Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

USathane—Yinganekwane Noma Umuntu Omubi Ongokoqobo?

USathane—Yinganekwane Noma Umuntu Omubi Ongokoqobo?

 USathane—Yinganekwane Noma Umuntu Omubi Ongokoqobo?

KUSUKELA kudala kakhulu ongqondongqondo bebelokhu benesithakazelo kuyimvelaphi yobubi. I-Dictionary of the Bible kaJames Hastings, ithi: “Lapho umuntu eqala ukuziqaphela wazithola ebhekene namandla angakwazi ukuwalawula, amandla anethonya elibi noma elilimazayo.” Yona le ncwadi ithi futhi: “Abantu bokuqala ngokuzenzakalelayo babefuna izimbangela, futhi bechaza amandla emvelo nezinye izindlela imvelo eyayibonakala ngazo njengokusamuntu.”

Ngokwezazi-mlando, ukukholelwa konkulunkulu abangamademoni nasemimoyeni emibi kwaqala ekuqaleni komlando waseMesopotamiya. AbaseBabiloni lasendulo babekholelwa ukuthi izwe lemimoya, noma “lapho kungayi lubuyayo,” lalibuswa uNerigali, unkulunkulu oyisidlova owayaziwa ngokuthi “umshisi.” Babesaba namademoni, ababeshweleza kuwo ngokusho amazwi omlingo. Ezinganekwaneni zaseGibithe, uSet kwakungunkulunkulu wobubi, “evezwa njengonezici zesilwane esiyinqaba esinekhala elizacile, eligobile namadlebe aqondile ayisikwele nomsila owuqhotho ombaxambili.”—Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology.

Nakuba amaGreki namaRoma ayenonkulunkulu abahle nababi, wona ayengenaye unkulunkulu omubi ovelele. Izazi zawo zefilosofi zazifundisa ukuthi kukhona amathonya amabili aphikisanayo. Ngokuka-Empedocles, ayewuThando nokuNgezwani. NgokukaPlato, izwe ‘linemiPhefumulo’ emibili, obangela okuhle nobangela okubi. Njengoba kusho uGeorges Minois encwadini yakhe ethi Le Diable (UDeveli), “wayengekho uDeveli enkolweni [yamaGreki namaRoma] yobuqaba.”

E-Iran, ubuZoroaster babufundisa ukuthi unkulunkulu ophakeme u-Ahura Mazda, noma u-Ormazd, wadala u-Angra Mainyu, noma u-Ahriman, owakhetha ukwenza okubi wayeseba uMoya Obhubhisayo, noma umBhubhisi.

EbuJudeni, uSathane wayevezwa kalula nje njengeSitha sikaNkulunkulu esaletha isono. Kodwa ngemva kwamakhulu amaningi eminyaka, leyo mfundiso yonakaliswa imibono yobuqaba. I-Encyclopaedia Judaica ithi: “Kwase kwenzeke ushintsho olukhulu . . . emakhulwini okugcina B.C.E. Kule nkathi inkolo [yobuJuda] . . . yamukela izici eziningi zesimiso esikabili lapho uNkulunkulu namandla okuhle neqiniso babephikiswa ezulwini nasemhlabeni amandla obubi nokukhohlisa. Lokhu kubonakala kwakuwumphumela wethonya lenkolo yasePheresiya.” I-Concise Jewish Encyclopedia ithi: “Ukuvikelwa emademonini kwakutholakala ngokugcina imiyalo nangokusebenzisa okuthile kokuzivikela.”

 Imfundiso Yenkolo YamaKristu Ayizihlubuki

Njengoba nje ubuJuda babamukele imiqondo engaveli eBhayibhelini ngokuqondene noSathane namademoni, amaKristu ayizihlubuki anezela imininingwane emibonweni engasekelwe emiBhalweni. I-Anchor Bible Dictionary ithi: “Omunye wemibono yenkolo eyeqisa kakhulu yasendulo wawuwukuthi ukuze akhulule abantu bakhe uNkulunkulu wakhokha isihlengo kuSathane.” Lo mbono waphakanyiswa u-Irenaeus (wekhulu lesibili C.E.). Wabuye waqhutshekiselwa phambili u-Origen (wekhulu lesithathu C.E.), owathi “abantu babebe abakadeveli ngokusemthethweni” futhi ebheka “ukufa kukaKristu . . . njengesihlengo esakhokhwa kudeveli.”—I-History of Dogma ka-Adolf Harnack.

Ngokwe-Catholic Encyclopedia, “kwaphela iminyaka engaba inkulungwane [lo mqondo wokuthi isihlengo sakhokhwa kuDeveli] unendima ebalulekile emlandweni wemfundiso yenkolo,” futhi waqhubeka uyingxenye yenkolelo yesonto. Abanye oFata beSonto, kuhlanganise no-Augustine (wekhulu lesine kuya kwelesihlanu C.E.), bawamukela lo mbono wokuthi isihlengo sakhokhwa kuSathane. Ekugcineni, ngekhulu le-12 C.E., izazi zemfundiso yenkolo ezingamaKatolika u-Anselm no-Abelard zaphetha ngokuthi isihlengo sikaKristu sakhokhwa kuNkulunkulu, hhayi kuSathane.

Izinkolelo-ze ZangeNkathi Ephakathi

Nakuba iningi lemikhandlu yeSonto LamaKatolika lathula ngendlela eqaphelekayo endabeni kaSathane, ngo-1215 C.E. uMkhandlu Wesine KaLateran wakha lokho i-New Catholic Encyclopedia ekubiza ngokuthi “isivumo sokholo esiqinisekile.” UMthetho 1 uthi: “Udeveli namanye amademoni babedalwe bebahle ngokwemvelo, [bedalwa] uNkulunkulu, kodwa bazenza bona baba babi.” Unezela nokuthi bahlalele ukuzama ukulinga abantu. Lo mqondo wakamuva wawubusa abantu abaningi ngeNkathi Ephakathi. Noma yini eyayibonakala ingavamile, njengokugula okuxakayo, ukufa okuzumayo, noma isivuno esibi, kwakuthiwa ibangelwa uSathane. Ngo-1233 C.E., uPapa Gregory IX wakhipha izincwadi eziningana ezimelene nezihlubuki, neyayimelene namaLusifa, okwakuthiwa angabakhulekeli bakaDeveli.

Ngokushesha inkolelo yokuthi abantu bangangenwa uDeveli noma amademoni akhe yabangela ukwesaba kuwo wonke umuntu—ukwesatshwa okweqile kokulumba nobuthakathi. Kusukela ekhulwini le-13 kuya kwele-17, ukwesatshwa kwabathakathi kwabhidlanga kulo lonke elaseYurophu, kwafika eNyakatho Melika nabakhi bamakoloni baseYurophu. Ngisho nabashisekeli bezinguquko abangamaProthestani uMartin Luther noJohn Calvin babehambisana nokuzingelwa kwabathakathi. EYurophu, kokubili iNkantolo Yamacala Ezihlubuki nezinkantolo zikahulumeni zaziqula amacala abathakathi ayesekelwe kuyinzwabethi nje noma ekunyundelweni. Kwakuvamile ukuba abantu bazwiswe ubuhlungu ukuze bavume ukuthi “banecala.”

Labo ababetholakala benecala babengase bagwetshelwe ukufa ngokushiswa, noma ngokulengiswa eNgilandi naseScotland. Ngokuqondene nenani labagwetshwa, i-World Book Encyclopedia ithi: “Ngokwezinye izazi-mlando, kusukela ngo-1484 kuya ku-1782, isonto lobuKristu labulala abesifazane abangaba ngu-300 000 libabulalela ukuthakatha.” Uma kwakunguSathane owayebangela le nhlekelele yangeNkathi Ephakathi, obani ayebasebenzisa—izisulu noma abashushisi bazo benkolo ababeshiseka ngokweqile?

 Lokho Abantu Abakukholelwayo Noma Abangakukholelwa Namuhla

Ngekhulu le-18 kwagcizelelwa ukufinyelela iziphetho ngokusebenzisa ingqondo, okwakuthiwa ukuKhanyiselwa. I-Encyclopædia Britannica ithi: “Ifilosofi nemfundiso yenkolo yeNkathi Yokukhanyiselwa yazama ukukhipha udeveli ekucabangeni kobuKristu ngokuba ithi uwumkhiqizo wezinganekwane zangeNkathi Ephakathi.” ISonto LamaRoma Katolika lasabela kulokhu ngokuphinde liqinisekise eMkhandlwini Wokuqala WeVatican (1869-70) ukuthi liyakholelwa ukuthi uSathane uDeveli ukhona, lakugcizelela eMkhandlwini Wesibili WeVatican (1962-65) nokho lingasaqiniseki.

Ngokomthetho, njengoba kuvuma i-New Catholic Encyclopedia, “iSonto likholelwa ngokugcwele ukuthi izingelosi namademoni kukhona.” Nokho, i-Théo, isichazamazwi sesiFulentshi sobuKatolika, siyavuma ukuthi “amaKristu amaningi namuhla awavumi kuthiwe ububi obusezweni bubangelwa udeveli.” Eminyakeni yamuva izazi zenkolo zamaKatolika bezilokhu zisisingatha ngokucophelela lesi simo, zizama ukusekela kokubili imfundiso yenkolo nokucabanga kwesimanje. I-Encyclopædia Britannica ithi: “Imfundiso yobuKristu ekhululekile ithambekele ekulubhekeni ‘njengoluwumfanekiso’ ulimi olusetshenziswa iBhayibheli lapho likhuluma ngoDeveli, okuwulimi okungafanele luthathwe njengoba lunjalo—ilubheka njengomzamo wokuveza ngenganekwane ububi nezinga labo endalweni.” Ngokuqondene namaProthestani, yona le ncwadi ithi: “UbuProthestani besimanje obukhululekile buthambekele ekusiphikeni isidingo sokukholelwa ukuthi udeveli ungumuntu.” Kodwa ingabe amaKristu eqiniso kufanele abheke lokho okushiwo yiBhayibheli ngoSathane njengokumane ‘kuwumfanekiso’?

Lokho ImiBhalo Ekufundisayo

Ifilosofi nemfundiso yabantu yenkolo ayiyichazanga kangcono kuneBhayibheli imvelaphi yobubi. Lokho imiBhalo ekushoyo ngoSathane kubalulekile ukuze siqonde imvelaphi yobubi nokuhlupheka kwabantu, nanokuthi kungani ubudlova obubudlula bonke buba bubi kakhulu unyaka ngamunye.

Abanye bangase babuze: ‘Uma uNkulunkulu enguMdali omuhle nonothando, wayengasidala kanjani isidalwa somoya esibi njengoSathane?’ IBhayibheli linikeza isimiso esithi yonke imisebenzi kaJehova uNkulunkulu iphelele nesithi zonke izidalwa zakhe ezihlakaniphile zinikwe inkululeko yokuzikhethela. (Duteronomi 30:19; 32:4; Joshuwa 24:15; 1 AmaKhosi 18:21) Ngakho-ke umuntu womoya owaba uSathane, kumelwe ukuba wayedalwe ephelele wayeseyishiya ngamabomu indlela yeqiniso nokulunga.—Johane 8:44; Jakobe 1:14, 15.

 Ngezindlela eziningi, ukuvukela kukaSathane kufuze ‘okwenkosi yaseTire,’ echazwa ngokusankondlo ngokuthi ‘yayiphelele ngobuhle’ futhi ‘iphelele ezindleleni zayo kusukela osukwini lokudalwa kwayo kwaze kwafumaniseka ukungalungi kuyo.’ (Hezekeli 28:11-19) USathane akaphikanga ukuthi uJehova mkhulu noma ukuthi unguMdali. Wayengaphika kanjani, ngoba kwayena wayedalwe uNkulunkulu? Into uSathane ayibekela inselele yindlela uJehova ayesebenzisa ngayo ubukhosi bakhe. Ensimini yase-Edene, uSathane wagudlisela ukuthi uNkulunkulu wayencisha umbhangqwana wokuqala ongabantu okuthile owawunelungelo lokukuthola futhi inhlalakahle yawo eyayixhomeke kukho. (Genesise 3:1-5) Waphumelela ukwenza u-Adamu no-Eva bahlubuke ebukhosini bukaJehova obulungile, waletha isono nokufa kubo nasenzalweni yabo. (Genesise 3:6-19; Roma 5:12) Ngakho iBhayibheli libonisa ukuthi nguSathane oyimbangela eyisisekelo yokuhlupheka kwabantu.

Esikhathini esithile ngaphambi kukaZamcolo, ezinye izingelosi zazibandakanya noSathane ekuhlubukeni kwakhe. Zathatha imizimba yabantu ukuze zanelise izinkanuko zazo zokuba nobulili namadodakazi abantu. (Genesise 6:1-4) NgoZamcolo, lezi zingelosi eziyizihlubuki zabuyela endaweni yomoya kodwa hhayi ‘esikhundleni sazo sokuqala’ kanye noNkulunkulu ezulwini. (Jude 6) Zehliselwa esimweni sobumnyama obukhulu obungokomoya. (1 Petru 3:19, 20; 2 Petru 2:4) Zaba amademoni, zangabe zisakhonza ngaphansi kobukhosi bukaJehova kodwa zaba ngaphansi kukaSathane. Nakuba kubonakala engasakwazi ukuphinda athathe imizimba yenyama, amademoni asenalo ithonya elikhulu ezingqondweni nasekuphileni kwabantu, futhi ngokungangabazeki yiwona ayimbangela yobuningi bobudlova esibubona namuhla.—Mathewu 12:43-45; Luka 8:27-33.

Ukuphela Kokubusa KukaSathane Kuseduze

Kusobala ukuthi imimoya emibi imatasa ezweni namuhla. Umphostoli uJohane wabhala: “Siyazi ukuthi sisuka kuNkulunkulu, kodwa lonke izwe lisemandleni omubi.”—1 Johane 5:19.

Nokho iziprofetho zeBhayibheli ezigcwalisekile zibonisa ukuthi uDeveli wandisa usizi emhlabeni ngoba uyazi ukuthi usalelwe ‘inkathi yesikhathi emfushane’ yokwenza umonakalo ngaphambi kokuba avalelwe. (IsAmbulo 12:7-12; 20:1-3) Lapho ukubusa kukaSathane kuphela kuyolandela izwe elisha lokulunga, lapho izinyembezi, ukufa nobuhlungu ‘kungeke kusaba khona.’ Ngaleso sikhathi, intando kaNkulunkulu ‘iyokwenziwa emhlabeni njengasezulwini.’—IsAmbulo 21:1-4; Mathewu 6:10, iBhayibheli lesiZulu elivamile.

[Izithombe ekhasini 4]

AbaseBabiloni babekholelwa kuNerigali (osekugcineni kwesobunxele), unkulunkulu oyisidlova; uPlato (okwesobunxele) wayekholelwa ukuthi kukhona “imiPhefumulo” emibili ephikisanayo

[Umthombo]

Cylinder: Musée du Louvre, Paris; Plato: National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

[Izithombe ekhasini 5]

U-Irenaeus, u-Origen no-Augustine babefundisa ukuthi isihlengo sakhokhwa kuDeveli

[Umthombo]

Origen: Culver Pictures; Augustine: From the book Great Men and Famous Women

[Isithombe ekhasini 6]

Ukwesatshwa kwabathakathi kwaholela ekubulaweni kwamakhulu ezinkulungwane

[Umthombo]

From the book Bildersaal deutscher Geschichte