Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

Into Enkulu Kunengcebo YaseGibithe

Into Enkulu Kunengcebo YaseGibithe

 Into Enkulu Kunengcebo YaseGibithe

UMOSE uphakathi kwabantu abavelele kunabo bonke emlandweni. Izincwadi ezine zeBhayibheli—kusukela ku-Eksodusi kuya kuDuteronomi—zonke ngokuyinhloko zikhuluma ngokusebenzelana kukaNkulunkulu nama-Israyeli ayeholwa uMose. Wawaqondisa lapho efuduka ephuma eGibithe, waba umlamuleli wesivumelwano soMthetho futhi wawahola kwaze kwaba semngceleni weZwe Lesithembiso. UMose wayekhulele endlini kaFaro, kodwa waba umholi ogunyaziwe wabantu bakaNkulunkulu, waba nawumprofethi, umahluleli nomlobi ophefumulelwe ngokwaphezulu. Kodwa futhi “wayemnene kunabo bonke abantu.”—Numeri 12:3.

Okuningi kwalokho iBhayibheli elikushoyo ngoMose kwenzeka phakathi neminyaka yokugcina engu-40 yokuphila kwakhe, kusukela ekukhululweni kwama-Israyeli ebugqilini kuya ekufeni kwakhe eneminyaka engu-120 ubudala. Kusukela eneminyaka engu-40 kuya ku-80, wayengumalusi wezimvu kwaMidiyani. Kodwa enye i-encyclopedia ithi, “mhlawumbe ingxenye yokuphila kwakhe ethakazelisa kakhulu, futhi ecashe kunazo zonke,” yiminyaka yakhe yokuqala engu-40, kusukela ezelwe kuya lapho ebaleka eGibithe. Yini ngempela esingayithola mayelana nale nkathi? Indlela akhula ngayo kungenzeka yaba naliphi iqhaza kulokho aba yikho esemdala? Wabhekana namaphi amathonya? Yiziphi izingqinamba anqwamana nazo? Futhi konke lokhu kungasifundisani?

Ubugqila EGibithe

Incwadi ka-Eksodusi ilandisa ukuthi uFaro waqala ukwesaba ama-Israyeli ayizifiki ngoba ayanda kakhulu. Ecabanga ukuthi wenza ‘ngokuhlakanipha,’ wazama ukuwanciphisa ngokuwagqilaza ngonya; ayebhaxabulwa abacindezeli—ethwala imithwalo, akha izitsha zobumba nezitini eziyinani elinqunyiwe zosuku.—Eksodusi 1:8-14; 5:6-18.

Indlela elichazwa ngayo iGibithe uMose azalelwa kulo ihambisana kahle nobufakazi obungokomlando. Amaphepha e-papyrus asendulo nomdwebo okungenani owodwa osethuneni kuchaza ukwakhiwa kwezitini zodaka yizigqila enkulungwaneni yesibili B.C.E., noma ngaphambi kwalokho. Izikhulu ezengamele ukwakhiwa kwezitini zaziqondisa amakhulu ezigqila ezazihlelwe ngamaqoqo anabantu abangu-6 kuya ku-18  bephethwe induna noma umholi weqembu. Ubumba lwezitini kwakudingeka lumbiwe futhi kuthuthwe utshani buyiswe endaweni yokwakha izitini. Izisebenzi eziyizizwe ezihlukahlukene zazikha amanzi, ziwahlanganise nobumba notshani ngamageja. Kwakufolonywa inqwaba yezitini. Izisebenzi zazibe sezithwala izitini ezomiswe ilanga ziziyise esakhiweni, ngezinye izikhathi kudingeke ziqwale imimango. Izinduna ezingamaGibithe ezaziphethe imishiza zazihlala phansi noma zehle zenyuka zibheke umsebenzi.

Elinye iphepha lokubala lasendulo likhuluma ngezitini ezingu-39 118 ezenziwa yizisebenzi ezingu-602, okusho ukuthi ngokwesilinganiso, umuntu oyedwa wayenza izitini ezingu-65 ishifu ngayinye. Enye incwadi yangekhulu le-13 B.C.E. ithi: “Amadoda enza . . . izitini ezifunekayo usuku ngalunye.” Konke lokhu kufana kakhulu nencazelo yokufukuza kwama-Israyeli esencwadini ka-Eksodusi.

Ukuwacindezela akuwanciphisanga amaHeberu. Kunalokho, ‘ngokuwahlupha kwabaseGibithe kwaba yikhona anda, baba novalo ngabantwana bakwa-Israyeli.’ (Eksodusi 1:10, 12) Ngakho, uFaro wayala ababelethisi abangamaHeberu kuqala wayeseyala nabo bonke abantu bakhe ukuba babulale zonke izingane zabafana zama-Israyeli ezisanda kuzalwa. Kulezi zimo ezesabekayo, uJokebedi no-Amramu baba nengane enhle yomfana, uMose.—Eksodusi 1:15-22; 6:20; IzEnzo 7:20.

Wafihlwa, Wayesetholakala

Abazali bakaMose abawulalelanga umyalo kaFaro wokubulala, bamfihla umfanyana wabo. Ingabe bamfihla kukhona nezinhloli nabaseshi ababefika bezofuna izinsana? Asinakuqiniseka. Noma ngabe ikuphi, abazali bakaMose abakwazanga ukumfihla lapho esenezinyanga ezintathu ezelwe. Ngakho unina owayekhathazekile wenza ubhasikidi webungu, wawuhuqa ngekolitayi ukuze amanzi angangeni, wayesefaka umntanakhe kuwo. Ngomqondo othile, uJokebedi wenza lokho uFaro ayekushilo, kodwa hhayi ayekuqondile, ukuba zonke izingane zamaHeberu zabafana ezisanda kuzalwa ziphonswe emfuleni. UMiriyamu, udadewabo kaMose omdala, wabe esema buqamama ukuze aphonse iso.—Eksodusi 1:22–2:4.

Ukuthi uJokebedi wayehlosile yini ukuba uMose atholwe indodakazi kaFaro lapho izogeza emfuleni asazi, kodwa yiyo eyamthola. Inkosazana yabona ukuthi lona umntwana womHeberu. Yayizokwenzenjani? Ingabe yayizolalela uyise, ithi umntwana makabulawe? Cha, yenza njengoba kwakungenza abesifazane abaningi ngokwemvelo. Yaba nesihawu.

Ngokuphazima kweso, uMiriyamu wayeselapha. Wabuza: ‘Ngikubizele yini owesifazane ongumHeberu ukuze akuncelisele ingane?’ Abanye bayithola iyindida le ndima. Udadewabo kaMose uvezwa ehlukile kuFaro, owakha icebo ‘lokuhlakaniphela’ amaHeberu enabeluleki bakhe.  Yiqiniso, ukuthi uMose wayezophepha kwaze kwaba into eqinisekile lapho inkosazana ivumelana nesu likadadewabo kaMose. “Hamba!” kuphendula indodakazi kaFaro, uMiriyamu wayesephuthuma elanda unina. Ngesivumelwano esiphawulekayo, uJokebedi wabe eseqashwa ukuba akhulise umntwana amzalayo evikelwa abasebukhosini.—Eksodusi 2:5-9.

Isihawu senkosazana sihlukile impela onyeni lukayise. Akukhona ukuthi yayingazi ngalo mntwana noma ukuthi yayikhohlisiwe. Uzwela olusuka enhliziyweni lwayenza yazitholela yena, futhi ukuvuma kwayo ukuba umntwana ayiswe kumzanyana ongumHeberu kuveza ukuthi yayingahambisani nemibono kayise.

Ukukhuliswa Kwakhe Nemfundo

UJokebedi “wamthatha-ke umntwana, wamncelisa. Umfana wakhula, wayiswa kuyo indodakazi kaFaro, waba yindodana yayo.” (Eksodusi 2:9, 10) IBhayibheli alisho ukuthi uMose wahlala isikhathi eside kangakanani nabazali bakhe abamzalayo. Abanye bacabanga ukuthi kumelwe ukuba wahlala nabo waze walunyulwa—iminyaka emibili noma emithathu—kodwa kungenzeka wahlala isikhathi eside kunalokho. U-Eksodusi umane athi “wakhula” ekubazali bakhe, okunganikezi budala obuqondile. Kunoma yikuphi, akungabazeki ukuthi u-Amramu noJokebedi basebenzisa leso sikhathi ukuze benze indodana yabo yazi ukuthi ingumHeberu futhi bayifundise ngoJehova. Ukuthi babephumelele kangakanani ukugxilisa ukholo nothando ngokulunga enhliziyweni kaMose kwakuzocaca ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Lapho ebuyiselwa endodakazini kaFaro, uMose wafundiswa “kukho konke ukuhlakanipha kwamaGibithe.” (IzEnzo 7:22) Lokhu kungasikisela ukuthi uMose waqeqeshelwa ukuba afanelekele isikhundla sikahulumeni. Imfundo ebanzi yaseGibithe yayihlanganisa izibalo, i-geometry, ukuklama izakhiwo, ukwakha kanye nobunye ubuciko nesayensi. Cishe umkhaya wasebukhosini wawuyofuna ukuba afundiswe nangenkolo yaseGibithe.

Kungenzeka ukuthi uMose wayekanye nezinye izingane zasebukhosini lapho ethola le mfundo ekhethekile. Abanye balabo ababethola le mfundo yekhethelo “kwakuyizingane zababusi bakwamanye amazwe ezazithunyelwe noma zithunjelwe eGibithe ukuze ‘ziyofundiswa impucuko’ bese zigoduswa ziyobusa njengamakhosi angaphansi” kukaFaro naqotho kuye. (The Reign of Thutmose IV, kaBetsy M. Bryan) Kubonakala sengathi izigodlo zasebukhosini zazinezinkulisa ezaziqeqeshela intsha ukuba ibe izikhulu zasehlalankosi. * Imibhalo eqoshiwe esukela enkathini yoMbuso Ophakathi neyoMbuso Omusha waseGibithe iveza ukuthi izinsila eziningana zikaFaro nezikhulu eziphakeme zikahulumeni zaqhubeka zibizwa ‘ngabaNtwana baseNkulisa’ nalapho sezingabantu abadala.

Ukuphila kwasesigodlweni kwakuyomvivinya uMose. Kwakuthembisa ingcebo, ukunethezeka namandla. Kwakunanezingozi zokuziphatha. UMose wayezokwenzenjani? Wayezoba qotho kubani? Ingabe ngaphakathi wayengumkhulekeli kaJehova, isihlobo samaHeberu acindezelwe, noma ingabe wayethanda zonke izinto ezazinikezwa yiGibithe lobuqaba?

Isinqumo Esibalulekile

Eseneminyaka engu-40 ubudala, lapho ayesengaba umGibithe ngokugcwele, uMose ‘waphuma  wayobuka imithwalo eyayithwalwa abafowabo.’ Akwenza lapho kwabonisa ukuthi wayengamane enelukuluku nje; wayelangazelela ukubasiza. Lapho ebona umGibithe eshaya umHeberu, wangenela, wambulala umcindezeli. Leso senzo sabonisa ukuthi inhliziyo kaMose yayikanye nabafowabo. Kungenzeka ukuthi le ndoda eyayibulewe yayiyisikhulu esithile, esabulawa senza umsebenzi waso. Ngokubona kwabaseGibithe, uMose kwakufanele abe qotho kuFaro. Kodwa uMose washukunyiswa nawuthando lobulungisa, imfanelo eyaphinde yabonakala ngakusasa lapho ehilizisana nomHeberu owayeshaya umHeberu wakubo ngokungafanele. UMose wayefuna ukukhulula amaHeberu ebugqilini obunonya, kodwa lapho uFaro ezwa ngokwambuka kwakhe futhi ezama ukumbulala, uMose waphoqeleka ukuba abalekele kwaMidiyani.—Eksodusi 2:11-15; IzEnzo 7:23-29. *

Isikhathi uMose ayefuna ukubakhulula ngaso abantu bakaNkulunkulu sasingahambisani nesikaJehova. Noma kunjalo, izenzo zakhe zabonisa ukuthi wayenokholo. EyamaHeberu 11:24-26 ithi: “Ngokholo uMose, lapho esekhulile, wenqaba ukubizwa ngokuthi indodana yendodakazi kaFaro, ekhetha ukuphathwa kabi nabantu bakaNkulunkulu kunenjabulo yesikhashana esonweni.” Ngani? “Ngoba wabheka isihlamba sikaKristu njengengcebo enkulu kunemicebo yaseGibithe; ngoba wagxilisa amehlo ekukhokhweni komvuzo.” Lokhu kusetshenziswa okungavamile kwegama elithi ‘uKristu,’ elisho ukuthi “ogcotshiweyo,” kuyamfanela uMose ngomqondo wokuthi kamuva wathunywa ngokukhethekile nguJehova uqobo.

Cabanga nje! UMose wayekhuliswe ngendlela okuyinjinga yaseGibithe kuphela eyayingakhuliswa ngayo. Isikhundla ayenaso sasiyomnika amathuba amangalisayo ekuphileni, simenze ajabulele noma yini ongayicabanga, kodwa wakwenqaba konke lokho. Wayengaziboni ephila esigodlweni sikaFaro, umcindezeli, kodwa ebe ethanda uJehova nobulungisa. Ukwazi nokuzindla ngalokho uNkulunkulu ayekuthembise okhokho bakhe u-Abrahama, u-Isaka noJakobe kwenza uMose wakhetha ukuthandwa nguNkulunkulu. Ngenxa yalokho, uJehova wakwazi ukusebenzisa uMose ezindimeni ezibaluleke kakhulu ekufezeni injongo yaKhe.

Sonke kumelwe sikhethe ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibaluleke kunazo zonke. NjengoMose, mhlawumbe nawe ubhekene nesinqumo esinzima. Ingabe kufanele uyeke imikhuba ethile noma lokho okubonakala kuyizinzuzo, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi uzolahlekelwa kangakanani? Uma ubhekene naleso sinqumo, khumbula ukuthi uMose wabheka ubungane noJehova njengobuyigugu kunayo yonke ingcebo yaseGibithe, futhi akazisolanga.

[Imibhalo yaphansi]

^ par. 17 Kungenzeka ukuthi le mfundo yayithi ayifane naleyo eyatholwa uDaniyeli nabangane bakhe ukuze babe izikhulu zikahulumeni eBabiloni. (Daniyeli 1:3-7) Qhathanisa nethi Sinake Isiprofetho SikaDaniyeli!, isahluko 3, enyatheliswa oFakazi BakaJehova.

^ par. 20 Ukuthi uMose wayeshisekela ubulungisa kuboniswa nawukuvikela kwakhe umalusikazi owayengenakuzivikela ekuhlukunyezweni kwaMidiyani, lapho uMose ayebalekele khona.—Eksodusi 2:16, 17.

[Ibhokisi ekhasini 11]

Izivumelwano Zabazanyana

Ngokuvamile omama babezincelisela izinsana zabo. Kodwa kuyi-Journal of Biblical Literature, isazi uBrevard Childs sithi “ezimweni ezithile emikhayeni yezinjinga [yaseMpumalanga Eseduze] kwakuqashwa umzanyana. Lo mkhuba wawuvamile nalapho unina engenakuyincelisa ingane noma lapho engaziwa. Umzanyana wayeyikhulisa futhi ayincelise ingane isikhathi esithile esinqunyiwe.” Ezintweni zakudala zaseMpumalanga Eseduze kuye kwatholakala amakhophi amaningana e-papyrus ezivumelwano zabazanyana. Lezi zincwadi ziqinisekisa umkhuba owawandile kusukela enkathini yamaSumer kwaze kwaba ngasekupheleni kwenkathi yokuguqukela ebuGrekini eGibithe. Zivame ukuba namagama abantu abahilelekile, inkathi isivumelwano esasiyosebenza ngayo, imibandela yaso, ukudla okwakumelwe umntwana anikwe kona, inhlawulo yokwephulwa kwesivumelwano, amaholo nendlela amaholo ayeyokhokhwa ngayo. Ngokuvamile, ingane “yayinakekelwa isikhathi esiyiminyaka emibili kuya kwemithathu,” kuchaza uChilds. “Umzanyana wayeyikhulisela kwakhe ingane, kodwa ngezinye izikhathi kwakudingeka ayiyise kumniniyo ukuze ayihlole.”

[Izithombe ekhasini 9]

Ukwakhiwa kwezitini eGibithe akukashintshi kangako kusukela osukwini lukaMose, njengoba kubonisa umdwebo wasendulo

[Umthombo]

Above: Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.; below: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY