one language to another.” (Ac 9:36; 1Co 12:30, ftn.) However, it also signifies “to clarify the meaning; to explain fully.” In this verse, it refers to interpreting the meaning of prophecies.
within us: Some early manuscripts do not include these words, but they are included in other early authoritative manuscripts.
and said to them: “May you have peace”: Some manuscripts do not include these words, but they have strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
a spirit: Although the Greek word pneuʹma can refer to invisible spirit persons, the disciples were evidently using the term to refer to an apparition or a vision. Jesus showed the disciples his hands and feet and told them: “Touch me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones just as you see that I have.” (Lu 24:39) This was to prove that like angels in the past, he had materialized in order to be seen by the disciples.—Ge 18:1-8; 19:1-3.
my hands and my feet: As in Jesus’ case, nailing the hands (and likely the feet also) of the accused to a stake was customary among the Romans. (Ps 22:16; Joh 20:25, 27; Col 2:14) Some scholars believe that a nail or nails pierced Jesus’ feet, fixing them directly to the stake or to a small platform attached to the stake.
. . . and his feet: Some manuscripts do not include the words of this verse, but the verse has strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
fish: Some later manuscripts add the words “and a honeycomb,” but early authoritative manuscripts do not include these words.
in the Law of Moses and in the Prophets and Psalms: Jesus was here evidently grouping the entire inspired Hebrew Scriptures in the way adopted by the Jews and known to them. “The Law” (Hebrew, Toh·rahʹ) refers to the Bible books of Genesis through Deuteronomy. “The Prophets” (Hebrew, Nevi·ʼimʹ) refers to the prophetic books of the Hebrew Scriptures, including the so-called Former Prophets (the Bible books of Joshua through Kings). “Psalms” refers to the third section, which contains the remaining books of the Hebrew Scriptures and is called the Writings, or in Hebrew, Kethu·vimʹ. The designation “Psalms” is used because it was the first book of the third section. The term “Tanakh,” a Jewish designation for the Hebrew Scriptures, comes from combining the first letter of each of these three sections (TaNaKh). Jesus’ use of these three terms indicates that the canon of the Hebrew Scriptures was well-established when he was on earth and was approved by him.
the city: That is, Jerusalem.
and taken up to heaven: Some manuscripts do not include these words, but the words do have strong support in early authoritative manuscripts. Also, Luke indicated at Ac 1:1, 2 that in his “first account,” namely, his Gospel, he had discussed what Jesus had done in his life and ministry “until the day that he [Jesus] was taken up.” So it is quite appropriate that in his inspired account, Luke would have included these words about Jesus’ ascension to heaven.
do obeisance: Or “bow down.” When the Greek verb pro·sky·neʹo is used to refer to the worship of a god or a deity, it is rendered “to worship.” In this context, however, the astrologers were asking for “the one born king of the Jews.” So it is clear that it refers to obeisance or homage to a human king, not a god. A similar usage is found at Mr 15:18, 19, where the term is used of the soldiers who mockingly “bowed down” to Jesus and called him “King of the Jews.”
did obeisance to him: Or “bowed down to him; honored him.” People mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures also bowed down when meeting prophets, kings, or other representatives of God. (1Sa 25:23, 24; 2Sa 14:4-7; 1Ki 1:16; 2Ki 4:36, 37) This man evidently recognized that he was talking to a representative of God who had power to heal people. It was appropriate to bow down to show respect for Jehovah’s King-Designate.
did obeisance to him: Or “bowed down to him; paid him homage.” These people recognized Jesus as God’s representative. They rendered obeisance to him, not as to a god or a deity, but as to “God’s Son.”
did obeisance to him: Or “bowed down to him; paid him homage.” By calling Jesus “Son of David” (Mt 15:22), this non-Jewish woman evidently recognizes him as the promised Messiah. She renders obeisance to him, not as to a god or a deity, but as to a representative of God.
did obeisance to him: Or “bowed down to him; prostrated themselves to him; paid him homage.” When the Greek verb pro·sky·neʹo is used to refer to the worship of a god or a deity, it is rendered “to worship.” (Mt 4:10; Lu 4:8) In this context, however, the disciples recognized the resurrected Jesus as God’s representative. They rendered obeisance to him, not as to God or a deity, but as to “God’s Son,” the foretold “Son of man,” the Messiah with divine authority. (Lu 1:35; Mt 16:13-16; Joh 9:35-38) This was similar to the way that people mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures bowed down when meeting prophets, kings, or other representatives of God. (1Sa 25:23, 24; 2Sa 14:4; 1Ki 1:16; 2Ki 4:36, 37) On many occasions, the obeisance done to Jesus expressed gratitude for divine revelation or evidence of divine favor.—See study notes on Mt 2:2; 8:2; 14:33; 15:25.
did obeisance to him and: Some manuscripts do not include these words, but the words do have strong support in early authoritative manuscripts.
This is a photograph of a replica of a human heel bone pierced by an iron nail that was 11.5 cm (4.5 in.) long. The original artifact was found in 1968, during excavations in northern Jerusalem, and dates to Roman times. It provides archaeological evidence that nails were likely used in executions to fasten the person to a wooden stake. This nail may be similar to the nails employed by the Roman soldiers to fasten Jesus Christ to the stake. The artifact was found in a stone box, called an ossuary, into which the dried bones of a deceased person were placed after the flesh had decomposed. This indicates that someone executed on a stake could be given a burial.