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Ingabe IBhayibheli Lisitshela Konke NgoJesu?

Ingabe IBhayibheli Lisitshela Konke NgoJesu?

Kungenzeka yini ukuthi uJesu akazange afele eGolgotha njengoba kusho iBhayibheli, futhi kungenzeka yini ukuthi akazange afe nhlobo? Kungenzeka yini ukuthi washada noMariya Magdalena waze waba nezingane naye? Kungenzeka yini ukuthi wayengunkom’idla yodwa, ezincisha yonke injabulo ekhona emhlabeni? Kungenzeka yini nokuthi wafundisa izimfundiso ezingafani nalezo esizithola eBhayibhelini?

IMIBONO efana nalena iye yanda eminyakeni yamuva ngenxa yezincwadi namabhayisikobho ashisa izikhotha. Ngaphandle kwezincwadi zezindaba eziqanjiwe ezithandwayo, kuye kwabhalwa nezinye eziningi. Kuye kwabhalwa nezihloko zomagazini namaphephandaba ezigxile emibhalweni ye-Apocrypha (imibhalo engekho ohlwini lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli) yangekhulu lesibili nelesithathu C.E. okuthiwa iqukethe amaqiniso athile ngoJesu angekho emaVangelini. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi okubhalwe lapho kuyiqiniso? Singaqiniseka kanjani ukuthi iBhayibheli lisitshela wonke amaqiniso ngoJesu?

Ukuze siphendule le mibuzo, kungasiza ukucabangela  ukwaziswa okuthathu okuyisisekelo. Okokuqala, kudingeka sazi ukwaziswa okubalulekile ngokuphathelene namadoda abhala amaVangeli nokuthi awabhala nini; okwesibili, kudingeka sazi ukuthi obani abahlela uhlu lwezincwadi ezakha iBhayibheli nokuthi bazihlela kanjani; okwesithathu, kudingeka sithole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe ngemibhalo ye-Apocrypha nokuthi ihluke kanjani ohlwini lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli. *

Yabhalwa Nini ImiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki, Futhi Yabhalwa Obani?

Eminye imithombo ithi iVangeli likaMathewu labhalwa kudala impela, ngemva kweminyaka engu-8 uKristu afa, okungukuthi cishe ngo-41 C.E. Izazi eziningi zithambekele eminyakeni engemuva kwalokho, kodwa eziningi zivumelana ngokuthi zonke izincwadi ezakha imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki zabhalwa phakathi nekhulu lokuqala C.E.

Ababekhona ngesikhathi sikaJesu nabambona efa nalapho evuswa babesaphila, ngakho babengakuqinisekisa ukulandisa kwamaVangeli. Babengayidalula kalula noma imiphi imibiko enganembile. UProfesa F. F. Bruce uthi: “Elinye lamaphuzu anamandla endleleni yokushumayela kwabaphostoli ukuthi lapho bekhuluma nezilaleli zabo babezikhumbuza ukuthi nazo zinalo ulwazi; babengagcini nje ngokuthi, ‘Singofakazi balezi zinto,’ kodwa futhi babethi, ‘Njengoba nje nani ngokwenu nazi’ (IzEnzo 2:22).”

Umphostoli uPawulu wenza izimangaliso, wavusa ngisho nomuntu owayefile, enikeza ubufakazi obunamandla bokuthi umoya kaNkulunkulu wawumsekela kuhlanganise nezincwadi azibhala

Obani ababhala imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki? Abanye babo kwakungabaphostoli bakaJesu abangu-12. Laba babhali beBhayibheli kuhlanganise nabanye abanjengoJakobe, uJude cishe noMarku babekhona ngosuku lwePhentekoste lika-33 C.E., lapho kumiswa ibandla lobuKristu. Bonke ababhali, kuhlanganise noPawulu, babesondelene nendikimba ebusayo yebandla lobuKristu lokuqala, eyayihlanganisa abaphostoli nabadala baseJerusalema.—IzEnzo 15:2, 6, 12-14, 22; Galathiya 2:7-10.

UJesu wayala abalandeli bakhe ukuba baqhubeke nomsebenzi wokushumayela nokufundisa ayewuqalile. (Mathewu 28:19, 20) Waze wathi: “Lowo onilalelayo uyangilalela nami.” (Luka 10:16) Ngaphezu kwalokho, wabathembisa ukuthi umoya ongcwele kaNkulunkulu, noma amandla asebenzayo, wawuyobanika amandla ababewadinga ukuze benze lowo msebenzi. Ngakho, lapho amaKristu ekhulu lokuqala ethola izincwadi ezivela kubaphostoli noma kubantu ababesebenzelana nabo eduze—amadoda anikeza ubufakazi obucacile bokuthi abusiswe umoya ongcwele kaNkulunkulu—azamukela njengezinegunya.

Kunababhali beBhayibheli abakufakazela ukuthi abanye ababhali babenikezwe uNkulunkulu igunya futhi ebaphefumulele. Ngokwesibonelo, umphostoli uPetru wabhekisela ezincwadini zikaPawulu futhi wathi ziyingxenye ‘yeminye imiBhalo.’ (2 Petru 3:15, 16) UPawulu naye wavuma ukuthi abaphostoli nabanye abaprofethi abangamaKristu babephefumulelwe uNkulunkulu.—Efesu 3:5.

Ngakho-ke, amaVangeli aqukethe ubufakazi obunamandla esingabethemba nobuyiqiniso. Awazona izinganekwane ezingasho lutho. Awumlando obhalwe ngokucophelela futhi asekelwe ebufakazini babantu abazibonela mathupha; abhalwa amadoda ayephefumulelwe umoya ongcwele kaNkulunkulu.

Obani Abakhetha Futhi Bahlela Uhlu Lwezincwadi ZeBhayibheli?

Abanye ababhali bathi emakhulwini eminyaka kamuva isonto elalilawula ngaleso sikhathi futhi liqondiswa uMbusi uConstantine yilona elakhetha futhi lahlela uhlu lwezincwadi ezakha imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki. Kodwa amaqiniso asitshela okuhlukile.

Ngokwesibonelo, phawula lokho okushiwo uProfesa Womlando Wesonto, u-Oskar Skarsaune: “Awukho umkhandlu wesonto noma umuntu othile owanquma ukuthi iziphi izincwadi okwakufanele zifakwe eTestamenteni Elisha noma ukuthi yiziphi okwakungafanele zifakwe . . . Kunendlela eqondile nenengqondo  eyasetshenziswa: ImiBhalo yangekhulu lokuqala C.E., eyayibhekwa njengeyabhalwa abaphostoli noma ezinye izikhonzi, yayibhekwa njengethembekile. Eminye imibhalo, izincwadi noma amavangeli-mbumbulu, okwabhalwa kamuva akuzange kufakwe . . . Ngokuyisisekelo, lo msebenzi waqedwa kudala kungakaphushwa nokuphushwa ukuthi kuyoke kube nomuntu onguConstantine noma isonto lakhe elalisebenzisa kabi amandla alo. NgamaKristu afela ukholo asilungiselela iTestamente Elisha, hhayi isonto elalisebenzisa kabi amandla alo.”

UKen Berding, uprofesa omsebenzi wakhe ukucwaningisisa imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki, usinikeza umbono wendlela uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli ezakheka ngayo: “Isonto alizange likhethe futhi lihlele uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli; kunalokho lamukela izincwadi amaKristu ayesekade ezibheka njengeziyiZwi likaNkulunkulu elinegunya.”

Nokho, ingabe lo msebenzi wokukhetha uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli wenziwa kuphela yilawo maKristu ekhulu lokuqala athobekile? IBhayibheli lisitshela ukuthi kukhona okunye okungaphezulu kakhulu nokunamandla okwakuhilelekile.

NgokweBhayibheli, ezinye zezipho eziyisimangaliso zomoya ezanikezwa ibandla lobuKristu ngasekuqaleni kwekhulu lokuqala ‘kwakuyikhono lokwahlukanisa amazwi aphefumulelwe.’ (1 Korinte 12:4, 10) Ngakho-ke, amanye alawo maKristu anikezwa ikhono elingaphezu kwelomuntu lokuqonda umehluko phakathi kwamazwi aphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu ngempela nalawo angaphefumulelwe. Ngakho, amaKristu namuhla angaqiniseka ngokuthi imiBhalo eseBhayibhelini yayibhekwa njengephefumulelwe.

Kusobala-ke ukuthi uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli lwasungulwa kudala kakhulu futhi umoya ongcwele owawuqondisa. Kusukela engxenyeni yokugcina yekhulu lesibili C.E., abanye ababhali bakhuluma ngokuba yiqiniso kwezincwadi zeBhayibheli. Nokho, labo babhali abazange banqume ukuthi iBhayibheli lizoba naziphi izincwadi; bamane nje baqinisekisa lokho uNkulunkulu ayesekwamukele ngabameleli bakhe ababeqondiswa umoya wakhe.

Imibhalo yesandla yasendulo nayo inikeza ubufakazi obuhle kakhulu obusekela uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli olwamukelwa kabanzi namuhla. Kunemibhalo yesandla engaphezu kuka-5 000 yemiBhalo yesiGreki yezilimi zokuqala, ehlanganisa eminye yangekhulu lesibili nelesithathu leminyaka. Yile mibhalo yesandla, hhayi imibhalo ye-Apocrypha, eyayibhekwa njengenegunya phakathi namakhulu eminyaka okuqala, futhi yakopishwa yasakazwa kabanzi.

 Nokho, ubufakazi obubaluleke nakakhulu bokuthi izincwadi zeBhayibheli ziyiqiniso yilobo obutholakala eBhayibhelini uqobo. Uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli luyavumelana ‘nesibonelo samazwi anempilo’ esiwathola kulo lonke iBhayibheli. (2 Thimothewu 1:13) La mazwi akhuthaza umfundi ukuba athande, akhulekele futhi akhonze uJehova; axwayisa ngezinkolelo-ze, ukusebenzelana namademoni nokukhulekela izinto ezidaliwe. Anembile ngokomlando futhi aqukethe iziprofetho eziyiqiniso. Akhuthaza abafundi ukuba bathande abanye abantu. Izincwadi ezakha imiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki zinalezi zici eziphawulekayo. Ingabe kunjalo nangemibhalo ye-Apocrypha?

Ihluke Ngani Imibhalo Ye-Apocrypha?

Imibhalo ye-Apocrypha ihluke kakhulu ezincwadini ezakha iBhayibheli. Le mibhalo yabhalwa cishe maphakathi nekhulu lesibili leminyaka, ngemva kweminyaka eminingi kwabhalwa izincwadi zeBhayibheli. Indlela echaza ngayo uJesu nobuKristu ayivumelani nemiBhalo ephefumulelwe.

Ngokwesibonelo, ngokwe-Apocrypha, iVangeli likaThomase lithi uJesu washo izinto eziningi ezixakayo, njengokuthi wayezoguqula uMariya abe yindoda ukuze akwazi ukungena eMbusweni wezulu. Incwadi ethi The Infancy Gospel of Thomas ithi ngesikhathi uJesu esemncane wayeyingane enenhliziyo embi futhi wabulala enye ingane ngamabomu. Ngokwe-Apocrypha, izEnzo zikaPawulu nezEnzo zikaPetru zikhuthaza ukuba abantu bangayi nhlobo ocansini, ize ibonise abaphostoli begqugquzela amakhosikazi ukuba ahlukane nabayeni bawo. IVangeli likaJuda lithi uJesu wahleka abafundi bakhe ngokuthi babethandaza ngaphambi kokudla. Le mibono iphambene nalokho okuseBhayibhelini.—Marku 14:22; 1 Korinte 7:3-5; Galathiya 3:28; Hebheru 7:26.

Imibhalo eminingi ye-Apocrypha ibonisa izinkolelo eziningi zabantu ababebheka uMdali, uJehova, njengoNkulunkulu ongalungile. Laba bantu babekholelwa nokuthi uvuko alukho ngokoqobo, ukuthi yonke into ebonakalayo yimbi nokuthi nguSathane owasungula umshado nokuzalwa kwabantu.

Kuthiwa imibhalo eminingi ye-Apocrypha yabhalwa abantu baseBhayibhelini, kodwa lokho akulona iqiniso. Ingabe kunomkhonyovu othile owenziwa ukuze lezi zincwadi zikhishwe eBhayibhelini? Isazi semibhalo ye-Apocrypha, uM. R. James sathi: “Akekho umuntu owakhipha lezi zincwadi eTestamenteni Elisha: zazikhipha zona ngokwazo ngoba azivumelani nhlobo neBhayibheli.”

Ababhali BeBhayibheli Baxwayisa Ngokuhlubuka Okwakuyovela

Izincwadi ezakha iBhayibheli zinezixwayiso eziningi ngokuhlubuka okwakuseduze okwakuyokonakalisa ibandla lobuKristu. Eqinisweni, lokho kuhlubuka kwase kuvele kuqalile ngekhulu lokuqala, kodwa abaphostoli bakwazi ukukunqanda ukuba kungandi. (IzEnzo 20:30; 2 Thesalonika 2:3, 6, 7; 1 Thimothewu 4:1-3; 2 Petru 2:1; 1 Johane 2:18, 19; 4:1-3) Lezi zixwayiso zisikhanyisela ngemibhalo engqubuzana nezimfundiso zikaJesu eyaqala ukuvela ngemva kokufa kwabaphostoli.

Yiqiniso, lezi zincwadi zingase zibonakale zindala futhi zihlaba umxhwele kwezinye izazi-mlando. Kodwa cabangela lokhu: Ake sithi izazi ezithile zinquma ukuqoqa inqwaba yomagazini, amaphephandaba nezincwadi zanamuhla ezinezindaba zamahlelo enkolo ayinqaba naxakayo bese zivalela lokhu kwaziswa iminyaka eminingi endaweni engangenwa muntu. Ingabe lokho kwaziswa bekuyobhekwa njengokuyiqiniso nokufanele kwethenjwe ngenxa nje yokuthi kudala? Ngemva kweminyaka engu-1 700, ingabe amanga nembudane ebhalwe kulawo maphephandaba bekuyoba yiqiniso ngoba nje madala kakhulu?

Phinde! Kungokufanayo ngamanga ashiwo ngoJesu ukuthi washada noMariya Magdalena kuhlanganise nezinye izinkulumo eziyimbudane ezisezincwadini ze-Apocrypha. Yini nje engakwenza wethembe leyo mibhalo, ikakhulu uma ikhona ethembekile? Zonke izinto uNkulunkulu afuna sizazi ngeNdodana yakhe ziseBhayibhelini—ukulandisa esingakwethemba.

^ isig. 4 EBhayibhelini kuneqoqo lezincwadi ezinikeza ubufakazi obuqand’ikhanda bokuthi zaphefumulelwa uNkulunkulu. Zingu-66 izincwadi ezibhekwa njengezamukelekayo emhlabeni kabanzi futhi ziyingxenye ebalulekile yeZwi likaNkulunkulu.