“Lolu suku kumelwe lube yisikhumbuzo kini, futhi kumelwe nilugubhe njengomkhosi kuJehova.”—EKS. 12:14.

1, 2. Yiluphi usuku olukhunjulwa minyaka yonke okufanele wonke amaKristu abe nesithakazelo kulo ngokukhethekile, futhi kungani?

UMA ucabanga ngezinsuku ezikhethekile ezigujwa njalo ngonyaka, yiluphi olufika engqondweni? Umuntu oshadile angase athi: “Usuku lwami lomshado.” Kwabanye, kungaba isenzakalo esiyingqophamlando esikhunjulwa njalo, njengosuku izwe lakubo elathola ngalo inkululeko. Kodwa sikhona yini isenzakalo esikhethekile esiye sakhunjulwa isizwe iminyaka engaphezu kuka-3 500?

2 Sikhona isenzakalo esinjalo—iPhasika. Saba uphawu lokukhumbula ukukhululwa kwama-Israyeli asendulo ebugqilini baseGibhithe. Lesi senzakalo kufanele sibe esibalulekile kuwe. Kungani? Ngoba sihlobana nezinye izici ezibaluleke kakhulu ekuphileni kwakho. Ungase uthi, ‘AmaJuda agubha iPhasika, mina angiyena umJuda. Kungani kufanele ngibe nendaba nalolu suku?’ Impendulo ingatholakala kula mazwi abalulekile: “UKristu iphasika lethu uye wenziwa umhlatshelo.” (1 Kor. 5:7) Ukuze siqonde ukubaluleka kwala mazwi ayiqiniso, kudingeka sazi ngePhasika lamaJuda futhi silihlobanise nomyalo owanikezwa wonke amaKristu.

KUNGANI KWABA NEPHASIKA?

3, 4. Iphasika lokuqala linamuphi umlando?

3 Emhlabeni wonke, amakhulu ezigidi zabantu abangewona amaJuda kunokuthile akwaziyo ngePhasika lokuqala. Kungenzeka bafunda ngalo encwadini yeBhayibheli ka-Eksodusi, bezwa ngokuxoxelwa noma babukela ibhayisikobho esekelwe kulo.

4 Ngesikhathi ama-Israyeli eyizigqila eGibhithe iminyaka eminingi, uJehova wathuma uMose nomfowabo, u-Aroni, kuFaro ukuba bamcele akhulule abantu baKhe. Leyo nkosi eqhoshayo yaseGibhithe ayizange iwavumele ukuba ahambe, ngakho uJehova washaya lelo zwe ngezinhlupho ezibhubhisayo. Ekugcineni,  uNkulunkulu waletha inhlupho yeshumi, ukufa kwamazibulo aseGibhithe, okwenza ukuba uFaro awakhulule ama-Israyeli.—Eks. 1:11; 3:9, 10; 5:1, 2; 11:1, 5.

5. Yini okwakufanele yenziwe ama-Israyeli lapho elungiselela ukukhululwa? (Bheka isithombe esisekuqaleni.)

5 Yini okwakufanele ama-Israyeli ayenze ngaphambi kokuba akhululwe? Kwase kuyisikhathi senjikalanga ngo-1513 B.C.E., enyangeni ngesiHebheru okuthiwa u-Abibi, kamuva eyabizwa ngokuthi uNisani. * UNkulunkulu wathi ngosuku lweshumi lwaleyo nyanga, ama-Israyeli kwakufanele aqale ukuzilungiselela ukulandela izinyathelo ezithile ngo-Nisani 14. Lolo suku lwaqala ekushoneni kwelanga ngoba izinsuku zamaHebheru zaziqala futhi ziphele ekushoneni kwelanga. Ngo-Nisani 14, umuzi ngamunye kwakufanele uhlabe imvu (noma imbuzi) yeduna bese ufafaza elinye igazi layo ezinsikeni zomnyango nasekhothameni lendlu. (Eks. 12:3-7, 22, 23) Umndeni kwakufanele udle imvu eyosiwe namaqebelengwane angenamvubelo nemifino. Ingelosi kaNkulunkulu yayizodlula ezweni ibulale amazibulo aseGibhithe, kodwa ama-Israyeli alalelayo ayeyovikelwa, ngemva kwalokho ahambe ngokukhululeka.—Eks. 12:8-13, 29-32.

6. Kwakuyofanele balibheke kanjani iPhasika abantu bakaNkulunkulu eminyakeni eyayizolandela?

6 Yilokho kanye okwenzeka, futhi ama-Israyeli kwakufanele akukhumbule ukukhululwa kwawo eminyakeni eyayizolandela. UNkulunkulu wathi kuwo: “Lolu suku kumelwe lube yisikhumbuzo kini, futhi kumelwe nilugubhe njengomkhosi kuJehova kuzo zonke izizukulwane zenu. Kufanele nilugubhe njengesimiso kuze kube nini nanini.” Ukugujwa kwalo mkhosi kusukela ngo-Nisani 14 kwakuyolandelwa umkhosi wezinsuku eziyisikhombisa. UNisani 14 kwakuyilona suku lwePhasika, kodwa igama elithi iPhasika lalisetshenziselwa zonke izinsuku eziyisishiyagalombili. (Eks. 12:14-17; Luka 22:1; Joh. 18:28; 19:14) IPhasika lalingomunye wemikhosi emiselwe ukuba amaHebheru ayigubhe minyaka yonke.—2 IziKr. 8:13.

7. Yini uJesu ayimisa ngePhasika lokugcina elingokomthetho?

7 NjengamaJuda ayengaphansi koMthetho kaMose, uJesu nabaphostoli bakhe babehlanganyela ePhasikeni laminyaka yonke. (Math. 26:17-19) Lapho behlanganyela kulo okokugcina, uJesu wamisa isenzakalo esisha okwakuyofanele abalandeli bakhe basigcine minyaka yonke esikhundleni sePhasika—iSidlo SeNkosi Sakusihlwa. Kodwa kwakufanele basigcine ngaluphi usuku?

SASIYOBA NGALUPHI USUKU ISIDLO SENKOSI SAKUSIHLWA?

8. Ngokuphathelene nePhasika neSidlo SeNkosi Sakusihlwa, yimuphi umbuzo ophakamayo?

8 Njengoba uJesu amisa iSidlo SeNkosi Sakusihlwa ngemva nje kwePhasika lokugcina elingokomthetho, lesi senzakalo esisha sasiyoba ngosuku olufanayo nalolo lwePhasika. Nokho, kungenzeka uye waqaphela ukuthi usuku lwePhasika lwamaJuda olusemakhalendeni esimanje lungase luhluke ngosuku olulodwa noma ngaphezulu kwesikhumbula ngalo ukufa kukaKristu. Kungani kunjalo? Ingxenye yempendulo ihlanganisa umyalo uNkulunkulu awunika ama-Israyeli. Ngemva kokuthi ‘lonke ibandla lenhlangano ka-Israyeli kumelwe lihlabe’ imvu, uMose washo ngokuqondile ukuthi lokhu kufanele kwenziwe nini ngo-Nisani 14.—Funda u-Eksodusi 12:5, 6.

9. Ngokuka-Eksodusi 12:6, kwakufanele ihlatshwe nini imvu yePhasika? (Bheka nebhokisi elithi  “Kuyiphi Ingxenye Yosuku?”)

9 I-Pentateuch and Haftorahs iveza ukuthi u-Eksodusi 12:6 uthi imvu kwakumelwe ihlatshwe “phakathi kokuhlwa okubili.” Ezinye izinguqulo zisebenzisa yona kanye le nkulumo. Ezinye, kuhlanganise ne- Jewish Tanakh, zilihumusha ngokuthi “lapho kuhwalala.” Kodwa ezinye zithi, “lapho kuhlwa,” “kusihlwa,” noma zithi “ekushoneni kwelanga.” Ngakho imvu kwakufanele ihlatshwe ngemva kokushona kwelanga kodwa kusakhanya, ekuqaleni kuka-Nisani 14.

10. Abanye bathi yayihlatshwa nini imvu, kodwa lokho kuphakamisa muphi umbuzo?

10 Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, amanye amaJuda acabanga ukuthi kwakuyothatha amahora ukuhlaba zonke izimvu ezaziyolethwa ethempelini. Ngakho u-Eksodusi 12:6 wawuqondwa njengobhekisele ekupheleni kuka-Nisani 14, phakathi nesikhathi sokushona kwelanga nesokuphela kosuku ekushoneni kwelanga. Uma kunjalo, kungenzeka sasidliwa nini leso sidlo? UProfesa Jonathan Klawans, isazi sobuJuda basendulo, waphawula: “Usuku luqala ekushoneni kwelanga, ngakho umhlatshelo wenziwa ngo-Nisani 14 kodwa ukuqala kwePhasika nesidlo empeleni kungo-Nisani 15, nakuba lokhu kulandelana kwezinsuku kungekho ku-Eksodusi.” Wabhala nokuthi: “Izincwadi zorabi . . . azisitsheli nokusitshela ukuthi iSeder [isidlo sePhasika] sasenziwa kanjani ngaphambi kokubhujiswa kweThempeli” ngo-70 C.E.—Omalukeke sizenzele.

11. (a) UJesu wabhekana nani ngosuku lwePhasika lika-33 C.E.? (b) Kungani uNisani 15 wango-33 C.E. abizwa ngokuthi iSabatha “elikhulu”? (Bheka umbhalo waphansi.)

11 Khona-ke sinesizathu sokubuza, Kuthiwani ngePhasika lango-33 C.E.? Ngo-Nisani 13, njengoba kwakusondela usuku ‘okwakumelwe kunikelwe ngalo isisulu sePhasika,’ uKristu watshela uPetru noJohane: “Hambani nisilungisele iphasika ukuba sidle.” (Luka 22:7, 8) ‘Ekugcineni lafika ihora’ lesidlo sangePhasika, ngemva kokushona kwelanga ngo-Nisani 14, cishe ngoLwesine kusihlwa. UJesu wadla leso sidlo nabaphostoli bakhe, wabe esemisa iSidlo seNkosi Sakusihlwa. (Luka 22:14, 15) Ngalobo busuku waboshwa futhi waquliswa icala. UJesu wabethelwa sekuzoba semini bebade ngo-Nisani 14, futhi wafa ntambama ngalolo suku. (Joh. 19:14) Ngaleyo ndlela, “uKristu iphasika lethu . . . wenziwa umhlatshelo” ngosuku olufanayo nokwakuhlatshwa ngalo iwundlu lePhasika. (1 Kor. 5:7; 11:23; Math. 26:2) Njengoba lolo suku lwamaJuda lwaluya ngasekupheleni, uJesu wangcwatshwa—ngaphambi kokuba kuqale uNisani 15. *Lev. 23:5-7; Luka 23:54.

ISIKHUMBUZO ESISHO OKUTHILE KUWE

12, 13. Izingane zamaJuda zazihileleka kanjani ngokukhethekile emkhosini wePhasika?

12 Ake sibuyele kulokho okwenzeka  eGibhithe. UMose wathi abantu bakaNkulunkulu kwakuyofanele baligcine iPhasika eminyakeni eyayiyolandela; kwakufanele kube isiqondiso “kuze kube nini nanini.” Njengoba laliyogcinwa minyaka yonke, izingane zaziyobuza abazali bazo imibuzo egxile kulokho okushiwo yileso senzakalo. (Funda u-Eksodusi 12:24-27; Dut. 6:20-23) Yingakho iPhasika laliyoba “isikhumbuzo” ngisho nasezinganeni.—Eks. 12:14.

13 Njengoba izizukulwane ezintsha zikhula, obaba babeyogcizelela izifundo ezibalulekile emadodaneni abo. Esinye sazo sasiwukuthi uJehova angabavikela abakhulekeli bakhe. Izingane zazifunda ukuthi uJehova akayena unkulunkulu othile ongaziwa osezinganekwaneni. UJehova unguNkulunkulu ongokoqobo, ophilayo, onesithakazelo kubantu bakhe futhi obasizayo. Wakufakazela lokho ngesikhathi evikela amazibulo ama-Israyeli “lapho eshaya abaseGibhithe ngenhlupho.” Wawalonda amazibulo.

14. Abazali abangamaKristu bangasebenzisa ukulandisa kwangePhasika ukuze basize izingane zabo ziqonde ini?

14 Abazali abangamaKristu abawaxoxeli minyaka yonke amadodana namadodakazi abo lokho okwakushiwo yilelo Phasika. Nokho, ingabe uyazifundisa izingane zakho lesi sifundo—sokuthi uNkulunkulu uyabavikela abantu bakhe? Ingabe uyazibonisa ukuthi uqiniseka ngokujulile ukuthi uJehova usenguMvikeli wangempela wabantu bakhe? (IHu. 27:11; Isaya 12:2) Ingabe lokhu ukwenza ngokunikeza izingane zakho incazelo ende engathakazelisi noma ngezingxoxo ezimnandi? Yenza umzamo wokuhlanganisa naleso sifundo ukuze ushukumise intuthuko engokomoya yomkhaya wakho.

Lapho nixoxa ngePhasika, yiziphi izifundo ezibalulekile oyosiza izingane zakho ukuba zizifunde? (Bheka isigaba 14)

15, 16. IPhasika nokulandisa kuka-Eksodusi kungasetshenziselwa ukugcizelela ini ngoJehova?

15 IPhasika alisifundisi nje kuphela ukuthi uJehova uyakwazi ukuvikela abantu bakhe. Wabuye wabakhulula, njengoba ‘ayebakhiphe eGibhithe.’ Ake ucabange ukuthi lokho kwakuhlanganisani. Babeqondiswa insika yefu neyomlilo. Bahamba phakathi oLwandle Olubomvu amanzi alo eyizindonga ngakwesobunxele nangakwesokudla. Lapho sebewele ngokuphepha, babona lawo manzi emboza ibutho laseGibhithe. Ama-Israyeli akhululiwe abe esehlabelela: “Mangihlabelelele uJehova . . . Ihhashi nenkweli yalo ukuphonse olwandle. UJah uyizikhwepha zami namandla ami, ngoba uyangisindisa.”—Eks. 13:14, 21, 22; 15:1, 2; IHu. 136:11-15.

16 Uma unezingane, ingabe uyazisiza ukuba zithembele kuJehova njengoMkhululi? Ziyakubona yini lokho kuqiniseka nakuwe, ezingxoxweni nasezinqumweni zakho? Ngokuqinisekile ungakuhlanganisa engxoxweni yokuKhulekela Komkhaya lokho esikufunda ku-Eksodusi izahluko 12-15 futhi ugcizelele indlela uJehova akhulula ngayo abantu bakhe. Ngezinye izikhathi ungase wenabe ngaleli phuzu ngokucabangela izEnzo 7:30-36 noma uDaniyeli 3:16-18, 26-28. Yebo, abasha nabancane kufanele baqiniseke ngokuthi uJehova akagcinanga esikhathini esidlule ukuba uMkhululi. Njengoba akhulula abantu bakhe osukwini  lukaMose, uzosikhulula esikhathini esizayo.—Funda eyoku-1 Thesalonika 1:9, 10.

KUFANELE SIKUKHUMBULE

17, 18. Ukucabanga ngokusetshenziswa kwegazi ePhasikeni lokuqala kufanele kusikhumbuzeni?

17 AmaKristu eqiniso awenzi isikhumbuzo sePhasika lamaJuda. Lowo mkhosi waminyaka yonke wawuyingxenye yoMthetho KaMose, kanti thina asikho ngaphansi kwalowo Mthetho. (Roma 10:4; Kol. 2:13-16) Kunalokho, kunesinye isenzakalo esisibheka njengesiyigugu, ukufa kweNdodana kaNkulunkulu. Noma kunjalo, kunezici zokugcinwa kwePhasika elamiswa eGibhithe ezisho okuthile kithi.

18 Igazi lemvu elalifafazwa ezinsikeni zeminyango nasemakhothameni laliyindlela yokusindisa ukuphila. Namuhla, asiyenzi imihlatshelo yezilwane kuNkulunkulu—kungaba ngosuku lwePhasika nanganoma isiphi esinye isikhathi. Kodwa kunomhlatshelo ongcono ongasindisa ukuphila phakade. Umphostoli uPawulu wabhala ‘ngebandla lamazibulo abhaliswe emazulwini.’ Indlela yokulondoloza ukuphila kwalawo maKristu agcotshiwe ‘yigazi lokufafaza,’ igazi likaJesu. (Heb. 12:23, 24) AmaKristu anethemba lokuphila phakade emhlabeni nawo athembele kulo lelo gazi ukuze asindiswe. Kufanele azikhumbuze njalo ngalesi siqinisekiso: “Ngaye sitholé ukukhululwa ngesihlengo esingegazi lakhe lowo, yebo, ukuthethelelwa kweziphambeko zethu, ngokwengcebo yomusa wakhe ongafanelwe.”—Efe. 1:7.

19. Indlela iwundlu lePhasika elaliphathwa ngayo ingakuqinisa kanjani ukwethemba kwethu iziprofetho?

19 Lapho kuhlatshwa iwundlu lesidlo sePhasika, ama-Israyeli kwakungafanele aphule noma iliphi ithambo lalo. (Eks. 12:46; Num. 9:11, 12) Kuthiwani ‘ngeWundlu likaNkulunkulu’ eleza ukuze libe isihlengo? (Joh. 1:29) UJesu wabethelwa kanye nezelelesi ngapha nangapha. AmaJuda acela uPilatu ukuba amathambo amadoda ayebethelwe aphulwe. Lokho kwakuyosheshisa ukufa kwawo ukuze angashiywa elenga ezigxotsheni kuze kube uNisani 15, iSabatha elikhulu. Amasosha aphula imilenze yezelelesi ezimbili ezazibethelwe, “kodwa lapho efika kuJesu, awazange ayiphule eyakhe imilenze, ngoba abona ukuthi wayesefile kakade.” (Joh. 19:31-34) Lokho kwakuhambelana nalokho okwakwenziwa ngewundlu lePhasika, ngakho ngalowo mqondo leli wundlu ‘laliyisithunzi’ salokho okwakuzokwenzeka ngo-Nisani 14, 33 C.E. (Heb. 10:1) Ngaphezu kwalokho, indlela izinto ezenzeka ngayo yagcwalisa amazwi akumaHubo 34:20, okufanele kuqinise ukwethemba kwethu iziprofetho.

20. Imuphi umehluko ophawulekayo phakathi kwePhasika neSidlo SeNkosi Sakusihlwa?

20 Nokho ukhona umehluko phakathi kwePhasika neSidlo SeNkosi Sakusihlwa. Lo mehluko ubonisa ukuthi iPhasika elalikhunjulwa amaJuda lalingeke libe yibe yisithunzi salokho uKristu atshela abalandeli bakhe ukuba bakwenze ukuze bakhumbule ukufa kwakhe. EGibhithe, ama-Israyeli ayidla inyama yewundlu kodwa awalidlanga igazi lalo. Lokho kuhlukile kulokho uJesu ayala abafundi bakhe ukuba bakwenze. Wathi labo abayobusa “embusweni kaNkulunkulu” kwakufanele badle kokubili isinkwa newayini njengezifanekiselo zenyama negazi lakhe. Sizoxoxa ngokuningiliziwe ngalokhu esihlokweni esilandelayo.—Marku 14:22-25.

21. Kungani kuzuzisa ukuba nolwazi ngePhasika?

21 Noma kunjalo, akukho ukungabaza ukuthi iPhasika laliyisenzakalo esikhulu ekusebenzelaneni kukaNkulunkulu nama-Israyeli, futhi ngamunye wethu angafunda okuningi kulo. Ngakho, nakuba iPhasika ‘laliyisikhumbuzo’ kumaJuda, hhayi kumaKristu, thina njengamaKristu kufanele sibe nolwazi ngalo futhi sizibheke njengezibalulekile ezinye zezifundo ezicacile njengoba ziyingxenye yayo ‘yonke imiBhalo ephefumulelwe uNkulunkulu.’—2 Thim. 3:16.

^ isig. 5 Nakuba ekuqaleni uNisani kwakuyigama lenyanga yesiHebheru, ukuze kube lula, inyanga yokuqala yekhalenda lamaJuda sizothi uNisani.

^ isig. 11 UNisani 15 waqala lapho kushona ilanga, okusho ukuthi ngalowo nyaka, iSabatha (uMgqibelo) lamasonto onke elivamile laqondana nosuku lokuqala koMkhosi Wamaqebelengwane Angenamvubelo, olwaluhlale luyisabatha. Ngenxa yokuthi la maSabatha aqondana, kwaba iSabatha “elikhulu.”—Funda uJohane 19:31, 42.