NGO-APRIL 2006, amaphephandaba emhlabeni wonke anyathelisa indaba emangalisayo ethi iqembu lezazi likhululela umphakathi okuqukethwe umbhalo wasendulo osanda kutholakala onesihloko esithi “iVangeli likaJuda.” Lezi zihloko zathi izazi zinomuzwa wokuthi lo mbhalo ushintsha konke esikwaziyo ngoJuda, umfundi owakhaphela uJesu. Ngokwalokho okushiwo izazi, empeleni uJuda wayeyiqhawe, umphostoli owayemazi kahle uJesu, owamnikela ukuba abulawe ngoba kunguJesu omcelile.

Ingabe lo mbhalo uyiqiniso? Uma kunjalo, ingabe usambulela ulwazi oluthile obelufihliwe mayelana nomlando kaJuda Iskariyothe, kaJesu Kristu, noma wamaKristu okuqala? Ingabe kufanele uthonye indlela esiqonda ngayo ubuKristu?

UKUTHOLAKALA ‘KWEVANGELI LIKAJUDA’

Ayikaqinisekiswa indlela elatholakala ngayo “iVangeli likaJuda.” Kunokuba litholwe futhi libhalwe abavubukuli, leli vangeli lavunjululwa emakethe yezinto zasendulo ngasekupheleni kwawo-1970 noma ekuqaleni kwawo-1980. Cishe latholakala eGibhithe ngo-1978 ethuneni elingenalutho, okungenzeka ukuthi emhumeni. Lalingeminye yemibhalo emine ye-codex (incwadi ethile yasendulo) ebhalwe ngesiCoptic (ulimi olususelwa olimini lwaseGibhithe lasendulo).

Ngenxa yokuthi imiqulu yesikhumba yasuswa esimweni sezulu esomile saseGibhithe lapho yayigcinwe khona amakhulu eminyaka, yonakala ngokushesha. Izazi zeBhayibheli ezimbalwa zayibona kancane i-codex ngo-1983; kodwa yayimba eqolo ngakho akekho owakwazi ukuyithenga. Yonakala kakhulu eminyakeni eyalandela ngoba inganakiwe futhi ibekwe endaweni engafanele. Ngonyaka ka-2000, yathengwa umuntu oqoqa izinto ezindala waseSwitzerland. Ekugcineni wayinika iqembu lezazi zomhlaba wonke, ezasebenza ngaphansi kweMaecenas Foundation for Ancient Art neNational Geographic Society, elanikezwa umsebenzi onzima wokulondoloza nokuvuselela le codex, eyase yonakale yaba izicucu.  Leli qembu lakwazi ukuthola ukuthi ineminyaka emingaki ikhona, futhi layihumusha.

I-Carbon-14 yafakazela ukuthi kungenzeka le codex eyangekhulu lesithathu noma lesine C.E. Nokho, lezi zazi zicabanga ukuthi umbhalo wesiCoptic “weVangeli likaJuda” wawusuhunyushiwe kakade ususwa esiGrekini owawubhalwe ngaso ekuqaleni. Kanti “iVangeli likaJuda” lalibhalwe nini ekuqaleni futhi ngaphansi kwaziphi izimo?

“IVANGELI LIKAJUDA”—IVANGELI LESIKHATHI SOBU-GNOSTIC

Incwadi ebizwa ngokuthi “iVangeli likaJuda” kukhulunywa ngayo okokuqala emibhalweni ka-Irenaeus, umbhali okuthiwa ungumKristu owaphila ekupheleni kwekhulu lesibili C.E. Encwadini ethi Against Heresies, u-Irenaeus ubhala ngelinye lamaqembu amelana nezimfundiso zawo, uthi: “Bathi uJuda, imbuka, wayazi kahle ngalezi zinto, futhi uyena kuphela owayazi iqiniso, wafeza imfihlakalo yokukhaphela. Ngenxa yakhe, zonke izinto, ezisemhlabeni nezisezulwini, zaba yindida. Bakha umlando oyinganekwane, bawubiza ngokuthi iVangeli likaJuda.”

“Leli Vangeli alibhalwanga ngesikhathi sikaJuda futhi empeleni alilotshwanga umuntu owayemazi”

U-Irenaeus waziphikisa ngokukhethekile izimfundiso zamaKristu angama-Gnostic, ayethi anolwazi olukhethekile. Ubu-Gnostic bakhiwa amaqembu amaningi, wonke aqonda futhi achaze “iqiniso” lobuKristu ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene. Ama-Gnostic asakaza izimfundiso zawo ngezincwadi, ezanda kakhulu phakathi nekhulu lesibili C.E.

Lawo mavangeli obu-Gnostic ngokuvamile ayethi abaphostoli bakaJesu abavelele babengasiqondi isigijimi sakhe futhi kunemfundiso eyimfihlo uJesu ayisho eyaqondwa abambalwa abakhethiwe. * Amanye ama-Gnostic akholelwa ukuthi umhlaba wawuyijele. Ngakho-ke, “unkulunkulu umdali” wemiBhalo yesiHebheru empeleni wayengunkulunkulu ophansi uma eqhathaniswa nabanye onkulunkulu abaphelele. Ama-Gnostic ayekholelwa ukuthi lowo “owayenolwazi” lweqiniso wayeyiqonda le “mfihlo” futhi wafuna ukumkhulula ejele eliwumhlaba.

“IVangeli likaJuda” lisekelwe kuyo le nkolelo. Livula ngala mazwi: “Lena imfihlo yamazwi ashiwo uJesu lapho ekhuluma noJuda Iskariyothe, phakathi nezinsuku eziyisishiyagalombili, ezinsukwini ezintathu ngaphambi kwePhasika.”

Ingabe le codex iyona le u-Irenaeus abhala ngayo, okwaphela amakhulu eminyaka kuthiwa ilahlekile? UMarvin Meyer, ilungu leqembu lokuqala elahlaziya futhi lahumusha le codex, uthi “incazelo emfushane ka-Irenaeus ingena khaxa emazwini ombhalo wesiCoptic okhona onesihloko esithi iVangeli likaJuda.”

IZAZI ZIYAPHIKISANA NGENDIMA KAJUDA KULELI VANGELI

‘EVangelini likaJuda,’ uJesu uhleka ngokubhuqa lapho abafundi bakhe bebonisa ukungabi nalwazi oluqondile. Kodwa uJuda uyena kuphela kubaphostoli abangu-12 obonisa ukuthi umazi kahle uJesu. Ngakho-ke, uJesu umtshela ngasese “izimfihlakalo eziphathelene nombuso.”

Imibhalo yokuqala eyabhalwa kabusha iqembu lezazi yayithonywe kakhulu incazelo ka-Irenaeus yaleli vangeli. Enguqulweni yalo, uJesu wayemthanda uJuda futhi wakhetha yena kuphela ukuba abe umfundi owayeyoqonda izimfihlakalo futhi “angene embusweni.” Abaphostoli ababedukile babezosho igama lomuntu owayezongena esikhundleni sikaJuda, kodwa uJuda wayeyoba “umoya weshumi nantathu” owawuzodlula [bonke abanye abafundi], ngoba uJesu uthi “uyonikela ngomzimba engiwugqokile.”

Ababhali abadumile, njengoBart Ehrman no-Elaine Pagels, ababuye babe izazi ezivelele zobuKristu  bokuqala nobu-Gnostic, bakunyathelisa ngokushesha lokho abakuthola ‘ngeVangeli likaJuda’ okwakufana ncamashí nalokho okwabhalwa iqembu lokuqala. Noma kunjalo, ngokushesha ngemva kwalokho, ezinye izazi ezinjengo-April DeConick noBirger Pearson zakhalaza. Zathi i-National Geographic Society yagijimela ukuba kusakazwe le mibhalo yasendulo ngoba ifuna ukuthi kube yiyona eyikhipha kuqala. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ayiyilandelanga inqubo evamile yokuhlolisisa nokubukeza incwadi ngaphambi kokuba inyatheliswe.

Asikho isazi esahlaziya lo mbhalo esithi unembile ngokomlando

Bezisebenzela bodwa, uDeConick noPearson baphetha ngokuthi izazi zangaphambili azizihumushanga ngokunembile ezinye izingxenye zale codex. Ngokwalokho okwabhalwa kabusha uDeConick, uJesu wabiza uJuda ngokuthi “iDemoni Leshumi Nantathu,” hhayi “umoya weshumi nantathu.” * UJesu wabuye watshela uJuda ngokungagunci ukuthi ngeke angene “embusweni.” Kunokuba ‘adlule’ abanye abafundi, uJesu uthi kuJuda: “Uyokwenza okubi kunabo bonke. Ngoba uyonikela ngomzimba engiwugqokile.” Ngokombono kaDeConick “iVangeli likaJuda” liyinkulumo ebhuqayo yama-Gnostic, ehlekisa ngabo bonke abaphostoli. UDeConick noPearson baphetha ngokuthi kuleli “Vangeli likaJuda,” uJuda akalona nhlobo iqhawe.

YINI ESINGAYIFUNDA ‘EVANGELINI LIKAJUDA’?

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi leli vangeli lithi uJuda wayeyiqhawe noma wayeyidemoni, asikho isazi esahlaziya lo mbhalo esithi okukuwo kunembile ngokomlando. UBart Ehrman uyachaza: “Akulona iVangeli elabhalwa uJuda, futhi akekho othi labhalwa nguye. . . . Leli Vangeli alibhalwanga ngesikhathi sikaJuda futhi empeleni alilotshwanga umuntu owayemazi . . . Ngakho-ke aliyona incwadi engasinikeza ukwaziswa okwengeziwe ngalokho okwenzeka ngesikhathi sikaJesu.”

Leli “Vangeli LikaJuda” lingumbhalo wobu-Gnostic wangekhulu lesibili C.E., ekuqaleni elalibhalwe ngesiGreki. Ukuthi leli “Vangeli likaJuda” elisanda kutholakala liyefana yini nombhalo u-Irenaeus akhuluma ngawo kuseyinto izazi eziphikisana ngayo. Kodwa “iVangeli likaJuda” lisinikeza ubufakazi ngokuphathelene nesikhathi “ubuKristu” obonakaliswa ngaso amahlelo aqhudelanayo nezimfundiso ezihlukahlukene. Kunokuba “iVangeli likaJuda” liphikisane neBhayibheli, empeleni lifakazela izixwayiso ezashiwo abaphostoli, njengaleso esashiwo uPawulu kuzEnzo 20:29, 30: “Ngiyazi ukuthi ngemva kokuhamba kwami . . . phakathi kwenu ngokwenu kuzovela amadoda, akhulume izinto ezisontekile ukuze amonyule abafundi ukuba bawalandele.”

^ isig. 11 La mavangeli avame ukuqanjwa ngalabo okuthiwa báziqonda kangcono izimfundiso zikaJesu zeqiniso, njengoba kunjalo ‘ngeVangeli likaThomase neVangeli likaMariya Magdalena.’ Kunezincwadi ezingaba ngu-30 zasendulo esezitholakele.

^ isig. 18 Izazi ezithi uJuda uyidemoni kulo mbhalo—lowo owayemazi kangcono uJesu kunabanye abafundi—zibona ukufana endleleni amademoni asekulandiseni kwamaVangeli eBhayibheli ayemazi kahle ngayo uJesu futhi emmemezela obala.—Marku 3:11; 5:7.