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Jehovah’s Witnesses


Medicine and Surgery

Clinical strategies for managing patients without blood transfusion. Select a medical specialty below then choose a specific strategy. Click the title of a citation to load the medical article or bibliographic record.


Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Transfusion Alternatives

Gastrointestinal Surgery

Hematology (Oncology)

Intensive and Critical Care


Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Orthopedic Surgery

Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery

Perioperative Care

Trauma and Emergency Medicine


The medical section of is designed as an informational resource primarily for use by clinicians and other health-care professionals. It provides neither medical advice nor treatment recommendations and does not substitute for an appropriately qualified health-care provider. The clinical literature cited is not published by Jehovah’s Witnesses, but it outlines transfusion-alternative strategies that might be considered. It is the responsibility of each qualified health-care provider to maintain awareness of new information, discuss options for care, and assist patients in making choices in accord with their medical condition, wishes, values, and beliefs. Not all listed strategies are appropriate or acceptable to all patients.

Patients: Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health-care provider regarding medical conditions or treatments. Check with a doctor if you suspect you are ill.

The use of this website is governed by its terms of use.