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OFakazi BakaJehova

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INqabayokulinda  |  September 2013

Ingabe Izilimi Zethu Zavela “EMbhoshongweni waseBhabhele”?

Ingabe Izilimi Zethu Zavela “EMbhoshongweni waseBhabhele”?

“Ukusuka lapho uJehova wabahlakazela phezu kwawo wonke umhlaba, kancane kancane bayeka ukuwakha lowo muzi. Yingakho igama lawo kwathiwa yiBhabhele, ngenxa yokuthi uJehova wayeluphithanise khona ulimi lomhlaba wonke.”—Genesise 11:8, 9.

INGABE leso sigameko esilotshwe eBhayibhelini senzeka ngempela? Ingabe abantu baqala ukukhuluma izilimi ezihlukahlukene ngasikhathi sinye, njengoba kuchazwa lapha? Abanye bakuhleka usulu ukulandisa kweBhayibheli kwendlela izilimi zabantu ezaqala futhi zasakazeka ngayo. Omunye umbhali uthi: “Inganekwane yoMbhoshongo waseBhabhele ingenye yezimbudane ezedlula zonke kwezake zaxoxwa.” Ngisho norabi othile ongumJuda wakubiza ngokuthi “umzamo obonisa ukungabi nalwazi lokuchaza imvelaphi yezizwe.”

Kungani abantu bengayamukeli indaba yaseBhabhele? Kalula nje, yingoba iyaphikisana nemibono ethile ngemvelaphi yezilimi. Ngokwesibonelo, ezinye izazi zithi amaqembu ezilimi awavelanga ngasikhathi sinye kodwa aguquka kancane kancane esuka olimini olulodwa oluwumsuka. Ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi kunezilimi zokuqala ezazingahlobene, ezathuthuka zisuka ekubeni ukuhomuzela nje zaze zaba inkulumo eyinkimbinkimbi. Le mibono kanye neminye ephikisanayo iye yabangela ukuba abaningi bavumelane noProfesa W. T. Fitch, owabhala encwadini yakhe i-Evolution of Language wathi: “Asikazitholi izimpendulo ezigculisa ngempela.”

Yini abavubukuli nabacwaningi abayitholile ngemvelaphi nokuthuthuka kwezilimi zabantu? Ingabe abakutholile kuyavumelana nale mibono evezwayo? Noma ingabe kusekela indaba yaseBhabhele? Okokuqala ake sikuhlolisise lokhu kulandisa kweBhayibheli.

KWENZEKA KUPHI FUTHI NINI?

IBhayibheli lithi ukuphithaniswa kolimi nokuhlakazwa kwabantu kwenzeka “ezweni laseShinari,” kamuva okwathiwa iBabylonia. (Genesise 11:2) Kwenzeka nini lokho? IBhayibheli lithi “kwahlukaniswa umhlaba [abantu]” ezinsukwini zikaPhelege, owazalwa eminyakeni engaba ngu-250 ngaphambi  kuka-Abrahama. Ngakho kusobala ukuthi izenzakalo zaseBhabhele zenzeka eminyakeni engaba ngu-4 200 edlule.—Genesise 10:25; 11:18-26.

Ezinye izazi zithi izilimi zanamuhla zivela olimini olulodwa lokuqala—okuthiwa ulimi olungumsuka ezicabanga ukuthi lwalukhulunywa abantu eminyakeni engaba ngu-100 000 edlule. * Ezinye zithi izilimi zanamuhla zihlobene nezilimi eziningana zokuqala ezazikhulunywa eminyakeni engaba ngu-6 000 edlule. Kodwa lezi zazi zolimi zikwazi kanjani ukuthola ukuthi izilimi ezingasakhulunywa zazithuthuke kanjani? Umagazini i-Economist uthi: “Yiyona ke into edidayo leyo. Ngokungafani nezazi zezinto eziphilayo, izazi zolimi azinayo imivubukulo ezihlahlela indlela yesikhathi esidlule.” Lo magazini unezela uthi, esinye isazi solimi esikholelwa ekuziphendukeleni kwemvelo sifinyelela esiphethweni saso ngokwenza “izibalo ezisekelwe ekuqageleni.”

Noma kunjalo, ikhona ‘imivubukulo yezilimi’. Iyini le mivubukulo, futhi yembulani ngemvelaphi yezilimi zabantu? I-New Encyclopædia Britannica iyachaza: “Umlando omdala kunayo yonke wezilimi ezibhaliwe, nokuwukuphela kwemivubukulo yezilimi esiyoke sibe nawo, oweminyaka engu-4 000 noma engu-5 000 kuphela edlule.” Bayitholaphi abavubukuli le “mivubukulo yezilimi,” noma ‘umlando wezilimi ezibhaliwe’? EMesophothamiya esezansi—endaweni okwakukhona kuyo iShinari yasendulo. * Ngakho, ubufakazi obuphathekayo esinabo buvumelana namaqiniso ashiwo eBhayibhelini.

IZILIMI EZINGAFANI, UKUCABANGA OKUNGAFANI

Ukulandisa kweBhayibheli kuthi eBhabhele, uNkulunkulu ‘waphithanisa ulimi lwabo ukuze bangaluzwa noma bangaluqondi ulimi lomunye nomunye.’ (Genesise 11:7) Ngenxa yalokho, lezo zisebenzi ‘zayeka ukuwakha lowo muzi’ waseBhabhele, ‘zahlakazeka kuwo wonke umhlaba.’ (Genesise 11:8, 9) Ngakho, iBhayibheli alisho ukuthi zonke izilimi zanamuhla zavela olimini olulodwa oluwumsuka. Kunalokho, lichaza ukuvela ngasikhathi sinye kwezilimi eziningi ezintsha, ngokusobala ezazithuthuke ngokuphelele, ngalunye lukwazi ukuveza imizwa ehlukahlukene nemicabango futhi ngalunye luhluke ngokuphelele kwezinye.

Isibhebhe sobumba esinombhalo we-cuneiform waseMesophothamiya ngenkulungwanye yesithathu B.C.E.

Kuthiwani ngamaqembu ezilimi zomhlaba ezikhona namuhla? Ingabe kukhona ukufana okuthile okuyisisekelo kuzo noma zahlukene? ULera Boroditsky, isazi sesayensi yokusebenza kwengqondo ekuqondeni izinto, wabhala: “Njengoba izazi zezilimi zimba zijula ekuhloleni kwazo izilimi zomhlaba (ezingaba ngu-7 000, okuhlaziywe ingxenyana encane yazo), kuye kwavela ukungafani okuningi futhi obungeke wakucabanga.” Yebo, nakuba kungase kube khona ukufana ezilimini nasezilimini zezigodi eziseqenjini elilodwa lezilimi, njengesiCanton nesiHakka eningizimu yeChina, nokho zihluke ngokuphelele ezilimini zakwelinye iqembu lezilimi, njengesiCatalan saseNtshonalanga noma isiValencia, eSpain.

Izilimi zithonya indlela abantu abayibheka futhi bayichaze ngayo indawo ebazungezile—umbala, ubungako, indawo, ukukhomba. Ngokwesibonelo, ngolunye ulimi umuntu angase athi, “Kukhona isinambuzane esandleni sakho sokunene.” Kodwa  ngolunye athi, “Kukhona isinambuzane esandleni sakho esiseningizimu-ntshonalanga.” Umehluko onjalo ungadida ngempela. Akumangalisi ukuthi kungani abakhi eBhabhele bengakwazanga ukuqhubeka nomsebenzi wabo.

UKUHOMUZELA NOMA INKULUMO EYINKIMBINKIMBI?

Lwalunjani ulimi lwabantu lwasekuqaleni? IBhayibheli libika ukuthi umuntu wokuqala, u-Adamu, wakwazi ukuqamba amagama amasha lapho etha zonke izilwane ezihamba phansi nezindizayo. (Genesise 2:20) U-Adamu waqamba nenkondlo lapho eveza imizwa yakhe ngomkakhe, naye umkakhe wawuchaza ngokucacile umyalo kaNkulunkulu kanye nemiphumela yokungamlaleli. (Genesise 2:23; 3:1-3) Ngakho, ulimi lokuqala lwenza abantu bakwazi ukukhulumisana ngokucacile nangobuciko.

Ukuphithaniswa kwezilimi eBhabhele kwavimba abantu bangakwazi ukucobelelana ngobuhlakani nangamandla. Nokho, izilimi zabo ezintsha zaziyinkimbinkimbi njengolimi lwabo lokuqala. Kungakapheli amakhulu ambalwa eminyaka, abantu base bakhe amadolobha aphithizelayo, bebuthe amabutho anamandla futhi amazwe ehwebelana. (Genesise 13:12; 14:1-11; 37:25) Ingabe babengathuthuka ngalelo zinga bengenalo iqoqo elikhulu lamagama nohlelo lwawo olubanzi? NgokweBhayibheli, ulimi lokuqala lwabantu kanye nezilimi ezasunguleka eBhabhele, kwakungekona ukuhomuzela nemisindo engaqondakali kodwa zaziyinkimbinkimbi.

Ukucwaninga kwanamuhla kuyasisekela lesi siphetho. I-Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language ithi: “Kuwo wonke amasiko ake ahlolwa, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ‘asemuva’ kangakanani ngokwempucuko, kutholakale ukuthi anolimi oluthuthuke ngokuphelele, oluyinkimbinkimbi njengezilimi zezizwe okuthiwa ‘ziphucukile.’ Ngokufanayo, encwadini yakhe ethi The Language Instinct, uProfesa waseHarvard College, uSteven Pinker, uthi: “Ayikho into ewulimi olungathuthukile.”

IKUSASA LOLIMI

Ngemva kokubukeza ubudala ‘bemivubukulo’ yezilimi nendawo eyatholakala kuyo, umehluko oyisisekelo phakathi kwamaqembu ezilimi, nobunkimbinkimbi bezilimi zasendulo, yisiphi isiphetho esinengqondo esingafinyelela kuso? Abaningi baphetha ngokuthi ukulandisa kweBhayibheli kwalokho okwenzeka eBhabhele kuyincazelo ekholeka ngokuphelele.

IBhayibheli lisitshela ukuthi uJehova uNkulunkulu waphithanisa ulimi lwabantu eBhabhele ngoba babemvukela. (Genesise 11:4-7) Nokho, wathembisa ukuthi ‘wayeyokwenza izizwe ukuba zishintshele olimini oluhlanzekile, ukuze zonke zibize igama likaJehova, ukuze zimkhonze zilinganisene ihlombe nehlombe.’ (Zefaniya 3:9) Namuhla, lolu “limi oluhlanzekile,” oluyiqiniso elivela eZwini likaNkulunkulu, luhlanganisa abantu ndawonye emhlabeni wonke. Kubonakala kunengqondo ukuthi esikhathini esizayo uNkulunkulu uzobahlanganisa ngokwengeziwe abantu ngokubanika ulimi olulodwa, asombulule ukuphithana kwaseBhabhele.

^ isig. 8 Ngokuvamile imibono ephathelene nezilimi isekelwe embonweni wokuthi abantu baqala beyizilwane ezifana nezimfene. Ukuze uthole ingxoxo ephathelene nemibono enjengale, bheka amakhasi 27-29 encwajana ethi The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking, enyatheliswa oFakazi BakaJehova.

^ isig. 9 Eduze kwaseShinari, abavubukuli bavumbulule amathempeli amaningana ayimibhoshongo esazitebhisi. IBhayibheli lithi abakhi bombhoshongo eBhabhele babebeka izitini, hhayi amatshe, basebenzise nebitume esikhundleni sodaka. (Genesise 11:3, 4) I-New Encyclopædia Britannica ithi, eMesophothamiya itshe “laliyivelakancane, noma, lalingekho nhlobo” kanti ibitume lona lalixhaphakile.