Isazi asikukholwa lokhu esikubonayo. Sihlolisisa ucezu lombhalo wasendulo ngokucophelela. Indlela olubhalwe ngayo nohlelo lolimi kuyasiqinisekisa ukuthi siphethe izingcezu zenguqulo yeBhayi-bheli yesiGeorgia ezindala kunazo zonke!

LELO gugu latholakala ekupheleni kuka-December 1922, lapho isazi sesiGeorgia, u-Ivané Javakhishvili, sicwaninga ngendlela ezasungulwa ngayo izinhlamvu zesiGeorgia. Sazithela phezu kwekhophi yeTalmud yaseJerusalema. Njengoba siyihlola, sabona ukuthi ngaphansi kwemibhalo yesiHebheru kunombhalo wezinhlamvu zesiGeorgia ongasabonakali kahle. *

Umbhalo wesandla “ocashe” kuyi-Talmud uyingxenye yencwadi yeBhayibheli kaJeremiya yangekhulu lesihlanu C.E. Ngaphambi kokuba kutholakale lo mbhalo wesandla, iBhayibheli lesiGeorgia elidala kakhulu elaziwayo kwakungelekhulu lesishiyagalolunye C.E. Ngokushesha, kwatholakala ezinye izingxenye zeBhayibheli zangekhulu lesihlanu C.E. nezangaphambi kwalokho. Cabanga nje, kutholakala iBhayibheli elabhalwa ngemva kwamakhulu ambalwa uJesu nabaphostoli bakhe befile!

Ubani owalihumusha? Ingabe lahunyushwa umuntu oyedwa noma iqembu labahumushi? Okwamanje, awukho umlando onikeza impendulo. Kunoma yikuphi, kusobala ukuthi iBhayibheli noma izingxenye zalo zahunyushelwa olimini lwesiGeorgia ngekhulu lesine futhi kusukela ngaleso sikhathi abantu baseGeorgia bebelokhu benalo iZwi likaNkulunkulu ngolimi abaluncela.

Ukulandisa okubonisa izinga abantu baseGeorgia ababejwayelene ngalo nemiBhalo kutholakala encwadini ethi The Martyrdom of St. Shushanik the Queen, cishe eyabhalwa ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lesihlanu. Elandisa ngendaba ebuhlungu yendlovukazi, umlobi uhlanganisa izingcaphuno namazwi avela encwadini yamaHubo, amaVangeli nezinye izingxenye zeBhayibheli. Ubuye alandise ngokuthi efuna ukushweleza ezikhulwini zasePheresiya, umyeni kaShushanik, uVarsken, umbusi wesifunda saseKartli eMbusweni WaseGeorgia, washiya “ubuKristu” washintshela ekubeni umZoroastria wasePheresiya futhi waphoqelela nomkakhe ukuba enze okufanayo. Le ncwadi ithi umkakhe wenqaba ukulahla izinkolelo zakhe futhi wathola induduzo emiBhalweni ngaphambi kokuba abulawe.

Kusukela ngekhulu lesihlanu, kusobala ukuthi  iBhayibheli lesiGeorgia belilokhu lihunyushwa futhi likopishwa. Ubuningi bemibhalo yesandla yeBhayibheli ngesiGeorgia buwubufakazi bomsebenzi wokuzikhandla wabahumushi nabakopishi. Ake sihlole izici ezimbili zale ndaba eshukumisayo—ukuhunyushwa nokunyatheliswa kwaleli Bhayibheli.

UKWANDA KWEZINGUQULO ZEBHAYIBHELI

“Mina Giorgi, indela ephansi, ngiye ngahumusha incwadi yamaHubo ngiyisusa olimini lwesiGreki esisha ngiyisa olimini lwesiGeorgia ngokuzimisela okukhulu nangokuzikhandla.” Lawo amazwi endela yaseGeorgia yangekhulu le-11, uGiorgi Mtatsmindeli. Kungani kwakudingeka ukuba iBhayibheli lihunyushelwe olimini lwesiGeorgia uma kanti kwase kungamakhulu eminyaka likhona?

Ngekhulu le-11, yayimbalwa kakhulu imibhalo yeBhayibheli yesandla yesiGeorgia eyayitholakala. Ezinye izincwadi zazingasekho nhlobo. Okunye, ngandlela thile ulimi lwase lushintshile futhi kunzima ngabafundi ukuba baqonde imibhalo yakudala. Nakuba abahumushi abaningana bazama ukuvuselela iBhayibheli lesiGeorgia, indima kaGiorgi yayibaluleke kakhulu. Waqhathanisa izinguqulo zesiGeorgia ezazikhona nemibhalo yesandla yesiGreki futhi wazihumusha zonke izingxenye ezazingekho, ngezinye izikhathi aze ayihumushe yonke incwadi. Emini, wayenza imisebenzi yakhe ephathelene nokuphatha izindela. Bese kuthi ebusuku ahumushe iBhayibheli.

Umuntu owayephila ngesikhathi sikaGiorgi u-Ephrem Mtsire wathuthukisa umsebenzi kaGiorgi. Wasungula indlela ebalulekile eyaba isiqondiso sabahumushi. Yayinemithetho eyinhloko yokuhumusha, njengokunamathela olimini ohumusha ususa kulo kodwa ubeke inkulumo ngendlela engokwemvelo. Wabuye wasungula ukufaka imibhalo yaphansi nezikhombo ezinguqulweni zesiGeorgia. U-Ephrem wahumusha izincwadi eziningana zeBhayibheli ezisusa phansi. Umsebenzi kaGiorgi no-Ephrem waba isisekelo sezinguqulo eziningi zeBhayibheli.

Ngekhulu leminyaka elalandela, ukukhiqizwa kwezincwadi kwanda eGeorgia. Kwasungulwa izikole emadolobheni amabili aseGelati nase-Ikalto. Izazi eziningi zikholelwa ukuthi lokho okuthiwa i-Gelati Bible [iBhayibheli lika-Gelati], njengamanje elibekwe e-Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts, iyinguqulo yeBhayibheli entsha ephelele eyahunyushwa omunye wezazi zaseGelati noma e-Ikalto.

Ukuhunyushwa kwaleli Bhayibheli kwabathinta kanjani abantu baseGeorgia? Ngekhulu le-12, imbongi yaseGeorgia, uShota Rustaveli, yabhala incwadi ethi Vepkhis-tqaosani (Knight in the Panther Skin), incwadi eyaba nethonya elikhulu amakhulu eminyaka kangangokuthi iye yabizwa ngokuthi iBhayibheli lesiGeorgia lesibili. Isazi sanamuhla saseGeorgia, uK. Kekelidze saqaphela ukuthi kungakhathaliseki ukuthi imbongi yayicaphuna ngokuqondile  eBhayibhelini noma cha, “eminye imibono yayo icashunwe ngokuqondile emavesini athile eBhayibheli.” Nakuba le nkondlo inehaba elithile, ivame ukukhuluma ngezihloko ezinjengobungane beqiniso, ukuphana, ukuhlonipha abesifazane nokuthanda izihambi ngokungazenzisi. Lezi zimfanelo kanye nezinye ezifundiswa iBhayibheli zinendima ebalulekile emicabangweni yezizukulwane eziningi zabantu baseGeorgia futhi basazibheka njengemithetho emihle yesimilo.

UKUNYATHELISWA KWEBHAYIBHELI—UMSEBENZI WASEBUKHOSINI

Ekupheleni kwekhulu le-17, umndeni wase­Geor­gia wasebukhosini walangazelela ukuba neBhayibheli elinyathelisiwe. Ngenxa yalokho, iNkosi uVakh­tang VI yakha indawo yokunyathelisa enhloko-dolobha, iTbilisi. Noma kunjalo, iBhayibheli lalingakakulungeli ukunyatheliswa. Ngandlela thile, iBhayibheli lesiGeorgia laphinde lacasha. Imibhalo yesandla ethile kuphela eyayisatholakala, futhi ulimi olwalusetshenzisiwe lwalungasaziwa. Umsebenzi wokubukezwa nokubuyiselwa kwemibhalo yeBhayibheli wanikezwa uSulkhan-Saba Orbeliani, isazi sezilimi.

U-Orbeliani waqala lo msebenzi ngokucophelela. Ngenxa yokuthi wayazi izilimi eziningana kanye nesiGreki nesiLatin, wakwazi ukufunda izincwadi eziningi kuhlanganise nemibhalo yesandla eyase ivele ikhona ngesiGeorgia. Noma kunjalo, iSonto LaseGeorgia Lama-Orthodox alizange likuthande ukuba kwakhe nomqondo ovulekile. Abefundisi bammangalela ngokuthi uvukela isonto futhi banxenxa inkosi ukuba imyekise lo msebenzi weBhayibheli. Ezinye izincwadi zesiGeorgia zithi abefundisi bomkhandlu wesonto baphoqa u-Orbeliani ukuba alishise iBhayibheli okwase kuyiminyaka elihumusha!

Ngokuphawulekayo, ikhophi ye-Mtskheta (Mcxeta) Manuscript, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-Saba’s Bible, esekhona nanamuhla inamazwi ka-Orbeliani abhalwe ngesandla. Nokho, abanye bayangabaza ukuthi yileli Bhayibheli abefundisi ababengalifuni. Isithasiselo kuphela okuqinisekwayo ukuthi salotshwa nguye.

Naphezu kwalezi zinselele, ukunyatheliswa kweBhayibheli kwakulokhu kuyinto eyinhloko kweminye yemindeni yasebukhosini. Phakathi nawo-1705 no-1711, kwanyatheliswa izingxenye ezithile zeBhayibheli. Ngenxa yemizamo kaPrinces Bakari noVakhushti baseGeorgia, lagcina linyathelisiwe iBhayibheli eliphelele ngo-1743. Lalingeke lisacasha.

^ isig. 3 Ezikhathini zasendulo, kwakunzima ukuthola izinto zokubhala futhi zibiza. Ngakho kwakuyinto evamile ukuba kwesulwe imibhalo emidala ukuze uphinde ubhale. Imibhalo enjalo ibizwa ngokuthi ama-palimpsest, igama lesiGreki elisho ukuthi “ukwesulwa futhi.”