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Jehovah’s Witnesses


The medical literature contains numerous reports of complex medical and surgical procedures performed successfully without transfusion of allogeneic whole blood or its primary components. Avoiding blood transfusion involves the optimal use of clinical strategies to minimize blood loss, conserve autologous blood, enhance hematopoiesis, and augment tolerance of anemia. This section contains citations of peer-reviewed articles from leading medical journals, presenting evidence in support of the use of autologous blood conservation and alternatives to blood transfusion.


Medicine and Surgery

Clinical strategies for managing hemorrhage and anemia without allogeneic blood transfusion.


Clinical strategies for managing neonatal and pediatric patients without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Diseases and Conditions

Clinical strategies for managing specific diseases or conditions without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Bioethics and Law

Ethical, legal, and social factors for health-care professionals to consider when treating Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Featured Articles

Major abdominal surgery in Jehovah's Witnesses.

Rollins KE, Contractor U, Inumerable R, Lobo DN

Source‎: Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2016;98(8):532-7.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27412808

DOI‎: 10.1308/rcsann.2016.0210

Minimizing blood loss at cesarean-hysterectomy for placenta previa percreta.

Belfort MA, Shamshiraz AA, Fox K

Source‎: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017;216(1):78.e1-78.e2.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27984036

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.10.030

Acute normovolemic hemodilution reduces allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Barile L, Fominskiy E, Di Tomasso N, Alpizar Castro LE, Landoni G, De Luca M, Bignami E, Sala A, Zangrillo A, Monaco F

Source‎: Anesth Analg 2017; 124(3):743-52.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27669554

DOI‎: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001609

Aminocaproic acid use in hospitalized patients with hematological malignancy: a case series.

Marshall A, Li A, Drucker A, Dzik W

Source‎: Hematol Oncol 2016;34(3):147-53.

Indexed‎: PubMed 25641349

DOI‎: 10.1002/hon.2189

Alternatives to allogeneic platelet transfusion.

Desborough MJ, Smethurst PA, Estcourt LJ, Stanworth SJ

Source‎: Br J Haematol 2016;175(3):381-92.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27650431

DOI‎: 10.1111/bjh.14338

Clinical trial of tin mesoporphyrin to prevent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Bhutani VK, Poland R, Meloy LD, Hegyi T, Fanaroff AA, Maisels MJ

Source‎: J Perinatol 2016;36(7):533-9.

Indexed‎: PubMed 26938918

DOI‎: 10.1038/jp.2016.22

Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus standard care in the management of postoperative anaemia: a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Khalafallah AA, Yan C, Al-Badri R, Robinson E, Kirkby BE, Ingram E, Gray Z, Khelgi V, Robertson IK, Kirkby BP

Source‎: Lancet Haematol 2016;3(9):e415-25.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27570088

DOI‎: 10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30078-3

The medical section of is designed as an informational resource primarily for use by clinicians and other health-care professionals. It provides neither medical advice nor treatment recommendations and does not substitute for an appropriately qualified health-care provider. The clinical literature cited is not published by Jehovah’s Witnesses, but it outlines transfusion-alternative strategies that might be considered. It is the responsibility of each qualified health-care provider to maintain awareness of new information, discuss options for care, and assist patients in making choices in accord with their medical condition, wishes, values, and beliefs. Not all listed strategies are appropriate or acceptable to all patients.

Patients: Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health-care provider regarding medical conditions or treatments. Check with a doctor if you suspect you are ill.

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