Dlulela kokuphakathi

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Ushushiso Lubangela Ukwanda E-Antiyokiya

Ushushiso Lubangela Ukwanda E-Antiyokiya

 Ushushiso Lubangela Ukwanda E-Antiyokiya

LAPHO ushushiso ludlanga ngemva kokufa kukaStefanu efela ukholo, abaningi babafundi bakaJesu babaleka eJerusalema. Enye yezindawo ababhaca kuzo kwakuyi-Antiyokiya, eSiriya, engamakhilomitha angaba ngu-550 ukuya enyakatho. (IzEnzo 11:19) Izenzakalo ezenzeka lapho zazizothonya yonke inkambo yomlando wobuKristu. Ukuze siqonde lokho okwenzeka, kuyoba usizo ukwazi kancane nge-Antiyokiya.

Uma kucatshangelwa isimo samadolobha oMbuso WaseRoma, kwakuyidolobha laseRoma nelase-Alexandria kuphela ayedlula i-Antiyokiya ngobukhulu nangokuchuma. Leli dolobha elikhulu laseSiriya lalibusa ingxenye esenyakatho-mpumalanga yesikhumulo saseMedithera. I-Antiyokiya (i-Antakya yanamuhla, eTurkey) yayisechwebeni loMfula i-Orontes ohamba imikhumbi, oxhume leli dolobha nesikhumulo salo, iSeleucia Pieria, esiqhele ngamakhilomitha angu-32 kulo leli dolobha. Laliqondisa omunye wemizila ebaluleke kakhulu yezohwebo phakathi kweRoma neTigris-Euphrates Valley. Njengesikhungo sezohwebo, lalihwebelana nawo wonke umbuso futhi kufika kubuye kuhambe zonke izinhlobo zabantu, ababefika nezindaba zezinhlangano zenkolo kuwo wonke umbuso waseRoma.

Inkolo nefilosofi yobuHellenic yachuma e-Antiyokiya. Kodwa isazi-mlando uGlanville Downey sithi “ngesikhathi sikaKristu, amahlelo enkolo namafilosofi akudala kwase kuba indaba yenkolelo yomuntu ngamunye, njengoba abantu base befuna ukuzanelisa ngokwenkolo ngokuqondene nezinkinga nezifiso zabo.” (A History of Antioch in Syria) Abaningi babethola ukwaneliseka enkolweni enonkulunkulu oyedwa, emikhosini nasezimisweni zokuziphatha zobuJuda.

Kwakunenani elikhulu lamaJuda ayehlala e-Antiyokiya kusukela ekusungulweni kwaleli dolobha ngo-300 B.C.E. Kulinganiselwa ukuthi ayengaba ngu-20 000 kuya ku-60 000, okungamaphesenti angaphezu kweshumi abantu balapho. Isazi-mlando uJosephus sithi uhlanga lwasebukhosini lwamaSeleucid lwakhuthaza amaJuda ukuba ahlale kulelo dolobha, luwanika amalungelo aphelele okuba izakhamuzi. Ngaleso sikhathi, imiBhalo YesiHeberu yayitholakala ngesiGreki. Lokhu kwavusa isithakazelo sabazwelana nemiqondo yobuJuda ephathelene noMesiya. Ngakho, kwaba namaGreki amaningi aba ngamaproselithe. Zonke lezi zici zenza i-Antiyokiya yaba insimu evundile yamaKristu yokwenza abafundi.

Ukufakaza KwabeZizwe

Abalandeli bakaJesu abaningi ababeshushiswa abasakazeka besuka eJerusalema babehlanganyela ukholo lwabo namaJuda kuphela. Nokho, e-Antiyokiya abafundi abathile baseKhupro nabaseKhurene bakhuluma “nabantu abakhuluma isiGreki.” (IzEnzo 11:20) Nakuba kwakushunyayelwa kumaJuda akhuluma  isiGreki namaproselithe kusukela ngo-33 C.E., kubonakala sengathi ukushumayela e-Antiyokiya kwakukusha. Akuzange kushunyayelwe kumaJuda kuphela. Yiqiniso, umuntu weZizwe, uKorneliyu nomkhaya wakhe base bengabafundi kakade. Kodwa kwadingeka umbono ovela kuJehova ukuze kuqinisekiswe umphostoli uPetru ngokubaluleka kokushumayela kwabeZizwe.—IzEnzo 10:1-48.

Edolobheni elinomphakathi omkhulu wamaJuda asendulo owawungenabutha obukhulu phakathi kwamaJuda nabeZizwe, kwakushunyayelwa kubantu abangewona amaJuda futhi besabela kahle ezindabeni ezinhle. I-Antiyokiya yayinaleso simo esifanele sokuchuma okunjalo, futhi ‘isibalo esikhulu saba ngamakholwa.’ (IzEnzo 11:21) Futhi lapho amaproselithe ayekhulekela onkulunkulu bamaqaba eba amaKristu, ayekuhlomela ngokukhethekile ukushumayela kwabanye beZizwe ababesakhulekela labo nkulunkulu.

Lapho ibandla laseJerusalema lizwa ngalokho okwakwenzeka e-Antiyokiya, lathumela uBarnaba ukuba ayohlola. Lokho kwakuwukukhetha okuhlakaniphile nokunothando. UBarnaba wayengowaseKhupro, njengabanye balabo ababeqale ukushumayela kwabangewona amaJuda. Kumelwe ukuba uBarnaba wayekhululekile phakathi kwabeZizwe base-Antiyokiya. Futhi kungenzeka babembheka njengelungu lomphakathi abawujwayele. * Wayengazwelana nabo ngokuphathelene nomsebenzi owawenziwa. Ngakho “lapho efika futhi ebona umusa ongafanelwe kaNkulunkulu, wajabula futhi waqala ukubakhuthaza bonke ukuba baqhubeke eNkosini ngenjongo eqotho,” futhi “isixuku esikhulu sanezelwa eNkosini.”—IzEnzo 11:22-24.

Isazi-mlando uDowney sisikisela ukuthi “izizathu ezizwakalayo zempumelelo yomsebenzi wokuqala owenziwa e-Antiyokiya kungenzeka kwakuwukuthi kuleli dolobha izithunywa zevangeli kwakungadingeki zesabe abashisekeli bobuJuda abanjengalabo ezazibhekana nabo eJerusalema; futhi njengoba lelo dolobha laliyinhloko-dolobha yeSiriya, lalibuswa umkhuzi wezempi, ngakho kwakunokuhleleka okwengeziwe komphakathi, engemaningi amathuba obudlova besixuku njengalobo obenzeka eJerusalema, lapho abashushisi baseJudiya bebonakala (okungenani ngaleso sikhathi) bengakwazi ukulawula abashisekeli bobuJuda.”

Njengoba izimo zazizinhle ngaleyo ndlela futhi kukuningi okwakudingeka kwenziwe, kungenzeka uBarnaba waqaphela ukuthi wayedinga usizo, futhi wacabanga ngomngane wakhe uSawulu. Kungani acabanga ngoSawulu noma uPawulu? Kusobala ukuthi kungenxa yokuthi uPawulu, nakuba ayengekho phakathi kwabaphostoli abangu-12, wayethole ilungelo lokuba umphostoli ezizweni. (IzEnzo 9:15, 27; Roma 1:5; IsAmbulo 21:14) Ngakho, uPawulu wayengumuntu ofaneleka kahle ayengasebenza naye ekumemezeleni izindaba ezinhle edolobheni labeZizwe i-Antiyokiya. (Galathiya 1:16) Ngakho uBarnaba waya eTarsu, wamthola uSawulu, wamletha e-Antiyokiya.—IzEnzo 11:25, 26; bheka ibhokisi emakhasini 26-7.

Babizwa Ngokuthi AmaKristu Ngokwelungiselelo Laphezulu

Unyaka wonke, uBarnaba noSawulu “bafundisa isixuku esikhulu impela, futhi kwaqala e-Antiyokiya ukuba ngokwelungiselelo laphezulu abafundi babizwe ngokuthi amaKristu.” Cishe akunakwenzeka ukuba kube ngamaJuda aqala ukubiza abalandeli bakaJesu ngokuthi amaKristu (ngesiGreki) noma aBalandeli BakaMesiya (ngesiHeberu), ngoba amenqaba uJesu njengoMesiya, noma uKristu, ngakho ayengeke avume buthule ukuthi ayamqaphela njengoKristu ngokubiza abalandeli bakhe ngokuthi amaKristu. Abanye bacabanga ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi bethiwa abahedeni ngokuthi amaKristu bebagcona noma bebenza inhlekisa. Nokho, iBhayibheli libonisa ukuthi igama elithi amaKristu álinikwa uNkulunkulu.—IzEnzo 11:26.

EmiBhalweni YamaKristu YesiGreki, isenzo esisetshenziswe  ngokuqondene naleli gama elisha, ngokuvamile esihunyushwa ngokuthi ‘babizwa,’ sihlotshaniswa njalo nokuthile okungaphezu kokuvamile, okuyisibikezelo, noma okwaphezulu. Ngakho izazi zisihumusha ngokuthi “ukubikezela,” “ukwenza isimemezelo saphezulu,” noma “ukunikeza umyalo waphezulu, ukufundisa usezulwini.” Njengoba abalandeli bakaJesu babebizwa ngokuthi amaKristu “ngokwelungiselelo laphezulu,” kungenzeka ukuthi uJehova waqondisa uSawulu noBarnaba ukuba babanike lelo gama.

Lelo gama elisha lajwayeleka. Abalandeli bakaJesu babengasenakuphanjaniswa nehlelo lobuJuda, ababehluke ngokuphelele kulo. Cishe ngo-58 C.E., izikhulu zamaRoma zazazi kahle ukuthi ayengobani amaKristu. (IzEnzo 26:28) Ngokwesazi-mlando uTacitus, ngo-64 C.E., lelo gama lalivamile naphakathi kwabantu baseRoma.

UJehova Usebenzisa Othembekile Wakhe

Izindaba ezinhle zathuthuka kahle kakhulu e-Antiyokiya. Ngenxa yesibusiso sikaJehova nokuzimisela kwabalandeli bakaJesu ukuqhubeka beshumayela, i-Antiyokiya yaba isikhungo sobuKristu bekhulu lokuqala. UNkulunkulu wasebenzisa ibandla lalapho njengesizinda sokusakaza izindaba ezinhle emazweni akude. Ngokwesibonelo, i-Antiyokiya yayiyindawo ayesukela kuyo umphostoli uPawulu lapho ethatha uhambo lwakhe ngalunye lokuvula indlela yomsebenzi wezithunywa zevangeli.

Ezikhathini zanamuhla intshiseko nokuzimisela ngaphansi kokuphikiswa nakho kuye kwasiza ekusakazekeni kobuKristu beqiniso, kwenza abaningi bakwazi ukuzwa izindaba ezinhle nokubonisa ukwazisa ngazo. * Ngakho uma ubhekana nokuphikiswa ngenxa yokuthi usekela ukukhulekela okumsulwa, khumbula ukuthi uJehova unezizathu zokukuvumela. Njengasekhulwini lokuqala, abantu namuhla kumelwe banikwe ithuba lokuzwa ngoMbuso kaNkulunkulu nokuwumelela. Ukuzimisela kwakho ukuqhubeka ukhonza uJehova ngokwethembeka kungase kube yikho kanye okudingekayo ukuze kusizwe othile ukuba afinyelele olwazini olunembile lweqiniso.

[Imibhalo yaphansi]

^ par. 9 Ngosuku olucwathile, isiqhingi saseKhupro siyabonakala lapho useMount Casius eseningizimu-ntshonalanga ye-Antiyokiya.

^ par. 18 Bheka INqabayokulinda ka-August 1, 1999, ikhasi 9; i-Phaphama! ka-April 22, 1999, amakhasi 21-2; INcwadi Yonyaka YoFakazi BakaJehova Ka-1999, amakhasi 250-2.

[Ibhokisi/Izithombe ekhasini 26, 27]

“Iminyaka Yokuthula” KukaSawulu

ISIKHATHI sokugcina okukhulunywa ngaso ngoSawulu encwadini yezEnzo, ngaphambi kokuba aye e-Antiyokiya cishe ngo-45 C.E., kulapho kubhuntshiswa uzungu lokumbulala eJerusalema futhi amakholwa akanye nawo emthumela eTarsu. (IzEnzo 9:28-30; 11:25) Kodwa lokho kwakwenzeke eminyakeni engu-9 ngaphambi kwalokho, cishe ngo-36 C.E. Wayenzani phakathi naleso sikhathi—isikhathi esiqanjwe ngokuthi iminyaka yokuthula kukaSawulu?

Kusukela eJerusalema, uSawulu waya ezifundeni zaseSiriya nezaseKhilikhiya, futhi amabandla aseJudiya ezwa kuthiwa: “Umuntu owayesishushisa ngaphambili manje usememezela izindaba ezinhle ezimayelana nokholo ayeluchitha ngaphambili.” (Galathiya 1:21-23) Kungenzeka ukuthi lowo mbiko wawubhekisela emsebenzini ayewenza noBarnaba e-Antiyokiya, kodwa ngisho nangaphambi kwalokho akungabazeki ukuthi uSawulu wayengahleli. Ngo-49 C.E., kwase kunamabandla amaningana eSiriya naseKhilikhiya. Elinye lawo lalise-Antiyokiya, kodwa abanye bacabanga ukuthi amanye awo amiswa ngenxa yomsebenzi kaSawulu waphakathi nesikhathi esibizwa ngokuthi iminyaka yokuthula kukaSawulu.—IzEnzo 11:26; 15:23, 41.

Ezinye izazi zikholelwa ukuthi izenzakalo ezimangalisayo ezenzeka ekuphileni kukaSawulu kufanele zibe ezangaleso sikhathi. Ngale kwalokho, ubunzima obuningi abhekana nabo ‘njengesikhonzi sikaKristu’ kunzima ukusho ukuthi benzeka ngasiphi isikhathi somsebenzi wakhe wokuba isithunywa sevangeli. (2 Korinte 11:23-27) USawulu washaywa nini amaJuda imivimbo engu-39 izikhathi ezinhlanu? Wayekuphi lapho eshaywa ngezinduku izikhathi ezintathu? Waboshwa kuphi ‘kaningi’? Ukuboshwa kwakhe eRoma kwenzeka kamuva. Sinokulandisa okukodwa kokushaywa kwakhe nokuboshwa—eFilipi. Kodwa kuthiwani ngokunye? (IzEnzo 16:22, 23) Omunye  umlobi usikisela ukuthi phakathi naleso sikhathi uSawulu ‘wayeshumayela ngoKristu emasinagogeni abaHlakazekile kangangokuthi washushiswa yiziphathimandla zenkolo kanye nezombuso.’

USawulu waphukelwa umkhumbi kane, kodwa imiBhalo isinika imininingwane yokukodwa kuphela, okwenzeka ngemva kokubala ubunzima abhekana nabo encwadini yakhe ayibhalela abaseKorinte. (IzEnzo 27:27-44) Ngakho okunye okuthathu cishe kwamehlela phakathi nohambo lwakhe esingazi lutho ngalo. Kungenzeka ukuthi zonke noma ezinye zalezi zehlakalo ‘ezeminyaka yokuthula.’

Esinye isenzakalo esibonakala singesangaleyo nkathi sichazwe kweyesi-2 Korinte 12:2-5. USawulu wathi: ‘Ngazi umuntu othile owayesebunyeni noKristu, okwathi eminyakeni eyishumi nane edlule wathathwa wayiswa ezulwini lesithathu, epharadesi, futhi wezwa amazwi angaphimiseleki okungekhona okungokomthetho ngomuntu ukuba awakhulume.’ Ngokusobala, uSawulu wayekhuluma ngaye ngokwakhe. Njengoba lokhu akubhala cishe ngo-55 C.E., iminyaka engu-14 ngaphambi kwalokho iyosibuyisela emuva ku-41 C.E., phakathi ‘neminyaka yokuthula.’

Akungabazeki ukuthi lowo mbono wanika uSawulu ukuqonda okuyingqayizivele. Ingabe wawungowokumhlomisela ukuba “umphostoli ezizweni”? (Roma 11:13) Ingabe wathonya indlela acabanga, wabhala futhi wakhuluma ngayo kamuva? Ingabe iminyaka ephakathi kokuphenduka kukaSawulu nokubizelwa kwakhe e-Antiyokiya yasetshenziselwa ukumqeqesha nokumenza avuthwe ukuze asingathe imithwalo yemfanelo yesikhathi esasiseza? Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi iyini impendulo yale mibuzo, singaqiniseka ukuthi lapho uBarnaba emmemela ukuyomsiza ekuholeni emsebenzini wokushumayela e-Antiyokiya, uSawulu oshisekayo wayekufanelekela ngokugcwele ukufeza leso sabelo.—IzEnzo 11:19-26.

[Ibalazwe ekhasini 25]

(Ukuze ubone ukuthi indaba ihlelwe kanjani, bheka encwadini)

ISIRIYA

I-Orontes

I-Antiyokiya

ISelukiya

IKHUPRO

ULWANDLE IMEDITHERA

IJerusalema

[Umthombo]

Mountain High Maps® Copyright © 1997 Digital Wisdom, Inc.

[Izithombe ekhasini 24]

Phezulu: I-Antiyokiya yanamuhla

Phakathi nendawo: Eningizimu yeSelukiya

Ngezansi: Udonga lwetheku laseSelukiya