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Nukawo Ŋue Woke Ðo Le Yezreel?

Nukawo Ŋue Woke Ðo Le Yezreel?

 Nukawo Ŋue Woke Ðo Le Yezreel?

BLEMA du, Yezreel zu aƒedo ƒe alafa geɖe. Du xɔŋkɔe wònye ɣeaɖeɣi va yi le Biblia ƒe ŋutinya me. Fifia la, bubu si nɔ eŋu tsã la klo ɖa eye kɔ ɖo ɖe edzi wòzu anyikɔ. Tomenukulawo te numekuku wɔwɔ tso nusiwo kpɔtɔ le tome ŋu le Yezreel le ƒe siawo me. Nukae tomenu siawo ɖe fia tso Biblia ƒe nuŋlɔɖi ŋu?

Biblia me Yezreel

Esi Yezreel Bali ƒe ɣedzeƒekpa dzie Yezreel dua nɔ ta la, blema Israel-nyigba ƒe akpa siwo da ami vevie la dometɔ ɖeka dzie wònɔ. Ne èto balia me ɖo ta dziehe gome tẽ la, àkpɔ More-togbɛ, afisi Midiantɔwo ƒu asaɖa anyi ɖo esi wonɔ dzadzram ɖo ɖe Ʋɔnudrɔ̃la Gideon kple eƒe aʋakɔwo dzi dzedze ŋu. Xarod-vudoa le ɣedzeƒe gome vie, le Gilboa-toa gɔme. Afisiae Yehowa ɖe Gideon ƒe asrafo akpe nanewo dzi kpɔtɔ le va ɖo ŋutsu 300 ko ne yeatsɔ aɖe yeƒe ŋutete afia be yeate ŋu aɖe yeƒe amewo asrafoha gã mazãmazãe. (Ʋɔnudrɔ̃lawo 7:1-25; Zaxarya 4:6) Le Gilboa-to si gbɔ medidi o gbɔ la, Filistitɔwo ɖu Saul, Israel fia gbãtɔ dzi le aʋa sẽŋu aɖe me, eye ɣemaɣie wowu Saul ƒe vi Yonatan kple viaŋutsu eve bubuwo, eye Saul ŋutɔ hã wu eɖokui.—Samuel I, 31:1-5.

Nuŋlɔɖi siwo le Biblia me tso blemadu Yezreel ŋu la yi ŋgɔ ale gbegbe. Woƒo nu tso Israel dziɖulawo ƒe ŋusẽ zazã ɖe mɔ madzemadze nu kple woƒe xɔsegbegbe kpakple Yehowa subɔlawo ƒe nuteƒewɔwɔ kple dzonɔameme ŋu. Yezreel ye Fia Axab—si nye Israel ƒe dzieheto ewo fiaɖuƒea ƒe dziɖula le ƒe alafa ewolia D.Ŋ.M. ƒe afã mamlɛa ƒe nuwuwu me—tu eƒe fiasã ɖo, togbɔ be Samaria ye nye fiadua ŋutɔŋutɔ hã. (Fiawo I, 21:1) Yezreel ye Izebel, si nye dutanyɔnu si Axab ɖe, do vɔvɔ̃ na Yehowa ƒe nyagblɔɖila Eliya le be yeawui. Dzi kui elabena Eliya wu Baal ƒe nyagblɔɖilawo vɔvɔ̃manɔmee le sidzedze nyateƒe Mawu ƒe dodokpɔ si Eliya wɔ le Karmel-to dzi vɔ megbe la ta.—Fiawo I, 18:36–19:2.

Emegbe wodo hlɔ̃ aɖe le Yezreel. Wowu Nabot, Yezreeltɔ la. Nabot ƒe weingble biã ŋu na Fia Axab. Esi fiaa bia be wòatsɔ anyigbaa na ye la, Nabot ɖo eŋu nuteƒewɔwɔtɔe be: “Yehowa nena wòade megbe xaa tso gbɔnye be, matsɔ fofonyewo ƒe domenyinu na wò.” Ŋuɖoɖo sia si wòtu ɖe gɔmeɖose dzi la ve Axab vevie. Esi Fianyɔnu Izebel kpɔ be fia la lé blanui la, ewɔ ɖoɖo tso Nabot nu alakpatɔe be ewɔ busunu eyata woadrɔ̃ ʋɔnui. Wotso nya me be Nabot si meɖi fɔ o la tɔ medzɔ o, ale woƒu kpee wòku, eye fia la xɔ eƒe weingblea.—Fiawo I, 21:1-16.

Le nu vɔ̃ɖi sia si wowɔ ta la, Eliya gblɔ nya ɖi be: “Avuwo aɖu Izebel le Yezreel ƒe gliwo gbɔ.” Nyagblɔɖila la yi edzi gblɔ be: “Axab ƒe ame, si ke ku ɖe du me la, avũwo aɖui . . . Ame aɖeke meli de Axab, si tsɔ eɖokui ƒle na nu vɔ̃ɖi wɔwɔ  le Yehowa ŋku me la nu o, elabena srɔ̃ Izebel ye blee de eme.” Gake esi Axab bɔbɔ eɖokui esi Eliya gblɔ Yehowa ƒe ʋɔnudrɔ̃nya nɛ la, Yehowa gblɔ be tohehe sia mava le Axab ƒe agbenɔɣi o. (Fiawo I, 21:23-29) Biblia ƒe nuŋlɔɖia yi edzi gblɔ be le Eliya teƒenɔla Elisa ŋɔli la, wosi ami na Yehu wòzu Israel fia. Esi Yehu do tasiaɖam yi Yezreel la, eɖe gbe be woatsɔ Izebel aƒu gbe to fesre le eƒe fiasã me, eye sɔwo fanyae. Emegbe wova kpɔe be avuwo ɖui hegblẽ eƒe takoli, afɔbaya kple asibayawo ko ɖi. (Fiawo II, 9:30-37) Nudzɔdzɔ mamlɛtɔ si woŋlɔ ɖe Biblia me tso Yezreel ŋu tẽ ye nye Axab ƒe viŋutsu 70 wuwu. Yehu ƒo woƒe tawo nu ƒu ɖe kɔ gã eve me ɖe dua ƒe agbo nu, emegbe wòwu ame bubuwo kple nunɔla siwo katã xɔ ŋgɔ le Axab ƒe xɔsegbegbe dziɖuɖua me la.—Fiawo II, 10:6-11.

Nukae Tomenukulawo Kpɔ?

Le ƒe 1990 me la, tomenukuha aɖewo ƒo ƒu dze afisi Yezreel nɔ kpɔ la kuku gɔme. Tomenukuha siawoe nye Tel Aviv Yunivɛsiti Tomenukuku Srɔ̃ƒe (si teƒe David Ussishkin nɔ) kple Britaintɔwo ƒe Tomenukuku Suku si le Jerusalem (si teƒe John Woodhead nɔ). Le ɣeyiɣi vovovo adre siwo me wowɔ dɔa le (ɣeyiɣi ɖesiaɖe xɔ kwasiɖa ade) tso ƒe 1990-96 me la, ame 80 va ɖo 100 tsɔ wo ɖokui na wɔ dɔ le tomenukuƒea.

Alesi egbegbe tomenukulawo wɔa woƒe dɔe ye nye be woado nusiwo wokpɔ le teƒea ɖeɖeko akpɔ, nukpɔsusu kple nufiafia siwo wonya xoxo tso teƒea ŋu mazãmazãe. Eyata le tomenukula siwo le nu srɔ̃m tso anyigba siwo ŋu Biblia ƒo nu tsoe ŋu gome la, nyametsotso mamlɛa menɔa te ɖe Ŋɔŋlɔawo me nuŋlɔɖi dzi o. Ele be woade ŋugble le nyatakakatsoƒe bubu ɖesiaɖe kple tomenu siwo ŋu woke ɖo la ŋu nyuie ahada wo akpɔ nyuie. Gake abe alesi John Woodhead gblɔe ene la, blema nuŋlɔɖi aɖeke meli tso Yezreel ŋu tsɔ wu Biblia ƒe ta ʋɛ si ƒo nu tso eŋu la o. Eyata ele be Biblia ƒe nuŋlɔɖi kple akɔntabubu nanye numekuku ɖesiaɖe si woawɔ ƒe akpa aɖe. Nukae tomenukulaawo ƒe agbagbadzedze ɖe ɖe go?

Esi woku kpɔtɔtɔwo kple anyinuwo la, eme kɔ ƒã tso gɔmedzedzea me ke be tso keke ɣeyiɣi si me wote gakpo zazã kee nugbagbãawo nɔ anyi, si nye ɣeyiɣi si tututu Yezreel si ŋutinya Biblia gblɔ la nɔ anyi. Gake esi woyi toa me kuku dzi la, wova ke ɖe nu wɔnuku geɖe ŋu. Gbãtɔe nye teƒea ƒe lolome kple eƒe kpɔtɔtɔ sesẽwo. Tomenukulaawo nɔ mɔ kpɔm be teƒea kple eƒe kpɔtɔtɔwo asɔ kple blema Samaria si nye Israel fiaɖuƒea ƒe fiadu tɔ. Gake esi woyi toa me kuku dzi la, wova kpɔe kɔtee be Yezreel lolo sasasã wu. Esi eƒe gliwo ƒe didime  aɖo meta 300 eye wòakeke meta 150 ta la, teƒea ƒe lolome le alesi kpɔtɔtɔa didii nu lolo sasasã wu Israel-du bubu ɖesiaɖe si ŋu woke ɖo kpɔ le ɣemaɣiwo me ƒe teƒe etɔ̃. Woɖe ʋe si ƒe goglome nye meta 11 ƒo xlã kpɔtɔtɔawo. Le Nufialagã Ussishkin ƒe nya nu la, ʋe sia tɔgbe menɔ anyi le Biblia ɣeyiɣiwo me o. Egblɔ be: “Míekpɔ naneke le Israel abe esia ene o, negbe le Atitsogaʋawɔlawo ƒe ɣeyiɣi me ko.”

Nu wɔnuku bubue nye alesi xɔ gãwo mele dua titina o. Wotsɔ ke dzĩ gbogbo aɖe si woku vɛ le dua tsoɣi la ƒu kpo abe nuƒolanɔƒe kɔkɔ aɖe ene—le kpɔa me. Second Preliminary Report [Nyatakaka Evelia si Woŋlɔ Do Ŋgɔ] gblɔ tso tomekuku le Tel Jezreel ŋu be nuƒolanɔƒe kɔkɔ sia ate ŋu anye kpeɖodzi be menye fiadu koe Yezreel nye o. Egblɔ be: “Míadi be míadoe ɖa be anye be Yezreel nye Israel fiawo ƒe asrafowo nɔƒe le fia siwo ŋkɔe nye Omriawo [Omri kple eƒe dzidzime fiawo] ŋɔli . . . afisi woda fia ƒe tasiaɖamwo ɖo eye sɔdzisrafohawo nɔna eye wonaa hehe wo le.” Ne míanɔ te ɖe nuƒolanɔƒe sia ƒe lolome kple kpɔtɔtɔa ŋutɔ ƒe lolome dzi atso nya me la, Woodhead susui be teƒe sia anye afisi asrafowo kpea ta ɖo ne yewoaɖe du si si tasiaɖam gbogbotɔ kekeake le le Titina Ɣedzeƒe ɣemaɣi ƒe asrafoha ƒe ŋusẽ afia.

Dua ƒe agbo ƒe glikpo si woku la nye numekukua ƒe akpa tɔxɛ aɖe si le vevie na tomenukulaawo. Woɖee fia be wonye agbo siwo ŋu xɔvi ene ya teti le. Gake esi wònye wolɔ kpe geɖe dzoe le ƒe alafa siwo va yi me ta la, womete ŋu kpɔ ta na nusiwo ŋu woke ɖo keŋkeŋ o. Woodhead susui be glikpoawo ɖee fia be agboawo nye esiwo ŋu xɔvi ade le siwo ƒe lolome anɔ abe esiwo wokpɔ le Megido, Xazor, kple Gezer ene. *

Nusiwo ŋu tomenukulaawo ke ɖo la ɖo kpe alesi wòwɔ nukui be du si gɔme woɖo anyi sesĩe alea, si si asrafo geɖe le, eye afisi wotsoe ɖo nyo la menɔ anyi wòdidi kura o la dzi. Woodhead te gbe ɖe edzi be ɣeyiɣi kpui aɖe koe Yezreel du si ŋu wotɔ kpɔ sesẽ ɖo la nɔ anyi—ƒe ʋɛ aɖewo koe wonɔ eme. Esia to vovo sasasã na Israel-du vevi bubu geɖe siwo ŋu woƒo nu tsoe le Biblia me, abe Megido, Xazor, kple Samaria, si nye fiadua, du siwo wogbugbɔ tso zi geɖe, gbugbɔ keke ɖe nu, eye amewo nɔ wo me le ɣeyiɣi vovovowo me la ene. Nukatae du nyui sia nu yi kaba nenema gbegbe? Woodhead susui be anye be esi Axab kple eƒe fiaƒomewo na dukɔa da ahe kloe le dukɔa ƒe kesinɔnu siwo dome wogblẽ tae. Esia ɖe dzesi le alesi gbegbe Yezreel loloe kple ŋusẽ si gbegbe le eŋu la me. Edze abe dziɖuɖu yeye si nɔ Yehu te la medi be yeaɖo ŋku Axab ƒe nuwɔnawo dzi o ene eyata wògblẽ dua ɖi wòzu aƒedo.

Eyata nusiwo katã ŋu woke ɖo la ɖo kpe edzi be Yezreel nye du vevi aɖe nɔ Israel va yi le ɣeyiɣi siwo me wodze gakpo zazã gɔme. Eƒe lolome kple kpɔtɔtɔwo wɔ ɖeka kple alesi woɖɔe le Biblia me be enye Axab kple Izebel ƒe fiasã. Dzesi siwo fia be amewo menɔ eme ɣeyiɣi didi o wɔ ɖeka kple dua ŋuti nuŋlɔɖi si le Biblia me: Exɔ ŋkɔ kabakaba le Axab ƒe dziɖuɣi, eye emegbe edze ƒã be womui ƒu anyi ŋukpetɔe le Yehowa ƒe gbeɖeɖe nu, esi Yehu “wu amesiwo katã kpɔtɔ ɖe Axab ƒe me le Yezreel, eƒe amegãwo katã, xɔlɔ̃awo, kple eƒe nunɔlawo, vaseɖe esime ame aɖeke mekpɔtɔ si o.”—Fiawo II, 10:11.

 Yezreel Ŋuti Ɣeyiɣikɔntabubu

John Woodhead lɔ̃ ɖe edzi be, “enye nu sesẽ ŋutɔ le tomenukuku me be woakpɔ nusi dzi tututu woanɔ te ɖo abu ɣeyiɣi ŋuti kɔnta.” Eyata esi tomenukulaawo lé ŋku ɖe nusiwo ŋu woke ɖo le ƒe adre ƒe tomekuku me ŋu la, wotsɔ nusiawo sɔ kple nu bubu siwo ŋu woke ɖo le tomenukuƒe bubuwo. Esia ana be woagbugbɔ ŋku alé ɖe nuwo ŋu ahadzro wo me. Nukatae? Elabena tso keke esime Israel-vi tomenukula Yigael Yadin ku to me le Megido le ƒe 1960-awo kple ƒe 1970 ƒe gɔmedzedze la, wobui be tomenukula geɖewo lɔ̃ ɖe edzi be eke ɖe kpɔtɔtɔ kple du ƒe agbo siwo nɔ anyi le Fia Salomo ŋɔli la ŋu. Fifia la, kpɔtɔtɔ, anyinu, kple agbo, siwo wokpɔ le Yezreel na be ame aɖewo le ɖi kem nyataƒoƒo siawo.

Le kpɔɖeŋu me, anyinu siwo wokpɔ le Yezreel la sɔ kple esiwo wokpɔ le Megido si Yadin gblɔ be wonɔ anyi le Salomo ƒe dziɖuɣi la. Ne alesi wotu agboa kple dudo eveawo ƒe dzidzeme mesɔ kple wo nɔewo o la, ke wode sɔsɔ ge. Woodhead gblɔ be: “Anye be kpeɖodziawo katã tutu Yezreel ƒe anyinɔɣi yi keke Salomo ŋɔli loo alo ɖiɖi nusiwo wokpɔ le teƒe bubuawo [Megido kple Xazor] ƒe ɣeyiɣikɔntabubu yi Axab ŋɔli.” Esi nya si Biblia gblɔ be Yezreel nɔ anyi le Axab ŋɔli me kɔ nyuie ta la, ebui be susu le eme wu be yeaxɔe ase be tomenukuku siawo ɖo kpe Axab ƒe dziɖuɣi dzi. David Ussishkin lɔ̃ ɖe edzi be: “Biblia gblɔ be Salomo tso Megido—megblɔ be eyae tu agbo mawo tututu o.”

Ðe Woate Ŋu Anya Yezreel ƒe Ŋutinyaa?

Ðe tomenukuku siawo kple nyaʋiʋli siwo kplɔe ɖo na be ɖikeke ɖo Biblia ƒe nuŋlɔɖi tso Yezreel alo Salomo ŋu la ŋutia? Le nyateƒe me la, tomenukuku ŋuti nyaʋiʋliwo mekpɔ ŋusẽ boo aɖeke ɖe Biblia me nuŋlɔɖiwo dzi o. Tomenukuku kua ŋutinya me le mɔ si to vovo kura na alesi Biblia ɖɔa nuwoe. Nyabiabia vovovowoe wòfɔna ɖe te eye wòtea gbe ɖe nu bubuwo dzi. Woate ŋu atsɔ Biblia nusrɔ̃vi kple tomenukula asɔ kple amesiwo le mɔ zɔm le akasanu. Mɔzɔla ɖeka le ʋu kum to lɔrimɔ dzi, eye evelia le afɔ zɔm le mɔa ƒe axadzi. Nusiwo dzi woƒe susu le kple nusiwo ŋu wotsia dzi ɖo to vovo. Gake zi geɖe la, woƒe nukpɔsusuwo dea nu wo nɔewo me wu be woatsi tre ɖe wo nɔewo ŋu. Mɔzɔla eveawo ƒe nukpɔsusuwo tsɔtsɔ sɔ kple wo nɔewo ate ŋu ana woake ɖe nu dodzidzɔnamewo ŋu.

Blema nudzɔdzɔwo kple amewo ŋuti nuŋlɔɖiwo le Biblia me; tomenukuku tena kpɔna be yeake ɖe nyatakakawo ŋu tso nudzɔdzɔ siawo kple amewo ŋu to wo ŋutinu ɖesiaɖe ƒomevi si kpɔtɔ le tome siwo woakpɔ la dodokpɔ me. Gake zi geɖe la, tomenu siawo menyea nusiwo dena pɛpɛpɛ o eye gɔmeɖeɖe vovovowoe wonana le wo ŋu. Amihai Mazar gblɔ le nya sia ŋu le eƒe agbalẽ si nye Archaeology of the Land of the Bible—10,000−586 B.C.E. me be: “Tomenukuku . . . nye aɖaŋuwɔwɔ blibo kple eŋutinunyala xɔhehewo ƒe aɖaŋu ŋudɔwɔwɔ. Mɔnu ɖeka gobii aɖeke meli si dzi woato akpɔ dzidzedze o, eye dɔdzikpɔlawo ƒe nukpɔsusu vovovowo xɔxɔ awɔ dɔe le vevie. Tomenukulaa ƒe nɔnɔme, ŋutete, kple susu hã le vevie abe hehe si wòxɔ kple dɔwɔnu siwo li wòazã la ke ene.”

Tomenukuku ɖo kpe edzi be fiasã kple asrafonɔƒe gã aɖe nɔ Yezreel kpɔ, be nukutɔe la, enɔ anyi ɣeyiɣi kpui aɖe si do ƒome kple Axab ƒe dziɖuɖu—abe alesi ko Biblia gblɔe ene. Nyabiase dodzidzɔname bubu geɖe fɔ ɖe te siwo ŋu tomenukulawo asrɔ̃ nu tsoe le ƒe siwo gbɔna me. Gake Mawu ƒe Nya, Biblia, yia edzi ƒoa nu eme kɔna nyuie eye wògblɔa ŋutinya la na mí le mɔ si nu tomenukulawo mate ŋu agblɔe toe gbeɖe o la nu.

[Etenuŋɔŋlɔ]

^ mm. 13 Kpɔ nyati si nye “Agboawo Ŋuti Nya Ɣaɣla” si le Eŋlisigbe me Gbetakpɔxɔ, August 15, 1988, me.

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 26]

Tomekuku le Yezreel

[Nɔnɔmetata si le axa 28]

Kanaantɔwo ƒe legba si wokpɔ le Yezreel