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Medical Information for Clinicians

The medical literature contains numerous reports of complex medical and surgical procedures performed successfully without transfusion of allogeneic whole blood or its primary components. Avoiding blood transfusion involves the optimal use of clinical strategies to minimize blood loss, conserve autologous blood, enhance hematopoiesis, and augment tolerance of anemia. This section contains citations of peer-reviewed articles from leading medical journals, presenting evidence in support of the use of autologous blood conservation and alternatives to blood transfusion.


Medicine and Surgery

Clinical strategies for managing hemorrhage and anemia without allogeneic blood transfusion.


Clinical strategies for managing neonatal and pediatric patients without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Diseases and Conditions

Clinical strategies for managing specific diseases or conditions without allogeneic blood transfusion.

Bioethics and Law

Ethical, legal, and social factors for health-care professionals to consider when treating Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Featured Articles

Oral is as effective as intravenous tranexamic acid at reducing blood loss in thoracolumbar spinal fusions: a prospective randomized trial. (opens new window)

Yu CC, Fidai M, Washington T, Bartol S, Graziano G

Source‎: Spine 2022;47(2):91-8.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34224510

DOI‎: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000004157 (opens new window)

Determining optimal treatment to correct preoperative anemia and reduce perioperative allogeneic blood transfusions in cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study. (opens new window)

Peel JK, Trudeau J, Tano R, Jadunandan S, Callum J, Moussa F, Lin Y

Source‎: J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021;35(9):2631-9.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33483268

DOI‎: 10.1053/j.jvca.2020.12.044 (opens new window)

Transfusions and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low gestation neonates enrolled in the PENUT Trial: a randomized clinical trial. (opens new window)

Vu PT, Ohls RK, Mayock DE, German KR, Comstock BA, Heagerty PJ, Juul SE; PENUT Consortium

Source‎: Pediatr Res 2021;90(1):109-16.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33432157

DOI‎: 10.1038/s41390-020-01273-w (opens new window)

Perioperative management including dual cell salvage in a Jehovah's Witness patient undergoing major urological surgery. (opens new window)

Smith TG, Anastasescu I, Wight JM, Danaee A, Nair R, O'Brien TS

Source‎: Clin Case Rep 2021;9(11):e05098.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34824851

DOI‎: 10.1002/ccr3.5098 (opens new window)

Bloodless management of the anemic patient in the emergency department. (opens new window)

Johnson-Arbor K, Verstraete R

Source‎: Ann Emerg Med 2022;79(1):48-57.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34353645

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.06.015 (opens new window)

Bilateral sequential lung transplantation in Jehovah's Witnesses. (opens new window)

Chan EG, Morrell MR, Chan PG, Sanchez PG

Source‎: Perfusion 2021;36(7):672-6.

Indexed‎: PubMed 32650703

DOI‎: 10.1177/0267659120939364 (opens new window)

Associations between preoperative anaemia and hospital costs following major abdominal surgery: cohort study. (opens new window)

Meyerov J, Louis M, Lee DK, Fletcher L, Banyasz D, Miles LF, Ma R, Tosif S, Koshy AN, Story DA, Bellomo R, Weinberg L

Source‎: BJS Open 2021;5(2):zraa070.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33834189

DOI‎: 10.1093/bjsopen/zraa070 (opens new window)

STS/SCA/AmSECT/SABM update to the clinical practice guidelines on patient blood management. (opens new window)

Tibi P, McClure RS, Huang J, Baker RA, Fitzgerald D, Mazer CD, Stone M, Chu D, Stammers AH, Dickinson T, Shore-Lesserson L, Ferraris V, Firestone S, Kissoon K, Moffatt-Bruce S

Source‎: Ann Thorac Surg 2021;112(3):981-1004.

Indexed‎: PubMed 34217505

DOI‎: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.033 (opens new window)

Association of umbilical cord management strategies with outcomes of preterm infants: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. (opens new window)

Jasani B, Torgalkar R, Ye XY, Syed S, Shah PS

Source‎: JAMA Pediatr 2021;175(4):e210102.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33683307

DOI‎: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0102 (opens new window)

Perioperative management of patients for whom transfusion is not an option. (opens new window)

Guinn NR, Resar LMS, Frank SM

Source‎: Anesthesiology 2021;134(6):939-48.

Indexed‎: PubMed 33857295

DOI‎: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000003763 (opens new window)