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Khetha ulimi IsiZulu

IBhayibheli—Indaba Emangazayo Yokusinda Kwalo

IBhayibheli—Indaba Emangazayo Yokusinda Kwalo

IBHAYIBHELI liyincwadi esakazwa kakhulu kunazo zonke emlandweni—kulinganiselwa ukuthi kuye kwasakazwa amaBhayibheli angaba yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-4,8. Ngo-2007 kuphela, kwanyatheliswa amaBhayibheli angaphezu kuka-64 600 000. Ukuze ukubone kahle lokhu, ngawo lo nyaka e-United States, kwanyatheliswa amakhophi ayizigidi ezingu-12 encwadi yendaba eqanjiwe eyathengiswa kakhulu.

Ngaphambi kokuba libe yincwadi enyatheliswa kakhulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, iBhayibheli lasinda ezingozini eziningi. Kwake kwaba nezikhathi emlandweni lapho ukunyatheliswa kwalo kwakungavunyelwe futhi lishiswa, ababelihumusha behlukunyezwa futhi bebulawa. Nokho, enye yezingozi ezinkulu kakhulu ezazilisongela kwakungekhona ukushushiswa ngonya kwalabo ababezama ukulilondoloza, kodwa kwakuwukuguga nokudabuka kwamaphepha nezikhumba okwakubhalelwa kukho.

IBhayibheli lakhiwa izincwadi ezincane ezingu-66, futhi ezindala kunazo zonke kuzo zabhalwa noma zahlanganiswa amalungu esizwe sakwa-Israyeli eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-3 000 edlule. Ababhali nabakopishi bemibhalo bokuqala babhala isigijimi esiphefumulelwe ezintweni ezigugayo nezidabukayo, ezinjengama-papyrus nesikhumba. Awukho nowodwa umbhalo wokuqala osatholakele. Kodwa kuye kwavubukulwa izinkulungwane zamakhophi asendulo ezingxenye ezincane nezinkulu zezincwadi zeBhayibheli. Ucezu lwezinye zalezi zincwadi, iVangeli likaJohane, lwabhalwa emashumini eminyaka ambalwa ngemva kwencwadi yokuqala eyabhalwa yilo mphostoli.

“Umbhalo weBhayibheli wesiHebheru [iTestamente Elidala] wakopishwa ngendlela enembe ngaphezu kwevamile futhi awufani nakancane nezincwadi zakudala zesiGreki nesiLatin.”—UProfesa Julio Trebolle Barrera

Kungani kumangaza ukuthi kunezincwadi zeBhayibheli ezasinda? Anembe kangakanani amaBhayibheli anamuhla ekudluliseni isigijimi esasibhalwe ababhali bokuqala?

Yashonaphi Eminye Imibhalo Yasendulo?

Kuyamangaza ukuthi iBhayibheli lasinda uma ucabangela lokho okwenzeka emibhalweni yezizwe ezaziphila ngesikhathi sika-Israyeli. Ngokwesibonelo, abaseFenike babengomakhelwane bama-Israyeli phakathi nenkulungwane yokuqala yeminyaka B.C.E. Lesi sizwe esasingabahwebi basolwandle sasakaza indlela yaso yokubhala ngofeleba kulo lonke elaseMedithera. Saphinde sahlomula nangokuhwebelana ngama-papyrus neGibhithe neGrisi. Yize kunjalo, umagazini i-National Geographic wathi ngabaseFenike: “Imibhalo yabo, ngokuvamile ababeyibhala kuyi-papyrus ethambile, yavele yacimeka—kangangokuthi esikwaziyo ngabaseFenike sikuthola emibikweni emibi eyayivela ezitheni zabo. Nakuba kuthiwa babenezincwadi ezibaluleke kakhulu, zonke zalahleka eminyakeni eminingi edlule.”

Kwénzekani emibhalweni yaseGibhithe lasendulo? Imifanekiso yakhona eqoshwe noma edwetshwe ezindongeni zethempeli nakwezinye izindawo idume kakhulu. AbaseGibhithe badume nangokusungula i-papyrus okwakuyiphepha lokubhalela. Nokho, ngokuphathelene nomlando waseGibhithe obhalwe kuyi-papyrus, isazi sezinto ezindala zaseGibhithe uK. A. Kitchen sithi: “Kulinganiselwa ukuthi amaphesenti angaba ngu-99 awo wonke ama-papyrus abhalwa cishe kusukela  ngo-3000 B.C.E. kuya esikhathini samaGreki namaRoma ashabalala ngokuphelele.”

Kuthiwani ngemibhalo yamaRoma eyayibhalwe kuma-papyrus? Cabangela lesi sibonelo. Ngokusho kwencwadi ethi Roman Military Records on Papyrus, kubonakala sengathi amasosha ayehola kathathu ngonyaka futhi lowo mholo wawubhalwa kuma-papyrus. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi phakathi neminyaka engu-300 kusukela ekubuseni kuka-Augustus (27 B.C.E.–14 C.E.) kuya kokukaDiocletian (284-305 C.E), kwakunama-papyrus emiholo angu-225 000 000. Kodwa mangaki asinda? Kwatholakala amabili kuphela asafundeka.

Kungani kwasinda imibhalo embalwa kangaka eyayibhalwe kuyi-papyrus? Izinto okwakubhalelwa kuzo ezinjenge-papyrus nezikhumba, ezazivame ukusetshenziswa kakhulu, zibola ngokushesha esimweni sezulu esiswakeme. I-Anchor Bible Dictionary ithi: “Ngenxa yesimo sezulu, izincwadi ezibhalwe kuyi-papyrus zangalesi sikhathi [inkulungwane yokuqala yeminyaka B.C.E.] zingalondolozeka kuphela ogwadule nasemhumeni noma endaweni evalekile.”

Kwénzekani Emibhalweni YeBhayibheli?

Kusobala ukuthi izincwadi zeBhayibheli zokuqala zazibhalwe ezintweni ezithambile njengalezo ezazisetshenziswa abaseFenike, abaseGibhithe nabaseRoma. Kungani izinto ezazibhalwe eBhayibhelini zasinda futhi ekugcineni laba incwadi enyatheliswa kunazo zonke emhlabeni? UProfesa James L. Kugel usinikeza esinye isizathu. Uthi imibhalo yokuqala yakopishwa “izikhathi eziningi, ngisho nangesikhathi kubhalwa iBhayibheli.”

Zinjani izinguqulo zanamuhla zeBhayibheli uma ziqhathaniswa nemibhalo yesandla yasendulo? UProfesa Julio Trebolle Barrera, oyilungu leqembu lochwepheshe abatadisha futhi banyathelise imibhalo yesandla yasendulo eyaziwa ngokuthi imiQulu YasoLwandle Olufile, uthi: “Umbhalo weBhayibheli wesiHebheru wakopishwa ngendlela enembe ngaphezu kwevamile futhi awufani nakancane nezincwadi zakudala zesiGreki nesiLatin.” Isazi seBhayibheli esihlonishwayo uF.F. Bruce sithi: “Ubufakazi bemibhalo yethu yeTestamente Elisha buningi ukwedlula ubufakazi bezincwadi eziningi zabalobi bezincwadi zakudala kodwa akekho noyedwa owake wangabaza ubuqiniso balezo zincwadi.” Uyaqhubeka: “Ukube iTestamente Elisha beliyiqoqo lezincwadi zezwe, ubuqiniso balo bebungeke bungatshazwe nakancane.” Ngempela, iBhayibheli liyincwadi emangalisayo. Uyazinika yini isikhathi sokulifunda nsuku zonke?—1 Petru 1:24, 25.

Namuhla kunamakhophi emiBhalo YesiHebheru noma eTestamente Elidala angaba ngu-6 000 abhalwa ngesandla, futhi kunangaba ngu-5 000 emiBhalo yesiGreki, noma eTestamente Elisha