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Jehovah’s Witnesses


The medical literature contains numerous reports of complex medical and surgical procedures performed successfully without transfusion of allogeneic whole blood or its primary components. Avoiding blood transfusion involves the optimal use of clinical strategies to minimize blood loss, conserve autologous blood, enhance hematopoiesis, and augment tolerance of anemia. This section contains citations of peer-reviewed articles from leading medical journals, presenting evidence in support of the use of autologous blood conservation and alternatives to blood transfusion.


Medicine and Surgery

Clinical strategies for managing hemorrhage and anemia without allogeneic blood transfusion.


Clinical strategies for managing neonatal and pediatric patients without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Diseases and Conditions

Clinical strategies for managing specific diseases or conditions without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Bioethics and Law

Ethical, legal, and social factors for health-care professionals to consider when treating Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Featured Articles

Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus standard care in the management of postoperative anaemia: a prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Khalafallah AA, Yan C, Al-Badri R, Robinson E, Kirkby BE, Ingram E, Gray Z, Khelgi V, Robertson IK, Kirkby BP

Source‎: Lancet Haematol 2016;3(9):e415-25.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27570088

DOI‎: 10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30078-3

Umbilical cord milking reduces need for red cell transfusions and improves neonatal adaptation in preterm infants: meta-analysis.

Dang D, Zhang C, Shi S, Mu X, Lv X, Wu H

Source‎: J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2015;41(6):890-5.

Indexed‎: PubMed 25656528

DOI‎: 10.1111/jog.12657

The important role for intravenous iron in perioperative patient blood management in major abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Froessler B, Palm P, Weber I, Hodyl NA, Singh R, Murphy EM

Source‎: Ann Surg 2016;264(1):41-6.

Indexed‎: PubMed 26817624

Outcomes from cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients: experience over twenty-one years.

Marinakis S, Van der Linden P, Tortora R, Massaut J, Pierrakos C, Wauthy P

Source‎: J Cardiothorac Surg 2016;11(1):67.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27079663

DOI‎: 10.1186/s13019-016-0455-6

Outcome of Jehovah's Witnesses after adult cardiac surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

Vasques F, Kinnunen EM, Pol M, Mariscalco G, Onorati F, Biancari F

Source‎: Transfusion 2016;56(8):2146-53.

Indexed‎: PubMed 27197962

DOI‎: 10.1111/trf.13657

Fibrinogen supplementation after cardiac surgery: insights from the zero-plasma trial (ZEPLAST).

Ranucci M, Baryshnikova E

Source‎: Br J Anaesth 2016;116(5):618-23.

Indexed‎: PubMed 26893405

DOI‎: 10.1093/bja/aev539

Early erythropoietin administration does not increase the risk of retinopathy in preterm infants.

Chou HH, Chung MY, Zhou XG, Lin HC

Source‎: Pediatr Neonatol 2016 Jun. [Epub ahead of print.]

Indexed‎: PubMed 27346390

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2016.03.006

Minimizing blood transfusions in the surgical correction of craniosynostosis: a 10-year single-center experience.

Bonfield CM, Sharma J, Cochrane DD, Singhal A, Steinbok P

Source‎: Childs Nerv Syst 2016;32(1):143-51.

Indexed‎: PubMed 26351073

DOI‎: 10.1007/s00381-015-2900-6

The medical section of is designed as an informational resource primarily for use by clinicians and other health-care professionals. It provides neither medical advice nor treatment recommendations and does not substitute for an appropriately qualified health-care provider. The clinical literature cited is not published by Jehovah’s Witnesses, but it outlines transfusion-alternative strategies that might be considered. It is the responsibility of each qualified health-care provider to maintain awareness of new information, discuss options for care, and assist patients in making choices in accord with their medical condition, wishes, values, and beliefs. Not all listed strategies are appropriate or acceptable to all patients.

Patients: Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health-care provider regarding medical conditions or treatments. Check with a doctor if you suspect you are ill.

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