Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

Amawaldens—Aqala Ngokwambuka Agcina EsengamaProthestani

Amawaldens—Aqala Ngokwambuka Agcina EsengamaProthestani

 Amawaldens—Aqala Ngokwambuka Agcina EsengamaProthestani

Kwakuwunyaka ka-1545 endaweni enhle yaseLubéron eyayiseProvence, eningizimu yeFrance. Kwakubuthene ibutho lempi lizofeza umsebenzi onyantisa umzimba owawugqugquzelwe ukungabekezelelani ngokwenkolo. Kwachitheka igazi isonto lonke.

AMADOLOBHANA acekelwa phansi, kwathi izakhamuzi zaboshwa noma zabulawa. Amasosha énza izenzo zonya eqotha imbokodo nesisekelo ngendlela eyahlasimulisa elaseYurophu. Kwafa amadoda angaba ngu-2 700, kwathi angu-600 ayalwa ukuba ayogwedla imikhumbi yempi, ingasaphathwa eyokuhlushwa kwabesifazane nezingane. Umlawuli wempi owenza lo mkhankaso owashiya umzila wegazi wanconywa yinkosi yaseFrance nangupapa.

INkathi Yezinguquko yayisilihlukanisile kakade elaseJalimane lapho inkosi yaseFrance engumKatolika uFrancis I ithungatha ngabantu okwakuthiwa bayizihlubuki embusweni wayo, ikhathazekile ngokwanda kobuProthestani. Kunokuba zithole izihlubuki ezimbalwa lapha nalaphaya, iziphathimandla zaseProvence zathola amadolobhana wonke abantu abangavumelani nenkolo eyamukelwayo. Kwakhishwa umyalo wokuqeda lokhu kuhlubuka futhi owagcina ufeziwe ekuqotheni imbokodo nesisekelo kwango-1545.

Zazingobani lezi zihlubuki? Futhi kungani zaba yizisulu zokungabekezelelani ngokwenkolo okunobudlova?

Ukuqala Ngokuceba Ukugcina Ngobumpofu

Labo ababulawa kulokhu kuqotha babengabenhlangano yenkolo eyaqala ngekhulu le-12 futhi eyayisakazeke endaweni enkulu yeYurophu. Indlela eyasakazeka ngayo futhi yaqhubeka ikhona amakhulu eminyaka iyenza ihluke emlandweni wokuhlubuka okungokwenkolo. Iningi lezazi-mlando liyavuma ukuthi le nhlangano yaqala cishe ngonyaka ka-1170. Edolobheni laseLyons, eFrance, umthengisi othile ocebile okwathiwa nguVaudès waba nesithakazelo esikhulu sokufunda indlela yokujabulisa uNkulunkulu. Ngokusobala, eshukunyiswa umyalo kaJesu Kristu endodeni ethile wokuba ithengise izimpahla zayo yabele abampofu, uVaudès walungiselela umkhaya wakhe ngokwezimali wayesedela ingcebo yakhe ukuze ayoshumayela iVangeli. (Mathewu 19:16-22) Kungakabiphi wayesenabalandeli kamuva abaziwa ngokuthi amaWaldens. *

 Ubuphofu, ukushumayela neBhayibheli kwakuyizona zinto eziyinhloko ekuphileni kukaVaudès. Ukungahambisani nokuceba kwabefundisi kwakungekusha. Kwase kuyisikhathi esithile abefundisi abaningana ababengahambisani nakho begxeka imikhuba ekhohlakele yesonto nokusebenzisa kwalo amandla kabi. Kodwa uVaudès wayengumuntukazana nje, njengoba kwakunjalo nangabaningi babalandeli bakhe. Ngokungangabazeki lokhu kunikeza isizathu esamenza wabona isidingo sokuba neBhayibheli ngolimi lomdabu, ulimi lwabantu. Njengoba inguqulo yeBhayibheli yesonto yesiLatini yayifundwa abefundisi kuphela, uVaudès wayala ukuba kuhunyushelwe amaVangeli nezinye izincwadi zeBhayibheli olimini lwesiFranco-Provençal, ulimi olwaluqondwa abantu abavamile empumalanga nenkaba yeFrance. * Zivumelana nomyalo kaJesu wokuba kushunyayelwe, iziMpofana ZaseLyon zashumayela isigijimi sazo obala. (Mathewu 28:19, 20) Isazi-mlando uGabriel Audisio sithi ukuphikelela kwawo ukushumayela obala kwaba yiyona nto eyanquma isimo sengqondo isonto elaba naso ngamaWaldens.

Ukuba Yizihlubuki Ngemva Kokuba AmaKatolika

Ngalezo zinsuku, ukushumayela kwakwenziwa abefundisi kuphela, futhi isonto lalizithathele ilungelo lokugunyaza ukushumayela. Abefundisi babebheka amaWaldens njengangazi lutho nangafundile, kodwa ngo-1179, uVaudès wafuna ukuba uPapa Alexander III agunyaze ngokomthetho ukushumayela kwakhe. Wanikwa imvume—inqobo nje uma abapristi bendawo babezovuma. Isazi-mlando uMalcolm Lambert sithi lokhu “kwakucishe kufane nokwenqaba ngokuphelele.” Nangempela, uMbhishobhi Omkhulu uJean Bellesmains waseLyons wakwenqabela ngokomthetho ukushumayela kwabantu njé. UVaudès waphendula ngokucaphuna izEnzo 5:29, ethi: “Kumelwe silalele uNkulunkulu njengombusi kunabantu.” Ngenxa yokungawuhloniphi lo mthetho ovimbela ukushumayela, uVaudès wanqunywa esontweni ngo-1184.

Nakuba amaWaldens axoshwa endaweni yaseLyons futhi ahlukunyezwa aze abaleka kulelo dolobha, kubonakala sengathi ngokwezinga elithile umthetho wokulahlwa kwawo ekuqaleni awuzange uphoqelelwe. Abantu abaningi abavamile babewahlonipha amaWaldens ngobuqotho bawo nendlela yawo yokuphila, futhi ngisho nababhishobhi babeqhubeka bewakhulumisa.

Ngokwesazi-mlando u-Euan Cameron, kubonakala sengathi abashumayeli abangamaWaldens ‘babengaphikisani neSonto LamaRoma ngokwalo.’ Babemane ‘befuna ukushumayela nokufundisa.’ Izazi-mlando zithi le nhlangano yaphoqeleka ukuba ibe yizihlubuki ngenxa yemithetho eminingi eyayilokhu iwakhipha inyumbazane kancane kancane. Ukulahlwa yiSonto kwafika emvuthwandaba lapho uMkhandlu Wesine WeLateran uqalekisa amaWaldens ngo-1215. Kwawuthinta kanjani lokhu umsebenzi wawo wokushumayela?

Ashumayela Ngomshoshaphansi

UVaudès wafa ngonyaka ka-1217 kwathi abalandeli bakhe bahlakazwa ushushiso baya ezigodini zeziNtaba Ze-Alps zaseFrance, eJalimane,  enyakatho ye-Italy naseYurophu eMaphakathi neseMpumalanga. Ushushiso lwabangela futhi amaWaldens ukuba ahlale emaphandleni, okwakhinyabeza umsebenzi wawo wokushumayela ezindaweni eziningi.

Ngo-1229 iSonto LamaKatolika laphothula iMpi yalo Yenkolo yokulwa namaCathari, noma ama-Albigens, eningizimu yeFrance. * Labe selilwa namaWaldens. UkuQulwa Kwamacala Ezihlubuki kwakuzoshintshwa ngokushesha kumelane ngonya nabo bonke ababephikisa isonto. Ukwesaba kwenza amaWaldens asebenza ngomshoshaphansi. Ngo-1230 ayengasashumayeli obala. U-Audisio uyachaza: “Kunokuba ahambe ayofuna izimvu ezintsha . . . , azinikela ekunakekeleni abaphendukile, ebalondoloza okholweni lwabo njengoba bebhekene nezingcindezi zangaphandle noshushiso.” Unezela ukuthi “ukushumayela kwaqhubeka kubalulekile kodwa indlela okwase kwenziwa ngayo yayisishintshe ngokuphelele.”

Izinkolelo Nemikhuba Yawo

Kunokuba kushumayele kokubili abesilisa nabesifazane, ngekhulu le-14 amaWaldens ayesehlukanisa phakathi kwabashumayeli namakholwa. Kwakungamadoda aqeqeshwe kahle kuphela ayenza umsebenzi wokwelusa. Kamuva lezi zikhonzi ezizulazulayo zabizwa ngokuthi ama-barbe (omalume).

Ama-barbe, ayehambela imikhaya yamaWaldens emizini yawo, esesebenzela ukugcina le nhlangano iphila kunokuyandisa. Wonke ama-barbe ayekwazi ukufunda nokubhala, futhi ukuqeqeshwa kwawo, okwakuthatha iminyaka efika kweyisithupha, kwakugxile eBhayibhelini. Ukusebenzisa iBhayibheli ngolimi lomdabu kwawasiza ukuba alichazele imihlambi yawo. Ngisho nabaphikisi bavuma ukuthi amaWaldens, kanye nezingane zawo, ayebambelela ngokuqinile eBhayibhelini futhi ekwazi ukucaphuna izindima ezinde zemiBhalo.

Phakathi kwezinye izinto, amaWaldens okuqala ayekulahla ukuqamba amanga, isihlanzo, iMisa labafileyo, ukuthethelelwa izono nezincwadi zokuthethelelwa ngupapa, kanye nokukhulekelwa kukaMariya “nawosanta.” Ayegcina nemikhosi yaminyaka yonke yeSidlo SeNkosi Sakusihlwa noma iSidlo Sakusihlwa Sokugcina. NgokukaLambert, indlela yawo yokukhulekela “empeleni yayiyinkolo yomuntu ovamile.”

“Ukuphila Ukuphila Okumbaxa-mbili”

Imiphakathi yamaWaldens yayisondelene. Abantu babeshada ngaphakathi kwale nhlangano, futhi phakathi namakhulu eminyaka, lokhu kwakha izibongo zamaWaldens. Nokho, ekulweleni kwawo ukuqhubeka ekhona, amaWaldens azama ukufihla imibono yawo. Ukufihla kwawo izinkolelo zawo nemikhuba engokwenkolo kwenza kwaba lula ngabaphikisi ukuwamangalela ngezinto eziyinqaba, ngokwesibonelo bethi akhulekela uDeveli. *

Enye yezindlela amaWaldens akuphikisa ngayo lokho kumangalelwa kwaba ukuyekethisa nokwenza lokho isazi-mlando uCameron esikubiza ngokuthi “ukuzivumelanisa sakugcina icala” nokukhulekela kwamaKatolika. AmaWaldens amaningi avuma izono kubapristi abangamaKatolika, aya eMiseni, asebenzisa amanzi angcwele, athatha ngisho nohambo olungcwele. ULambert uthi: “Ezintweni eziningi enza njengoba kwakwenza omakhelwane bawo abangamaKatolika.” U-Audisio ukubeka ngembaba ukuthi kungakabiphi, amaWaldens “ayesephila ukuphila okumbaxa-mbili.” Uyanezela: “Kolunye uhlangothi, obala ayeziphatha njengamaKatolika ukuze alondoloze ukuthula kwawo okungatheni; ngakolunye, ayegcina imikhosi nemikhuba ethile phakathi kwawo eyayiqinisekisa ukuthi ayaqhubeka ekhona.”

Ukusuka Ekubeni Yizihlubuki Ukuya Ekubeni NgamaProthestani

Ngekhulu le-16, iNkathi Yezinguquko yasishintsha kakhulu isimo esingokwenkolo eYurophu. Izisulu zokungabekezelelani kwakumelwe zithole ukuqashelwa ngokomthetho emazweni azo  noma zithuthe ziyofuna izindawo ezingconywana. Umqondo wokuhlubuka awubange usaba bucayi kangako ngoba kwase kuqale ukuba nabantu abaningi abangabaza izinqubo ezamukelwayo zenkolo.

Emuva lé ngo-1523, umgqugquzeli weZinguquko owaziwa kakhulu uMartin Luther wakhuluma ngamaWaldens. Ngo-1526, omunye wama-barbe wabuyela e-Alps nezindaba zezenzakalo ezingokwenkolo zaseYurophu. Ngemva kwalokhu kwaba nenkathi yokuthekelana imiphakathi yobuProthestani ihlanganyela imiqondo ethile namaWaldens. AmaProthestani akhuthaza amaWaldens ukuba axhase ukuhunyushwa kwenguqulo yokuqala yeBhayibheli yesiFulentshi esuselwa ezilimini zakudala. Yanyatheliswa ngo-1535, kamuva yabizwa ngokuthi iBhayibheli lika-Olivétan. Nokho, okuxakayo ukuthi iningi lamaWaldens lalingasazi isiFulentshi.

Njengoba ushushiso lweSonto LamaKatolika lwaluqhubeka, amaWaldens amaningi azinza endaweni ephephile yaseProvence, eningizimu yeFrance, njengoba kwenza izifiki ezingamaProthestani. Ngokushesha iziphathimandla zaxwayiswa ngalokhu kuthuthela kule ndawo. Naphezu kwemibiko eminingi emihle ngendlela yokuphila nezimiso zokuziphatha kwamaWaldens, abanye abantu babebungabaza ubuqotho bawo futhi bawamangalela bathi awusongo ekuhlelekeni komphakathi. Kwakhishwa isimemezelo saseMérindol, okwabangela ukuchitheka kwegazi okwesabekayo okushiwo ekuqaleni kwalesi sihloko.

Ubuhlobo bamaKatolika namaWaldens baqhubeka buba bubi nakakhulu. Ngenxa yalokhu kuhlaselwa kwawo, amaWaldens aphendukela ngisho nasekulweni ngezikhali ukuze azivikele. Lokhu kulwa kwawenza aba mdibi munye namaProthestani. Kanjalo amaWaldens azihlanganisa nobuProthestani obuvamile.

Phakathi namakhulu eminyaka, kuye kwamiswa amasonto amaWaldens emazweni aqhelelene kakhulu neFrance njenge-Uruguay ne-United States. Nokho, iningi lezazi-mlando livumelana no-Audisio, othi “ubuWaldens baphela ngeNkathi Yezinguquko,” lapho “bugwinywa” ubuProthestani. Eqinisweni, kwase kungamakhulu eminyaka inhlangano yamaWaldens iphelelwé yintshiseko enkulu eyayinayo ekuqaleni. Lokho kwenzeka lapho amalungu ayo eyeka ukushumayela nokufundisa okugxile eBhayibhelini ngenxa yokwesaba.

[Imibhalo yaphansi]

^ par. 7 UVaudès ubuye abizwe nangokuthi uValdès, uValdesius, noma uWaldo. Kuleli lakamuva kwavela igama elithi “amaWaldens.” AmaWaldens, noma amaWaldensian, ayaziwa nangokuthi iziMpofana ZaseLyons.

^ par. 8 Ngaphambili ngawo-1199, umbhishobhi waseMetz, enyakatho-mpumalanga yeFrance, wayeke wakhononda kuPapa Innocent III ngokuthi kunabantu abathile abafunda futhi baxoxe ngeBhayibheli ngolimi lwabo lomdabu. Kungenzeka ukuthi lo mbhishobhi wayesho amaWaldens.

^ par. 15 Bheka isihloko esithi “AmaCathari—Ingabe Ayengabafel’ Ukholo AbangamaKristu?” kuyi-Nqabayokulinda ka-September 1, 1995, amakhasi 27-30.

^ par. 21 Ukuhlanjalazwa okuqhubekayo kwamaWaldens kwabangela ukwakheka kwegama elithi vauderie (elisuka kwelesiFulentshi elithi vaudois). Lisetshenziselwa ukuchaza abantu okusolwa ukuthi bayizihlubuki noma bangabakhulekeli bakaDeveli.

[Ibalazwe/Isithombe ekhasini 23]

(Ukuze ubone ukuthi indaba ihlelwe kanjani, bheka encwadini)

Izindawo Ezathonywa AmaWaldens

IFRANCE

ILyons

IPROVENCE

ILubéron

IStrasbourg

IMilan

IRoma

IBerlin

IPrague

IVienna

[Isithombe]

AmaWaldens axhasa ukuhunyushwa kweBhayibheli lika-Olivétan lango-1535

[Umthombo]

Bible: © Cliché Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

[Izithombe ekhasini 20, 21]

UVAUDÈS

Ukushiswa kwezalukazi ezimbili ezingamaWaldens

[Umthombo]

Pages 20 and 21: © Landesbildstelle Baden, Karlsruhe