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OFakazi BakaJehova

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INqabayokulinda—Efundwayo  |  February 2015

Ukulungiselela Izizwe ‘Imfundiso KaJehova’

Ukulungiselela Izizwe ‘Imfundiso KaJehova’

“Umphathi-sifundazwe . . . waba yikholwa, njengoba akhexa ngenxa yemfundiso kaJehova.”IZENZO 13:12.

1-3. Kungani kwakungelula ngabafundi bakaJesu ukushumayela izindaba ezinhle “ezizweni zonke”?

UJESU KRISTU wanika abalandeli bakhe umsebenzi omningi ukuba bawenze. Wabayala ukuba ‘benze abantu bazo zonke izizwe babe abafundi.’ Kwakudingeka bashumayele ‘izindaba ezinhle zombuso’ kubantu “emhlabeni wonke owakhiwe ngenjongo yobufakazi ezizweni zonke.”Mathewu 24:14; 28:19.

2 Abafundi babemthanda uJesu nezindaba ezinhle. Kodwa cishe babezibuza, ‘Singakwenza kanjani lokho uJesu asiyale ukuba sikwenze?’ Okokuqala, babembalwa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, babefundisa abantu ukuthi uJesu uyiNdodana kaNkulunkulu, kodwa abantu babazi ukuthi uJesu wayebulewe. Okunye, abantu abaningi babecabanga ukuthi abafundi babengabantu “abangafundile nabavamile.” (IzEnzo 4:13) Abaholi benkolo bamaJuda babefunde ezikoleni zenkolo, kodwa abafundi bengafundanga kuzo. Isigijimi ababesishumayela sasingavumelani namasiko amaJuda okwase kungamakhulu eminyaka abaholi benkolo  bewafundisa. Njengoba babengahlonishwa kwa-Israyeli, kungenzeka abafundi babezibuza ukuthi ukhona yini owayezobalalela endaweni yoMbuso WamaRoma onamandla.

3 UJesu wayexwayise abafundi bakhe ngokuthi babeyozondwa futhi bashushiswe nangokuthi abanye babo babeyobulawa. (Luka 21:16, 17) Abangane nabomndeni babeyobakhaphela. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abanye abantu abazibiza ngabafundi bakaKristu babeyofundisa amanga. Abafundi babeyoshumayela nasezindaweni ezigcwele ubugebengu nobudlova. (Mathewu 24:10-12) Pho, babezokwazi kanjani ukushumayela “ezingxenyeni ezikude kakhulu zomhlaba”? (IzEnzo 1:8) Kumelwe ukuba abafundi babezibuza ukuthi babezowenza kanjani lo msebenzi naphezu kwabo bonke lobu bunzima.

4. Waba yini umphumela womsebenzi wokushumayela?

4 Nakuba abafundi babazi ukuthi lo msebenzi wawungeke ube lula, balalela umyalo kaJesu futhi bashumayela eJerusalema, eSamariya ngisho nakwamanye amazwe. Ngemva kweminyaka engaba ngu-30, base behambele izindawo eziningi kangangokuthi umphostoli uPawulu wakwazi ukusho ukuthi base beshumayele “kuyo yonke indalo engaphansi kwezulu.” Abantu abavela ezizweni eziningi ezihlukene baba abafundi. (Kolose 1:6, 23) Ngokwesibonelo, lapho uPawulu eshumayela esiqhingini saseKhupro, ngisho nombusi waseRoma, noma umphathi-sifundazwe, waba umfundi ngoba ‘wakhexa ngenxa yemfundiso kaJehova.’Funda izEnzo 13:6-12.

UJesu wathembisa ukuthi wayeyoba nabafundi bakhe nokuthi umoya ongcwele uyobasiza ekushumayeleni

5. (a) Yini uJesu ayithembisa abafundi bakhe? (b) Incwadi yomlando ethile ithini mayelana nekhulu lokuqala?

5 Abafundi babazi ukuthi babengeke bakwazi ukushumayela emhlabeni wonke ngokwabo. Babazi nokuthi uJesu wayebathembise ukuthi wayeyoba nabo nokuthi umoya ongcwele uyobasiza. (Mathewu 28:20) Kunezinye izimo zangaleso sikhathi okungenzeka zabasiza abafundi. Eqinisweni, enye incwadi yomlando ichaza ukuthi ikhulu lokuqala cishe laliyisikhathi esingcono kakhulu sokuba amaKristu aqale ukushumayela nokuthi kamuva amaKristu aba nomuzwa wokuthi uNkulunkulu wayewalungiselele indlela.

6. (a) Sizoxoxa ngani kulesi sihloko? (b) Sizoxoxa ngani esihlokweni esilandelayo?

6 Ingabe uJehova washintsha izenzakalo zezwe ngekhulu lokuqala ukuze amaKristu akwazi ukwenza umsebenzi wokushumayela? IBhayibheli alisho. Kodwa siyazi ukuthi uJehova wayefuna ukuba abantu bakhe bashumayele izindaba ezinhle nokuthi uSathane akakwazanga ukubavimbela. Kulesi sihloko, sizoxoxa ngezinye zezinto ekhulwini lokuqala okungenzeka zakwenza kwaba lula ngabafundi ukushumayela. Esihlokweni esilandelayo, sizoxoxa ngezinye  zezinto ezisize thina kulezi zikhathi zamuva ukuba sishumayele izindaba ezinhle emhlabeni wonke.

UKUTHULA KWASEROMA

7. Kwakuyini uKuthula KwaseRoma, futhi yini eyakwenza kwahluka kwezinye izinkathi?

7 Ngekhulu lokuqala, inkathi yokuthula eyaba khona eMbusweni WamaRoma yenza kwaba lula ngabafundi ukushumayela. Le nkathi yabizwa ngokuthi uKuthula KwaseRoma, noma i-Pax Romana ngesiLatini. Phakathi naleyo nkathi, uhulumeni wamaRoma wawukunqanda kusekuncane noma ikuphi ukuvukela. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi zaba khona izimpi ezithile, njengoba nje uJesu ayeprofethile. (Mathewu 24:6) AmaRoma abhubhisa iJerusalema ngonyaka ka-70, futhi alwa izimpi ezincane ngasemingceleni yombuso wawo. Kodwa ingxenye enkulu yombuso yayinokuthula, futhi abafundi babekwazi ukuhamba nokushumayela kalula. Le nkathi yokuthula yathatha iminyaka engaba ngu-200. Enye incwadi ithi kuwo wonke umlando wabantu ayikaze ibe khona inkathi yokuthula ende kangako eyathinta ukuphila kwabantu abaningi kangako.

8. UKuthula KwaseRoma kwabasiza kanjani abafundi?

8 Eminyakeni engaba ngu-250 ngemva kukaKristu, isazi okuthiwa u-Origen sabhala ngale nkathi yokuthula. Sathi ngenxa yokuthi amaRoma ayebusa amazwe amaningi, kwakulula ngabafundi ukushumayela kuwo wonke. Abantu babengalwi ukuze bavikele amazwe akubo, kodwa babehleli ngokuthula emizaneni yabo. Ngakho, u-Origen waba nomuzwa wokuthi ngenxa yalokhu, abaningi baba nethuba lokubalalela abafundi lapho beshumayela ngothando nangokuthula. Nakuba abafundi babeshushiswa, basebenzisa leyo nkathi yokuthula ngendlela engcono kakhulu futhi bashumayela izindaba ezinhle yonke indawo.Funda eyabaseRoma 12:18-21.

UKUHAMBA KWABA LULA

9, 10. Iziphi ezinye zezinto ezenza kwaba lula ngabafundi ukuhamba?

9 AmaRoma akha imigwaqo engamakhilomitha angaphezu kuka-80 000 eyayihlanganisa cishe zonke izingxenye zombuso. Amasosha ebutho lamaRoma elinamandla ayekwazi ukuhamba ngokushesha nomaphi ngale migwaqo ukuze avikele indawo yombuso wawo futhi alawule abantu. AmaKristu asebenzisa le migwaqo enqamula amahlathi, izingwadule nezintaba ukuze ayoshumayela ezindaweni eziningi.

Imigwaqo eyakhiwa amaRoma yakwenza kwaba lula ngabafundi ukushumayela ezindaweni eziningi

10 Ngaphezu kwemigwaqo, amaRoma ayehamba nangemikhumbi. Ayehamba ngemikhumbi emifuleni nasemiseleni emikhulu noma olwandle eya emakhulwini amatheku ayekuyo yonke indawo yombuso. Eqinisweni, amaRoma ayesebenzisa imizila yasolwandle engaphezu kuka-900. Ngakho, namaKristu ayengahamba ngemikhumbi  aye ezindaweni eziningi. Ayengadingi izincwadi ezingokomthetho zokungena kwamanye amazwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, zazingeziningi izigcwelegcwele emigwaqweni ngoba zazazi ukuthi amaRoma ayezijezisa kanzima izephula-mthetho. Ngenxa yokuthi kwakunemikhumbi yezempi eminingi eyayihamba olwandle, abantu babengenalo uvalo lokuhlaselwa abaphangi bemikhumbi. Nakuba iBhayibheli lithi uPawulu wahamba ngemikhumbi eyaphahlazeka futhi lithi ngezinye izikhathi waba sengozini olwandle, alisho ukuthi wake wahlaselwa abaphangi bemikhumbi. Ngakho, ngokuvamile ukuhamba emigwaqweni noma olwandle kwakuphephile.2 Korinte 11:25, 26.

ULIMI LWESIGREKI

Kwakulula kakhulu ukuthola umBhalo encwadini (Bheka isigaba 12)

11. Kungani abafundi basebenzisa ulimi lwesiGreki?

11 Amazwe amaningi ayebuswa amaRoma ayenqotshwe umbusi ongumGreki u-Alexander Omkhulu eminyakeni eminingi ngaphambili. Ngakho, abantu bakulawo mazwe babefunde ukukhuluma uhlobo oluthile lwesiGreki olwaziwa ngokuthi isiKoine. Ngenxa yalokho, abafundi babekwazi ukubashumayeza ngalolo limi. Babekwazi nokubacaphunela imiBhalo YesiHebheru ngoba yayisihunyushelwe esiGrekini. Abantu abaningi babazi ngale nguqulo, eyayibizwa ngokuthi i-Septuagint, eyayihunyushwe amaJuda ayehlala eGibhithe. Ababhali beBhayibheli nabo basebenzisa isiGreki ekulobeni zonke ezinye izincwadi zeBhayibheli. IsiGreki sinothile ngamagama, ngakho saba ulimi oluhle ekuchazeni amaqiniso eBhayibheli ajulile. IsiGreki sasiza namabandla ukuba akwazi ukuxhumana nokuba nobunye.

12. (a) Iyini i-codex, futhi kungani kwakulula ukusebenzisa yona kunomqulu? (b) AmaKristu amaningi aqala nini ukusebenzisa izincwadi?

12 AmaKristu ekhulwini lokuqala ayesebenzisani ekufundiseni iBhayibheli? Aqale asebenzisa imiqulu. Kodwa kwakungelula ukuyisebenzisa noma ukuyithwala. Njalo lapho amaKristu efuna ivesi elithile, kwakudingeka asombulule umqulu bese ewugoqa futhi. Ngokuvamile imiqulu yayilotshwe ohlangothini olulodwa kuphela. IVangeli LikaMathewu lalithatha umqulu wonke. Abantu babe sebeqala ukusebenzisa i-codex, eyayiwuhlobo lokuqala lwencwadi. Umfundi wayengavula incwadi futhi aphenye amakhasi kalula lapho efuna umBhalo. Izazimlando zithi amaKristu aqala  ngokushesha ukusebenzisa izincwadi futhi ngemva kokuphela kwekhulu lokuqala, iningi lawo lase lizisebenzisa.

UMTHETHO WASEROMA

13, 14. (a) Isiphi isivikelo uPawulu ayenaso ngokuba isakhamuzi saseRoma? (b) AmaKristu azuza kanjani emthethweni waseRoma?

13 AmaKristu angekhulu lokuqala ayezuza emthethweni waseRoma. Ngokwesibonelo, uPawulu wayeyisakhamuzi saseRoma futhi umthetho wamvikela kaningi lapho esohambweni. Lapho amasosha amaRoma embopha eJerusalema futhi esezombhaxabula, wawatshela ukuthi wayeyisakhamuzi saseRoma. Wakhumbuza umlawuli wamabutho ukuthi isakhamuzi saseRoma akufanele sibhaxabulwe lingakathethwa ngokufanele icala laso. Ngakho, “amadoda ayesathi ayamphenya ngokumhlupha asuka masinyane kuye; futhi umlawuli wamabutho wafikelwa ukwesaba lapho ethola ukuthi [uPawulu] wayengumRoma nangokuthi wayembophile.”IzEnzo 22:25-29.

AmaKristu asebenzisa umthetho waseRoma “ekuvikeleni nasekumiseni ngokomthetho” ilungelo lawo lokushumayela

14 Ukuba kukaPawulu isakhamuzi saseRoma kwathinta indlela aphathwa ngayo eFilipi. (IzEnzo 16:35-40) Lapho isixuku esasithukuthele sifuna ukulimaza amaKristu athile e-Efesu, isikhulu sikahulumeni sasithulisa isixuku futhi sasixwayisa ngokuthi sasephula umthetho waseRoma. (IzEnzo 19:35-41) Kamuva, lapho eseKhesariya uPawulu wacela ukusebenzisa ilungelo lakhe lokuvela phambi kombusi eRoma. Elapho, wavikela izindaba ezinhle. (IzEnzo 25:8-12) Ngakho, amaKristu awusebenzisa umthetho waseRoma “ekuvikeleni nasekumiseni ngokomthetho” ilungelo lawo lokushumayela.Filipi 1:7.

AMAJUDA AYEHLALA EMAZWENI AMANINGI

15. AmaJuda amaningi ayehlala kuphi ekhulwini lokuqala?

15 Kunokunye futhi okungenzeka ukuthi kwawasiza amaKristu ekhulwini lokuqala ukuba ashumayele emhlabeni wonke. Ngaleso sikhathi, amaJuda ayetholakala emazweni amaningi, hhayi kwa-Israyeli kuphela. Kungani? Emakhulwini amaningi eminyaka ngaphambili, amaJuda athunjelwa e-Asiriya, futhi kamuva, amanye athunjelwa eBhabhiloni. Kamuva, lapho amaPheresiya ebusa iBhabhiloni, kwakunamaJuda ayehlala kuyo yonke indawo yoMbuso WasePheresiya. (Esteri 9:30) Ngekhulu lokuqala, ngesikhathi uJesu esemhlabeni, amaJuda ayesehlala kuyo yonke indawo yoMbuso WamaRoma, njengaseGibhithe nakwezinye izingxenye zeNyakatho Afrika, kanye naseGrisi, e-Asia Minor (eTurkey) naseMesophothamiya (e-Iraq). Kucatshangwa ukuthi kubantu abayizigidi ezingu-60 ababengaphansi kwalowo mbuso, abayizigidi ezingaphezu kwezine babengamaJuda. Nakuba ayehlakazekile, amaJuda awayilahlanga inkolo yawo.Mathewu 23:15.

16, 17. (a) Ukutholakala kwamaJuda emazweni amaningi kakhulu kwabazuzisa kanjani abantu ababengewona amaJuda? (b) AmaKristu asilandela ngaziphi izindlela isibonelo samaJuda?

16 Ukutholakala kwamaJuda emazweni amaningi kakhulu kwenza abantu abaningi ababengewona amaJuda bazi ngemiBhalo YesiHebheru nangalokho amaJuda ayekukholelwa. Ngokwesibonelo, bathola ukuthi kunoNkulunkulu weqiniso oyedwa kuphela nokuthi abamkhonzayo kumelwe balalele imithetho yakhe. Bathola nokuthi  imiBhalo YesiHebheru yayivela kuNkulunkulu nokuthi yayiqukethe iziprofetho eziningi eziphathelene noMesiya. (Luka 24:44) Ngakho, lapho amaKristu eshumayela izindaba ezinhle, kokubili amaJuda nalabo ababengewona amaJuda base bazi ngezinye zezinto ezazishunyayelwa amaKristu. UPawulu wayecinga abantu ababeyolalela izindaba ezinhle. Wayevame ukuya emasinagogeni, lapho amaJuda ayekhulekela khona futhi asebenzise imiBhalo ukuze abonisane nawo.Funda izEnzo 17:1, 2.

17 AmaJuda ayehlangana njalo ukuze akhulekele, emasinagogeni noma ngaphandle. Ayecula, athandaze futhi axoxe ngemiBhalo. AmaKristu asilandela leso sibonelo sawo, nathi namuhla senza okufanayo emabandleni ethu.

UJEHOVA WABASIZA UKUBA BASHUMAYELE

18, 19. (a) Izimo zangekhulu lokuqala zasiza amaKristu ukuba enzeni? (b) Lesi sihloko sikwenza uzizwe kanjani ngoJehova?

18 Ikhulu lokuqala laliyisikhathi esiyingqayizivele emlandweni. Ngesikhathi soMbuso WamaRoma, kwakunokuthula, kunolimi olulodwa abantu abaningi ababekwazi ukulukhuluma futhi kunomthetho obavikelayo. Kwakulula ukuhamba futhi abantu emazweni amaningi babazi ngamaJuda nangemiBhalo YesiHebheru. Zonke lezi zinto zasiza amaKristu ukuba aqhubeke enza umsebenzi uNkulunkulu ayewanike wona.

19 Eminyakeni engaba ngu-400 ngaphambi kokuba uJesu eze emhlabeni, isazi sefilosofi esingumGreki uPlato sabhala ukuthi kunzima kakhulu ngabantu ukuba bazi uMdali nokuthi akulula ngabo ukutshela wonke umuntu emhlabeni ngaye. Kodwa uJesu wathi: “Izinto ezingenakwenzeka kubantu zingenzeka kuNkulunkulu.” (Luka 18:27) Kusobala ukuthi umsebenzi wokushumayela uye waphumelela ngosizo lukaJehova. Ufuna ukuba “abantu bazo zonke izizwe” bezwe izindaba ezinhle futhi bamazi. (Mathewu 28:19) Isihloko esilandelayo sizochaza indlela izindaba ezinhle ezishunyayelwa ngayo emhlabeni wonke namuhla.