Iqembu labavubukuli laliphenya ezihosheni nasemigedeni ehlane laseJudiya ngesikhathi amalungu alo ezithela phezu komgede ophezu kwewa eliyingozi. Ingabe kukhona okubalulekile ayezokuthola lapho, mhlawumbe amagugu asendulo noma imibhalo yesandla njengemiQulu YasoLwandle Olufile? Awakholwanga lapho evumbulula amagugu afihlekile, kamuva aqanjwa ngokuthi amagugu afihliwe aseNahal Mishmar

LIFIHLWE emfantwini futhi lisongwe ngecansi elikhulu, lelo qoqo elatholakala ngo-March 1961, lalakhiwa izinto ezingaphezu kuka-400, eziningi zazo ezazenziwe ngethusi. Phakathi kwalezi zinto kwakunezinhlobonhlobo zemiqhele, izintonga zobukhosi, amathuluzi, izagila zensimbi nezinye izikhali. Leli qoqo elatholakala liyabajabulisa abafundi beBhayibheli ngoba kuGenesise 4:22 uThubali-Khayini ubizwa ngokuthi “umkhandi wazo zonke izinhlobo zamathuluzi ethusi nawensimbi.”

Iseminingi imibuzo mayelana nemvelaphi kanye nomsuka wala magugu afihliwe. Noma kunjalo, ukutholakala kwawo kubonisa ukuthi ukumbiwa kwethusi, ukuncibilikiswa nokubunjwa kwalo bekulokhu kwaziwa emazweni angezikhathi zeBhayibheli kusukela ezikhathini zakudala.

IZINDAWO ZOKUMBA ITHUSI EZWENI LESITHEMBISO

Lapho ama-Israyeli eselungela ukungena eZweni Lesithembiso, uMose wathi kuwo: “Ezintabeni zalo [izwe] uyokumba kuzo ithusi.” (Duteronomi 8:7-9) Abavubukuli baye bathola izindawo eziningana kwa-Israyeli naseJordani eziyizimayini zasendulo nezindawo zokuncibilikisa izinto, njengaseFeinan, eTimna, naseKhirbat en-Nahas. Zembulani lezo zindawo?

Amathafa aseFeinan naseTimna anemigodi engajulile abavukuzi ababemba kuyo ithusi inkathi engaba iminyaka engu-2 000. Ngisho nanamuhla, kuleyo ndawo isivakashi singathola izingcezu ezinamabala aluhlaza zamatshe anethusi zithe chithí saka. Abavukuzi basendulo babesebenza kanzima beqhephula amadwala ngamathuluzi etshe ukuze bakhiphe ithusi. Lapho ithusi seliphelile emadwaleni, babemba bajule ngamathuluzi ensimbi, bekhulisa imigede futhi bevula imigodi ejulile nemihubhe. Incwadi yeBhayibheli kaJobe, ikhuluma ngemisebenzi enjalo yokumba. (Jobe 28:2-11) Lona kwakungumsebenzi onzima; eqinisweni, kusukela ekhulwini lesithathu leminyaka kuya kwelesihlanu C.E., iziphathimandla zaseRoma zazinikeza izigebengu eziyingozi kakhulu kanye nezinye iziboshwa, izigwebo zokwenza umsebenzi ezimayini zethusi zaseFeinan.

Izindunduma ezinkulu zezinsalela zitholakala eKhirbat en-Nahas (okusho “Amanxiwa Ethusi”), okusikisela ukuthi ukuncibilikiswa kwethusi okwakwenziwa yizimboni kwakwenziwa lapho. Izazi zikholelwa ukuthi amatshe anethusi ayelethwa lapho esuka ezimayini eziseduze, njengaseFeinan naseTimna.  Ukuze kuhlukaniswe ithusi netshe, kwakuvuthelwa umlilo kusetshenziswa amapayipi omoya namanye amathuluzi, ukuze kukhushulwe izinga lokushisa kwemililo yamalahle lize lifinyelele cishe kuma-degrees Celcius angu-1 200 amahora angu-8 kuya kwayishumi. Ngokuvamile kwakudingeka amakhilogremu amahlanu etshe lethusi ukuze kukhiqizwe ikhilogremu elilodwa lesigaxa sethusi futhi ngemva kwalokho sasingasetshenziswa ezintweni ezihlukahlukene.

UKUSETSHENZISWA KWETHUSI KWA-ISRAYELI WASENDULO

ENtabeni iSinayi, uJehova uNkulunkulu wakhipha umyalo oqondile othi lelo thusi elicwebezelayo elalimbiwa kuleyo ndawo kumelwe lisetshenziswe ekwakhiweni kwetabernakele, kamuva ithempeli eJerusalema lakhiwa ngendlela efanayo. (Eksodusi, isahluko 27) Ama-Israyeli kungenzeka ayenolwazi oluthile lokusebenza ngensimbi ngaphambi kokuba aye eGibhithe, noma kungenzeka aluthola ngenkathi elapho. Ngesikhathi sokuFuduka, akwazi ukwenza ithole lethusi elibunjiwe. Ayekwazi nokwenza izinto eziningi zethusi ezazidingeka enkonzweni yasetarbenakele—njengendishi enkulu, izimbiza, amapani, amafosholo kanye nezimfoloko.—Eksodusi 32:4.

Kamuva ohambweni lwabo lwasehlane, mhlawumbe ngasePunon (cishe okuyiFeinan yanamuhla), indawo enethusi eliningi, abantu bakhononda ngemana nangamanzi. Ukuze abajezise, uJehova wathumela izinyoka ezinobuthi futhi kwafa abantu abaningi. Ngemva kokuba ama-Israyeli ephendukile, uMose wawancengela, futhi uJehova wamyala ukuba enze inyoka yethusi bese eyichoma phezulu esigxotsheni. Ukulandisa kuthi: “Kwakuthi lapho inyoka ilume umuntu wabe eseyigqolozela inyoka yethusi, khona-ke wayeqhubeka ephila.”—Numeri 21:4-10; 33:43.

ITHUSI LENKOSI USOLOMONI

Izingxenye eziningi zethempeli eJerusalema zazenziwe ngethusi

INkosi uSolomoni yasebenzisa ithusi eliningi ekuhlobiseni ithempeli eJerusalema. Eliningi lalo laliqongelelwe uDavide uyise, elithola ezimpini ayezinqobe elwa neSiriya. (1 IziKronike 18:6-8) “Ulwandle olubunjiwe” lwethusi, okuyindishi enkulu eyayisetshenziswa ngabapristi uma begeza, lwalumumatha amalitha angu-66 000 futhi kungenzeka isisindo salo sasingamathani angu-30. (1 AmaKhosi 7:23-26, 44-46) Kwakukhona nezinsika ezimbili ezinkulukazi zethusi emnyango wethempeli. Zazingamamitha angu-8 ubude futhi zinezihloko ezingamamitha angaba ngu-2.2 ubude. Lezi zinsika zaziyimihubhe, zinezindonga ezingamasentimitha angu-7.5 ubukhulu futhi zingamamitha angu-1.7 ukuzungeza. (1 AmaKhosi 7:15, 16; 2 IziKronike 4:17) Kukushiya ubambe ongezansi ukucabanga ukuthi lingakanani ithusi elasetshenziswa ekwenzeni lezi zinto zodwa nje.

Ithusi lalivame nokusetshenziswa ekuphileni kwansuku zonke ngabantu ezikhathini zeBhayibheli. Ngokwesibonelo, sifunda ngezikhali, izibopho, izinsimbi zomculo, neminyango okwakwenziwe ngethusi. (1 Samuweli 17:5, 6; 2 AmaKhosi 25:7; 1 IziKronike 15:19; IHubo 107:16) UJesu wakhuluma ngemali ‘yethusi’ efakwa emixhakeni, kanti umphostoli uPawulu wakhuluma ‘ngo-Aleksandru umkhandi wethusi.’—Mathewu 10:9; 2 Thimothewu 4:14.

Kunemibuzo eminingi esalenga abavubukuli nezazi-mlando okusamelwe bayiphendule mayelana nemithombo yamagugu ethusi ezikhathi zeBhayibheli, kanye namagugu afihliwe aseNahal Mishmar. Nakuba kunjalo, iqiniso aliguquki njengoba lifakazelwa ukulandisa kweBhayibheli, ukuthi izwe elazuzwa ama-Israyeli njengefa ‘lalilihle’ ngempela “ezintabeni zalo [ayeyokumba] kuzo ithusi.”—Duteronomi 8:7-9.