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Ukubhapathizwa KukaClovis—Iminyaka Engu-1 500 YobuKatolika EFrance

Ukubhapathizwa KukaClovis—Iminyaka Engu-1 500 YobuKatolika EFrance

 Ukubhapathizwa KukaClovis—Iminyaka Engu-1 500 YobuKatolika EFrance

“EGAMENI likaPapa, qhuma,” wawusho kanjalo umyalezo owawuhambisana nebhomu lokuzakhela elatholakala esontweni laseFrance elalizovakashelwa uPapa uJohn-Paul II ngo-September 1996. Lesi kwakuyisibonelo esidlulele sokuphikiswa kokuhambela kwakhe kwesihlanu eFrance. Yize kunjalo, ngalowo nyaka kwafika abantu abangaba ngu-200 000 edolobheni laseReims eFrance bezogubha kanye nopapa unyaka we-1 500 wokuguqukela kweNkosi uClovis eyayingumFrank ebuKatolikeni. Yayingubani le nkosi ekubhapathizwa kwayo kuye kwabizwa ngokuthi ukubhapathizwa kweFrance? Futhi kungani ukugujwa kwako kuye kwabangela ukuphikisana okungaka?

Umbuso Owohlokayo

UClovis wazalwa cishe ngo-466 C.E., eyindodana kaChilderic I, inkosi yamaFrank angamaSalian. Ngemva kokunqotshwa kwaso amaRoma ngo-358 C.E., lesi sizwe samaGermanic savunyelwa ukuba sihlale lapho manje kuyiBelgium khona inqobo nje uma sasizovikela umngcele futhi sithumele amasosha ayezongena ebuthweni lamaRoma. Ukusondelana kwaso eduze nabantu bendawo ababengamaRoma angamaFulentshi okwalandela kwabangela ukuba kancane kancane la maFrank amukele izinkambiso zamaRoma. UChilderic I wayelekelela amaRoma, elwa nezinye izizwe zamaJalimane ezazihlasela, njengamaVisigoth namaSaxon. AmaRoma angamaFulentshi amthanda ngenxa yalokho.

Isifunda samaRoma saseGaul sasisuka eMfuleni iRhine enyakatho, siyoshaya ezintabeni zePyrenees eningizimu. Nokho, ngemva kokufa kukaJenene Aetius ongumRoma ngo-454 C.E., izwe lasala lingaphethwe muntu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuwa kukaRomulus Augustulus, umbusi wokugcina waseRoma, ngo-476 C.E. nokuphela kwengxenye yasentshonalanga yoMbuso WamaRoma kwabangela isiyaluyalu esikhulu kwezombangazwe kuleyo ndawo. Ngenxa yalokho, iGaul yaba njengekhiwane elivuthiwe, elilindele ukukhiwa esinye sezizwe ezazizinze kuyo. Akumangazi neze ukuthi ngemva kokulandela uyise esikhundleni, uClovis waqala ukufuna ukunweba imingcele yombuso wakhe. Ngo-486 C.E., wanqoba ummeleli wokugcina weRoma eGaul empini budebuduze nedolobha laseSoissons. Lokhu kunqoba kwamenza walawula yonke indawo ephakathi koMfula iSomme osenyakatho, noMfula iLoire enkabeni nasentshonalanga yeGaul.

Umuntu Owayezoba Yinkosi

Ngokungafani nezinye izizwe zamaJalimane, amaFrank ayeqhubekile engamaqaba. Nokho, ukushada kukaClovis nenkosazana yaseBurgundy,  uClotilda, kwaba nethonya elikhulu ekuphileni kwakhe. Njengoba ayengumKatolika oshisekayo, uClotilda washabashekela ukuguqula umyeni wakhe engakhathali. Ngokomlando owabhalwa nguGregory waseTours ngekhulu lesithupha C.E., lapho uClovis elwa nesizwe sama-Alemanni ngo-496 C.E. eTolbiac (eZülpich, eJalimane), wathembisa ukubuyeka ubuqaba uma uNkulunkulu kaClotilda engamnika ukunqoba. Nakuba kwase kusele kancane ukuba amabutho kaClovis anqotshwe, kwabulawa inkosi yama-Alemanni, impi yayo yacela umaluju. Ngokubona kukaClovis, kwakunguNkulunkulu kaClotilda owayemnike ukunqoba. Kunenkolelo evamile ethi uClovis wabhapathizwa “nguSanta” Remigius esontweni lombhishobhi laseReims, ngo-December 25, 496 C.E. Nokho, abanye bakholelwa ukuthi cishe wabhapathizwa kamuva kunalokho, ngo-498 noma ngo-499 C.E.

Imizamo kaClovis yokudla umbuso waseBurgundy eningizimu-mpumalanga yabhuntsha. Kodwa umkhankaso wakhe wokulwa namaVisigoth waphumelela lapho, ngo-507 C.E., ewanqoba eVouillé, ngasePoitiers, okwamenza walawula ingxenye enkulu yeningizimu-ntshonalanga yeGaul. Eklonyeliswa ngokunqoba kwakhe, uClovis wanikwa ubundunankulu ngumbusi woMbuso WamaRoma WaseMpumalanga, u-Anastasius. Kanjalo waba nesikhundla esingaphezu kwesawo wonke amanye amakhosi asentshonalanga, futhi emehlweni amaRoma angamaFulentshi, ukubusa kwakhe kwakugunyaziwe.

Njengoba ayesedle indawo yamaFrank angakuyiRhine empumalanga, uClovis wenza iParis yaba yinhloko-dolobha yakhe. Eminyakeni yakhe yokugcina esaphila, waqinisa umbuso wakhe ngokuwunika umthetho olotshiwe, i-Lex Salica, nangokuhlanganisa umkhandlu wesonto e-Orléans ukuze ucacise ukuhlobana kweSonto noHulumeni. Lapho efa, cishe ngo-November 27, 511 C.E., wabe esebusa yedwa ezingxenyeni ezintathu kwezine zeGaul.

I-New Encyclopædia Britannica ibiza ukuguqukela kukaClovis enkolweni yobuKatolika ngokuthi “isikhathi esibalulekile emlandweni wentshonalanga Yurophu.” Kungani kwakubaluleke kangaka ukuguquka kwale nkosi eyiqaba? Ukubaluleka kwako kwakungenxa yokuthi uClovis wakhetha ubuKatolika, hhayi ubu-Arian.

Impikiswano Yobu-Arian

Cishe ngo-320 C.E., u-Arius, umpristi wase-Aleksandriya, eGibithe, waqala ukusakaza imibono ehluke kakhulu ephathelene noZiqu-zintathu. U-Arius wayephika ukuthi iNdodana yayinesimo esifanayo noYise. INdodana yayingenakuba nguNkulunkulu noma ilingane noYise, ngoba yona yaba nesiqalo. (Kolose 1:15) U-Arius  wayekholelwa ukuthi umoya ongcwele ungumuntu kodwa ungaphansi kwabo bobabili uYise neNdodana. Le mfundiso, eyathandwa kakhulu, yabangela ukuphikisana okukhulu esontweni. Ngo-325 C.E., eMkhandlwini WaseNicea, u-Arius wadingiswa, izimfundiso zakhe zalahlwa. *

Nokho, lokhu akukuqedanga ukuphikisana. Ukuphikisana ngale mfundiso kwaqhubeka iminyaka engaba ngu-60, umbusi ngamunye olandelayo echema nolunye lwezinhlangothi. Ekugcineni, ngo-392 C.E., uMbusi uTheodosius I wenza ubuKatolika obudala nemfundiso yabo kaZiqu-zintathu baba yinkolo kaHulumeni woMbuso WamaRoma. Phakathi naleso sikhathi amaGoth ayeguqulelwé ekubeni ngama-Arian ngu-Ulfilas, umbhishobhi ongumJalimane. Nezinye izizwe zamaJalimane zalwamukela ngokushesha lolu hlobo ‘lobuKristu.’ *

Ngesikhathi sikaClovis, iSonto LobuKatolika eGaul lalisenkingeni. AmaVisigoth angama-Arian ayezame ukucindezela ubuKatolika ngokwenqaba ukuba isikhundla sombhishobhi ofayo sithathwe omunye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isonto lalisenkingeni yoqhekeko lopapa ababili, abapristi bezinhlangothi ezimbili eziphikisanayo ezazibulalana eRoma. Abalobi abathile abangamaKatolika babenikeze umqondo wokuthi unyaka ka-500 C.E. wawuyoba unyaka wokuphela kwezwe, okwanezela kulokhu kudideka. Ngakho, ukuguqukela kwalo mnqobi ongumFrank ebuKatolikeni kwabhekwa njengesenzakalo esihle, esibikezela “inkulungwane entsha yeminyaka kosanta.”

Kodwa wayenaziphi izisusa uClovis? Nakuba singenakukukhipha ukuthi wayenezisusa ezingokwenkolo, ngokuqinisekile wayenayo nemigomo yezombangazwe engqondweni. Ngokukhetha ubuKatolika, uClovis wathandwa amaRoma angamaFulentshi, iningi lawo elalingamaKatolika, wasekelwa nayiziphathimandla zesonto ezinethonya. Lokhu ngokusobala kwambeka esimweni esingcono kunezimbangi zakhe zezombangazwe. I-New Encyclopædia Britannica ithi “ukunqoba kwakhe iGaul kwaba yimpi yokwethulwa ijoka lamambuka azondwayo ama-Arian.”

Wayengubani UClovis Ngempela?

Ngaphambi nje komkhosi wango-1996, umbhishobhi omkhulu waseReims, uGérard Defois wachaza uClovis ngokuthi “uphawu lokuguquka okucatshangisiswe kahle nokunokwahlulela okuhle.” Nokho, isazi-mlando esingumFulentshi u-Ernest Lavisse sathi: “Ukuguquka kukaClovis akubushintshanga neze ubuntu bakhe;  izimiso zeVangeli zobumnene nokuthula aziyithintanga inhliziyo yakhe.” Esinye isazi-mlando sathi: “Esikhundleni sokunxusa ku-Odin [unkulunkulu wabaseScandinavia], wanxusa kuKristu kodwa waqhubeka enjengoba ayenjalo.” Enza ngendlela eyenza umuntu akhumbule ukuziphatha kukaConstantine ngemva kwalokho okwakuthiwa ukuguqukela kwakhe ebuKristwini, uClovis waqala ukubumba umbuso wakhe ngokubulala zonke izimbangi zobukhosi. Waqothula “zonke izihlobo zakhe ngisho neziqhelile.”

Ngemva kokufa kukaClovis, kwaqala ukuqanjwa kwezinganekwane ezaziyomshintsha ekubeni yibutho elinonya abe usanta onedumela elihle. Ukulandisa kukaGregory waseTours, okwabhalwa cishe ngemva kweminyaka eyikhulu, kubhekwa njengomzamo oqondile wokuhlobanisa uClovis noConstantine, umbusi wokuqala wamaRoma owamukela “ubuKristu.” Futhi ngokuthi uClovis wayeneminyaka engu-30 ubudala lapho ebhapathizwa, kubonakala sengathi uGregory uzama ukuveza ukufana phakathi kwakhe noKristu.—Luka 3:23.

Le mizamo yaqhutshekiselwa phambili nasekhulwini lesishiyagalolunye nguHincmar, umbhishobhi waseReims. Ngesikhathi lapho amasonto ababhishobhi ayebanga izihambeli, cishe indaba yokuphila ayibhala ngomanduleli wakhe, “uSanta” Remigius, yayihloselwe ukwandisa udumo nengcebo yesonto lakhe. Ekulandiseni kwakhe, uthi lapho uClovis ebhapathizwa kwehla ijuba elimhlophe lilethe isitshana samafutha okumgcoba—okuwukubhekisela okusobala ekugcotshweni kukaJesu ngomoya ongcwele. (Mathewu 3:16) Kanjalo, uHincmar wahlobanisa uClovis neReims nohlanga lwamakhosi, wenza ukuba umqondo wokuthi uClovis wayengogcotshiweyo weNkosi ukholakale. *

Umkhosi Obangela Ukuphikisana

Owayengumongameli waseFrance, uCharles de Gaulle, wake wathi: “Kimi, umlando waseFrance uqala ngoClovis, owakhethwa yisizwe samaFrank ukuba abe yinkosi yaseFrance, okwethiwa ngaso iFrance.” Nokho, abantu abayi nxanye bengemanzi. Ukugujwa kweminyaka engu-1 500 yokubhapathizwa kukaClovis kwakuphikiswana ngakho. Esizweni lapho iSonto noHulumeni bekuhlukene ngokomthetho kusukela ngo-1905, abaningi bakugxeka ukuzifaka kukaHulumeni kulokho abakubheka njengomkhosi wenkolo. Lapho umkhandlu-dolobha waseReims umemezela ukuthi uhlose ukukhokhela ipulpiti elizosetshenziswa phakathi nokuhambela kukapapa, enye inhlangano yasichitha enkantolo leso sinqumo, ithi asihambisani nomthetho-sisekelo. Abanye babenomuzwa wokuthi isonto lalizama ukuphinda lizenze ingqongqo ekuphileni kwabantu baseFrance. Okwenza lo mkhosi waba nezinkinga nakakhulu kwaba ukusetshenziswa kukaClovis njengophawu olumelela ontamolukhuni be-National Front nolwamaqembu obuKatolika asadla ngoludala.

Abanye bágxeka lo mkhosi ngenxa yezizathu ezingokomlando. Báthi akuyena uClovis owaguqulela iFrance ebuKatolikeni ngoba le nkolo yayisigxilile kakade kumaRoma angamaFulentshi. Báthi futhi nokubhapathizwa kwakhe lokho kwakungaphawuli ukuzalwa kweFrance njengesizwe. Babenomuzwa wokuthi kahle-hle lokhu kufanele kubhekwe njengokwenzeka lapho kuhlukana umbuso kaCharlemagne ngo-843 C.E., okwenza uCharles the Bald abe yiyona nkosi yokuqala yaseFrance, hhayi uClovis.

 Iminyaka Engu-1 500 YobuKatolika

Buqhubeka kanjani ubuKatolika eFrance namuhla, ngemva kweminyaka engaphezu kuka-1 500 “iyindodakazi endala yeSonto”? IFrance yayinamaKatolika abhapathiziwe amaningi kunawo wonke amanye amazwe kwaze kwaba ngo-1938. Manje isingeyesithupha emhlabeni, iza ngemuva kwamazwe anjengePhilippines ne-United States. Futhi nakuba kunamaKatolika ayizigidi ezingu-45 eFrance, yizigidi ezingu-6 kuphela eziya njalo eMiseni. Ukuhlolwa kwamuva kwamaKatolika aseFrance kwembule ukuthi amaphesenti angu-65 “awazigqizi qakala izimfundiso zeSonto ngobulili,” futhi kwabangamaphesenti angu-5 kuwo, uJesu akasho “lutho neze.” Ukuthambekela okungekuhle njengalokhu yikhona okwenza upapa abuze lapho ehambele eFrance ngo-1980 ukuthi: “France, senizenzeni izithembiso enazenza mhla nibhapathizwa?”

[Imibhalo yaphansi]

^ par. 12 Bheka INqabayokulinda (yesiNgisi) ka-August 1, 1984, ikhasi 24.

^ par. 13 Bheka INqabayokulinda ka-May 15, 1994, amakhasi 8-9.

^ par. 19 Igama elithi Louis lisuka kwelithi Clovis, okwethiwa ngalo amakhosi angu-19 aseFrance (kuhlanganise noLouis XVII benoLouis-Philippe).

[Ibalazwe ekhasini 27]

(Ukuze ubone ukuthi indaba ihlelwe kanjani, bheka encwadini)

AMASAXON

UMfula iRhine

UMfula iSomme

ISoissons

IReims

IParis

IGAUL

AMAVISIGOTH

UMfula iLoire

IVouillé

IPoitiers

IPYRENEES

IRoma

[Isithombe ekhasini 26]

Ukubhapathizwa kukaClovis okuboniswe embhalweni wesandla wekhulu le-14

[Umthombo]

© Cliché Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris

[Isithombe ekhasini 28]

Umfanekiso obunjiwe wokubhapathizwa kukaClovis (omaphakathi) ngaphandle kweSonto Lombhishophi LaseReims, eFrance

[Isithombe ekhasini 29]

Ukuhambela kukaJohn Paul II eFrance eyogubha ukubhapathizwa kukaClovis kwabangela isiyaluyalu