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OFakazi BakaJehova

IsiZulu

INqabayokulinda  |  December 2012

Ukusetshenziswa Kwezimonyo Ngezikhathi ZeBhayibheli

Ukusetshenziswa Kwezimonyo Ngezikhathi ZeBhayibheli

Indlela yokuzilungisa yabanye besifazane bangezikhathi zeBhayibheli yayihlanganisa nokusebenzisa izimonyo zamehlo, zobuso nezomzimba

Ngemva kokugeza, owesifazane ugcoba amafutha anephunga elimnandi esikhunjeni sakhe esithambile. Ube esevula ibhokisi elimibalabala elihlotshisiwe, elinenqwaba yamabhodlelana, amavazi nojeke abenziwe ngengilazi, uphondo lwendlovu, ugobolondo noma ngetshe. Kulezi zinto kunezinhlobonhlobo zamafutha namakha okuziqhola anephunga lebhalsamu, i-cardamom, isinamoni, inhlaka yempepho engaxutshwe nalutho, uju, imure nezinye izinto ezifana nalezi.

Owesifazane ukhipha kuleli bhokisi izipuni ezihlotshiswe ngobunyoninco nezindishana. Usebenzisa lezi zinto ukuze ahlanganise izimonyo azozisebenzisa ngalolo suku. Ngokucophelela, uqhubeka nenqubo yakhe yokuzimonyonga elokhu ezibuka esibukweni sethusi.

KUBONAKALA sengathi kusukela endulo abesifazane bebelokhu benesithakazelo ekuzilungiseni babe bahle. Imidwebo esemathuneni akudala, imidwebo eqoshwe odongeni namatshe afekethisiwe, konke kubonisa ukuthi abantu baseMesophothamiya nabaseGibhithe lasendulo babezisebenzisa izimonyo. Imifanekiso yabesifazane baseGibhithe abanamehlo apendwe agqama kakhulu, amisa okwe-alimondi yayithandwa kakhulu.

Kodwa kuthiwani ngama-Israyeli? Ingabe abesifazane bakwa-Israyeli wasendulo babezisebenzisa izimonyo? Uma kunjalo, iziphi ababezisebenzisa? Yiqiniso, ayikho imidwebo esemathuneni noma eqoshiwe kwa-Israyeli wasendulo esingabhekisela kuyo. Kodwa kunezindaba ezithile eziseBhayibhelini kuhlanganise nezinto ezihlukahlukene abavubukuli abazimba emazweni ezikhathi zeBhayibheli ezisikhanyisela kancane ngokusetshenziswa kwezimonyo ngezikhathi zeBhayibheli.

Izinto Ezazisetshenziswa

Izitsha zakwa-Israyeli eziyisicaba zezimonyo zetshe legwadle

Ziningi izinto ezihlotshaniswa nokusetshenziswa kwezimonyo namakha eziye zatholakala lapho kumbiwa ezweni lakwa-Israyeli. Kwatholakala izitsha zobumba nezitsha eziyizicaba ezazisetshenziselwa ukugaya nokuhlanganisa izithako zezimonyo, amabhodlela amakha amise okweziqathi, ojeke bamafutha e-alabhaste nezibuko eziphathwayo ezazenziwe ngethusi elicwetshezelisiwe. Olunye ukhezo olwenziwe ngezinyo lendlovu lwaluqoshwe amahlamvu esundu kwenye indawo nasesibanjweni kanti kwenye kunekhanda lowesifazane lizungezwe amajuba.

Kubonakala sengathi abantu abadla izambane likapondo babezithanda kakhulu izingobolondo ezihlotshisiwe ekugcineni izimonyo. Izipuni ezincane ezenziwe ngetshe lendlovu noma ngokhuni, ezinye ziqoshwe imifanekiso yamantombazane abhukudayo noma imiklamo ehlukahlukene eyinkimbinkimbi, nazo zatholakala eGibhithe naseKhanani. Konke lokhu kufakazela ukuthi abantu besifazane basendulo babezisebenzisa izimonyo.

Ezamehlo

EBhayibhelini, igama lenye yamadodakazi kaJobe “lalinguKereni-haphuki.” NgesiHebheru, leli gama lingase lisho ukuthi “Uphondo Lukapende Omnyama (Wamehlo),” okungukuthi isitsha esiwuphondo noma ibhokisi eligcina izimonyo, mhlawumbe i-kohl noma ipeni lokudweba amehlo. (Jobe 42:14) Kungenzeka leli gama lalibhekisela ebuhleni bayo, kodwa liphinde  libonise nokuthi izimonyo zase zaziwa ngaleso sikhathi.

Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi lapho iBhayibheli likhuluma ngokupendwa kwamehlo lihlale likuhlobanisa nabesifazane ababi njengeNdlovukazi uJezebeli enobuqili neJerusalema elingathembekile, umprofethi uJeremiya noHezekeli abaliveza njengesifebe. (2 AmaKhosi 9:30; Jeremiya 4:30; Hezekeli 23:40) Ubuningi bezitsha zengilazi nezetshe ezinezinto ezisetshenziselwa ukugcoba i-kohl ezambiwa, kuwubufakazi bokuthi abesifazane abaningi bakwa-Israyeli ohlubukayo—ikakhulukazi abasebukhosini noma abacebile—wawusubangenile umkhuba wokuzihlobisa kakhulu ngepeni lokudweba amehlo nangezinye izimonyo.

Amafutha Anamakha Enkonzo Engcwele Noma Ebhizinisi

Kwase kuyisikhathi eside kwa-Israyeli wasendulo kukhiqizwa futhi kusetshenziswa amakha enziwe ngamafutha omnqumo. Incwadi yeBhayibheli ka-Eksodusi ineziyalezo zokwenza amafutha anamakha angcwele ayesetshenziswa abapristi lapho benza inkonzo yabo ethempelini. Kwakuhlanganiswa isinamoni, imure nezinye izitshalo ezinephunga elimnandi. (Eksodusi 30:22-25) EJerusalema abavubukuli baye  bathola indawo abakholelwa ukuthi ngekhulu lokuqala C.E. kwakwenzelwa kuyo amakha nempepho yethempeli. IBhayibheli likhuluma kaningi ngamafutha anamakha, ayesetshenziselwa inkonzo engcwele nokuphila kwansuku zonke.—2 IziKronike 16:14; Luka 7:37-46; 23:56.

Ibhodlela lakwa-Israyeli lamakha iterra-cotta

Amanzi ayentuleka kuleyo ndawo, ngakho amafutha anuka kamnandi nawo ayesetshenziswa kwezenhlanzeko. Amafutha ayengasetshenziselwa nje ukuvikela isikhumba ezimweni zezulu ezishisayo nezomile kodwa futhi ayeyisimonyo. (Ruthe 3:3; 2 Samuweli 12:20) Intombazane engumJuda u-Esteri yabhucungwa izinyanga ezingu-12—eziyisithupha ngamafutha emure ezinye ngamafutha ebhalsamu—ngaphambi kokubona iNkosi u-Ahashiveroshi.—Esteri 2:12.

Amakha namafutha anamakha ayewumkhiqizo oyigugu njengesiliva negolide. Lapho indlovukazi yaseSheba ithatha uhambo lwayo oludumile lokuyobona iNkosi uSolomoni, izipho eziyigugu eyafika nazo zazihlanganisa igolide, amatshe ayigugu namafutha ebhalsamu. (1 AmaKhosi 10:2, 10) Lapho iNkosi uHezekiya ibonisa izithunywa zaseBhabhiloni umcebo wendlu yayo, yabeka “amafutha ebhalsamu namafutha amahle” eduze kwesiliva, igolide nazo zonke ezinye izinto eziyigugu ibonisa ukuthi iyaziqhenya ngawo.—Isaya 39:1, 2.

Mancane kakhulu amakha namafutha ayekhishwa ezimbalini, ezithelweni, emahlamvini, ezinhlakeni noma eziqwini zezihlahla. IBhayibheli likhuluma ngezinhlobo zezitshalo ezinamakha njengenhlaba, ibhalsamu, inhlaka yebhedola, ukalamusi, ikasiya, isinamoni, inhlaka yempepho engaxutshwe nalutho, imure, isafroni nesipikenadi. Ezinye zazo zazingezasendle futhi zimila eSigodini SaseJordani. Ezinye zazivela kwamanye amazwe ngendlela efanayo nempepho edumile evela eNdiya, eNingizimu ye-Arabia nakwezinye izindawo.

Amafutha Ebhalsamu Ayindida

Amafutha ebhalsamu kukhulunywa ngawo eBhayibhelini lapho kukhulunywa ngeNdlovukazi u-Esteri, indlovukazi yaseSheba neNkosi uHezekiya njengoba kushiwo ngenhla. Ngo-1988 kwatholakala ujeke omncane wamafutha emhumeni oseduze naseQumran, ogwini olungasentshonalanga yoLwandle Olufile. Wenza kwaba nezinsolo. Ingabe la mafutha ebhalsamu adumile kwase kungawokugcina? Abacwaningi abakayitholi impendulo. Kuze kube namuhla abatshali basazama ukuphinde bathole amasimu ebhalsamu ake aba khona.

Isitsha sakwa-Israyeli sezinyo lendlovu sezimonyo

Kubonakala sengathi amafutha ebhalsamu okukhulunywa ngawo eBhayibhelini ayetshalwe endaweni eseduze ne-Eni-gedi. Abavubukuli bathole amaziko, ojeke nezinto eziningi zensimbi nezethambo zangekhulu lesithupha B.C.E., ezifana nalezo ezazisetshenziselwa ukwenza amakha kwezinye izindawo. Izazi eziningi zikholelwa ukuthi ekuqaleni amahlathi ebhalsamu ayese-Arabhu noma e-Afrika. Iphunga lalikhishwa inomfi yesihlahla. Amafutha ebhalsamu ayebiza kakhulu kangangokuthi izindlela zokutshala izihlahla zalo nokulikhiqiza zazigcinwa ziyimfihlo.

Ibhalsamu lalibuye lisetshenziswe njengethuluzi elizuzisayo kwezombusazwe. Ngokwesibonelo, isazi-mlando uJosephus sithi uMark Antony wathola izihlahla zalesi sitshalo esiyigugu wazinikeza indlovukazi yaseGibhithe uCleopatra njengesipho. Isazi-mlando esingumRoma, uPliny sathi phakathi neMpi YamaJuda eyayingekhulu lokuqala C.E., amasosha amaJuda azama ukucekela phansi amasimu ebhalsamu ukuze avimbele amaRoma ayenqoba ukuba angawathathi.

Ngokwalokho okushiwo iBhayibheli kanye nobufakazi obutholwe abavubukuli, siyakwazi ukubona kancane indlela abantu bangezikhathi zeBhayibheli ababesebenzisa ngayo izimonyo. Kunokuba ligxeke ukusebenzisa izimonyo nolunye uhlobo lokuzilungisa, iBhayibheli ligcizelela ukuba kusetshenziswe ngesizotha nangokuhluzeka kwengqondo. (1 Thimothewu 2:9) Umphostoli uPetru wathi ‘ngumoya onokuthula nobumnene oyinani elikhulu emehlweni kaNkulunkulu.’ Ngenxa yezitayela nezimfashini ezishintshashintshayo, lesi seluleko ngokuqinisekile sibalungele bonke abesifazane abangamaKristu, abasha nabadala.—1 Petru 3:3, 4.