Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

Ingabe Uye Wathonywa AmaCynic?

Ingabe Uye Wathonywa AmaCynic?

 Ingabe Uye Wathonywa AmaCynic?

“UMGXEKI (cynic) umuntu ongalokothi abone imfanelo enhle kumuntu, obona embi ngaso sonke isikhathi. Uyisikhova esingumuntu, esiqaphile ebumnyameni, kodwa esingaboni ekukhanyeni, esizingela izilwanyana ezinobuthi, futhi esingasiboni nanini isilwane esikahle.” La mazwi kuthiwa ashiwo umfundisi waseMelika wekhulu le-19, uHenry Ward Beecher. Abaningi bangase bacabange ukuthi lokhu kuwuveza kahle umoya womgxeki wanamuhla. Kodwa igama elithi “cynic (umgxeki)” livela esiGrekini sasendulo, lapho lalingagcini ngokusho umuntu obonisa lesi simo sengqondo. Lasetshenziswa amakhulu eminyaka libhekisela eqenjini lezazi zefilosofi.

Yasunguleka kanjani ifilosofi yamaCynic? Ayefundisani? Ingabe izici zomuntu ongumCynic zingafiseleka kumKristu?

AmaCynic Asendulo—Imvelaphi Nezinkolelo Zawo

IGrisi yasendulo yayiyisidleke sezingxoxo nezimpikiswano. Emakhulwini eminyaka aholela eNkathini Evamile, amadoda anjengoSocrates, uPlato no-Aristotle avela namafilosofi awenza aduma. Izimfundiso zawo zaba nethonya elinamandla kubantu, futhi imibono enjalo isekhona esikweni laseNtshonalanga.

USocrates (470-399 B.C.E.) wagomela ngokuthi injabulo ehlala njalo ayitholakali ngokuphishekela izinto ezibonakalayo noma izinjabulo zenyama. Waqinisekisa ukuthi injabulo yangempela itholakala ngokugxilisa ukuphila ekufuneni ubuhle. USocrates wayebheka ubuhle njengokulunga okukwedlula konke. Ukuze afinyelele lo mgomo, wakulahla ukuba nezinto ezibonakalayo zokunethezeka nezinto ezingadingekile eziphishekelwayo ngoba enomuzwa wokuthi lezi zinto zazizomphazamisa. Wasekela umbono wokulinganisela nowokuzincisha, ephila ukuphila okulula futhi onga.

USocrates wasungula indlela yokufundisa eyaziwa ngokuthi indlela yobuSocrates. Nakuba abaningi abadla amathambo engqondo babeveza imibono bese beyisekela, uSocrates wayenza okuhlukile. Wayelalela izinkolelo-mbono zezinye izazi zefilosofi abese ezama ukudalula amaphutha aleyo mibono. Le ndlela yakhuthaza isimo sengqondo sokugxeka nokweya abanye.

Phakathi kwabalandeli bakaSocrates kwakunesazi sefilosofi okuthiwa u-Antisthenes (cishe ngo-445-365 B.C.E.). Sona nedlanzana labanye bayithuthukisa le mfundiso eyisisekelo kaSocrates ngokuthi ubuhle babuwukuphela kwento elungile. Kubo ukuphishekela injabulo kwakungaphazamisi nje kuphela kodwa kwakuwuhlobo oluthile lobubi. Njengoba base bekugwema ngokweqile ukuba nobudlelwane nabantu, babonisa ukubenyanya kakhulu abanye abantu. Baziwa ngokuthi amaCynic. Igama elithi Cynic kungenzeka lathathelwa egameni lesiGreki (ky·ni·kosʹ) elalichaza isimo sabo sokuba abanyukubele nabazazisayo. Lisho ukuba “njengenja.” *

 Ithonya Endleleni Yabo Yokuphila

Nakuba izici zefilosofi yamaCynic ezinjengokulahla ukuthanda izinto ezibonakalayo nokuzitika kungenzeka ukuthi zazibhekwa njengezitusekayo, amaCynic eqisa kakhulu emibonweni yawo. Lokhu kubonakala ekuphileni kukasaziwayo ongumCynic—isazi sefilosofi uDiogenes.

UDiogenes wazalwa ngo-412 B.C.E. eSinope, edolobheni elisoLwandle Olumnyama. Wathuthela e-Athens noyise, lapho ahlangana khona nezimfundiso zamaCynic. UDiogenes wafundiswa u-Antisthenes futhi wathathwa yile filosofi yamaCynic. USocrates wayephila ukuphila okulula, kanti u-Antisthenes wayephila ukuphila okungenayo injabulo. UDiogenes yena wayephila ukuphila kokuzincisha. Egcizelela ukwenqaba ukunethezeka ngokwezinto ezibonakalayo, uDiogenes wake wahlala kubhavu omkhulu!

Efuna ubuhle obubedlula bonke, kuthiwa uDiogenes wayedabula i-Athens libalele ephethe ilambu elikhanyayo, ecinga umuntu olungile! Ukuziphatha okunjalo kwakumenza anakwe futhi leyo kwakuyindlela uDiogenes namanye amaCynic ayefundisa ngayo. Kuthiwa u-Alexander omkhulu wake wabuza uDiogenes ukuthi yini ayifuna ukwedlula konke. Kuthiwa uDiogenes wathi wayefuna nje ukuba u-Alexander aqhele ukuze angasithi ukukhanya kwelanga!

UDiogenes namanye amaCynic babephila ngokunxiba. Babengenaso isikhathi sokuba nobuhlobo obuvamile nabantu futhi babeyenqaba imisebenzi kahulumeni. Mhlawumbe bethonywe indlela yokucabanga yobuSocrates, babengenayo neze inhlonipho ngabanye. UDiogenes wayaziwa ngokubhuqa okuhlabayo. AmaCynic aba nedumela lokuba “njengezinja,” kodwa uDiogenes yena wethiwa ngokuthi Inja. Washona ngo-320 B.C.E. eneminyaka engaba ngu-90 ubudala. Kwafakwa itshe lesikhumbuzo lemabula elinesimo senja ethuneni lakhe.

Ezinye izici zefilosofi yamaCynic zangena kweminye imibono. Nokho, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ukuhlubuka ngokuhlobene noDiogenes nabalandeli bakhe bamuva kwayihlazisa imfundiso yamaCynic. Ekugcineni, yaphela ngokuphelele.

AmaCynic Anamuhla—Kufanele Yini Ube Nezici Zawo?

I-Oxford English Dictionary ichaza umgxeki (cynic) wanamuhla ngokuthi “umuntu othambekele ekuthetheni noma ekugxekeni. . . . Umuntu onesimo sokungakholelwa ebuqothweni noma ebuhleni bezisusa nezenzo zomuntu, futhi ojwayele ukukusho lokhu ngokukloloda nangokubhuqa; umgxeki oklolodayo.” Lezi zici ziyabonakala ezweni elisizungezile, kodwa kuyiqiniso ukuthi azivumelani nobuntu bobuKristu. Cabangela izimfundiso nezimiso ezilandelayo zeBhayibheli.

“UJehova unobubele nesihawu; wephuza ukuthukuthela, kuvama umusa. Akathethi njalonjalo; akagcini intukuthelo yakhe kuze kube phakade.” (IHubo 103:8, 9) AmaKristu atshelwa ukuba ‘abe abalingisi bakaNkulunkulu.’ (Efesu 5:1) Uma uNkulunkulu uMninimandla onke ekhetha ukubonisa isihe nomusa wothando omkhulu ‘kunokuthambekela ekuthetheni noma ekugxekeni,’ ngokuqinisekile amaKristu kufanele azame ukwenza okufanayo.

UJesu Kristu, ongukubonakaliswa okuyikonakona kukaJehova, ‘wasishiyela isibonelo sokuba silandele izinyathelo zakhe eduze.’ (1 Petru 2:21; Heberu 1:3) Ngezinye izikhathi, uJesu wadalula amanga enkolo futhi wanikeza ubufakazi ngokuphathelene nemisebenzi yezwe emibi. (Johane 7:7) Kodwa wabancoma abantu abaqotho. Ngokwesibonelo, wathi ngokuqondene noNathanayeli: “Bheka, umIsrayeli ngempela, okungekho nkohliso kuye.” (Johane 1:47) Lapho uJesu enza isimangaliso, ngezinye izikhathi wayegxila okholweni lwalowo owayenzelwa leso simangaliso. (Mathewu 9:22) Futhi lapho abathile becabanga ukuthi isipho sokwazisa sowesifazane othile sasibonisa ukweqisa, uJesu akazange agxeke isisusa sakhe kodwa wathi: “Nomaphi lapho lezizindaba ezinhle zishunyayelwa khona ezweni lonke, lokho lona wesifazane akwenzile nakho kuyokhulunywa ngakho njengesikhumbuzo sakhe.” (Mathewu 26:6-13) UJesu wayewumngane obethembayo nobathandayo abalandeli bakhe, “wabathanda kwaze kwaba sekupheleni.”—Johane 13:1.

Njengoba uJesu ayephelele, wayengawathola kalula nje amaphutha kubantu abangaphelele.  Nokho, kunokubonisa umoya wokungethembi nowokugxeka, wafuna ukwenza abantu baqabuleke.—Mathewu 11:29, 30.

“[Uthando] lukholelwa yizo zonke izinto.” (1 Korinte 13:7) Lawo mazwi aphambene ngokuqondile nesimo somgxeki, ongabaza izisusa nezenzo zabantu. Yiqiniso, izwe ligcwele abantu abanezisusa zobugovu; ngakho kunesidingo sokuqapha. (IzAga 14:15) Nokho, uthando luhlala lulungele ukukholelwa ngoba luyathemba, alunazo izinsolo ngokungadingekile.

UNkulunkulu uyazithanda futhi uyazethemba izinceku zakhe. Ukushiyeka kwazo ukwazi kangcono kunokuba zikwazi zona. Nokho, uJehova akalokothi abe nezinsolo ngabantu bakhe, futhi akalindeli okungaphezu kwalokho abangakwazi ukukwenza. (IHubo 103:13, 14) Ngaphezu kwalokho, uNkulunkulu ubheka okuhle kubantu, futhi unika izinceku zakhe ezithembekile amalungelo negunya ngokuzethemba yize zingaphelele.—1 AmaKhosi 14:13; IHubo 82:6.

“Mina Jehova ngivivinya inhliziyo, ngihlola izinso ukuba nginike, kube yilowo nalowo njengezindlela zakhe, njengezithelo zezenzo zakhe.” (Jeremiya 17:10) UJehova angayifunda ngokunembile inhliziyo yomuntu. Thina ngeke sikwazi. Ngakho-ke, kudingeka siqaphele ngokuqondene nokusola izisusa ezithile zabanye.

Ukuvumela umoya wokugxeka ukuba ugxile kithi futhi ekugcineni ubuse ukucabanga kwethu kungadala ukwahlukana phakathi kwethu nesikholwa nabo. Kungaphazamisa ukuthula kwebandla lobuKristu. Ngakho-ke, masilandele isibonelo sikaJesu, owayebhekana namaqiniso kodwa enombono oqondile lapho esebenzelana nabafundi bakhe. Waba umngane wabo abamethembayo.—Johane 15:11-15.

“Yenzani kubantu ngayo kanye indlela efana naleyo enifuna benze ngayo kini.” (Luka 6:31) Ziningi izindlela zokusebenzisa lesi seluleko sikaJesu Kristu. Ngokwesibonelo, sonke sithanda ukuba kukhulunywe nathi ngomusa nangenhlonipho. Khona-ke, kufanele ngokuqinisekile sikhulume nabanye ngendlela enomusa nenenhlonipho. Ngisho nalapho uJesu edalula ngamandla izimfundiso zamanga zabaholi benkolo, akakwenzanga lokhu ngendlela yokugxeka.—Mathewu 23:13-36.

Izindlela Zokulwa Nesimo Sokugxeka

Uma siye sadumazeka, kungase kube lula ukuzivumela ukuba sithonywe isimo sokugxeka. Singalwa nalokhu kuthambekela ngokuqaphela ukuthi uJehova usebenzelana nabantu bakhe abangaphelele ngokubethemba. Lokhu kungasisiza ukuba samukele abakhulekeli bakaNkulunkulu ngokwalokho abayikho—abantu abangaphelele abazama ukwenza okulungile.

Izehlakalo ezibuhlungu zingase ziholele abanye ukuba bangabe besabethemba abantu. Yiqiniso, akuhlakaniphile ukubeka wonke amathemba ethu kubantu abangaphelele. (IHubo 146:3, 4) Nokho, ebandleni lobuKristu, abaningi bakufuna ngobuqotho ukuba umthombo wesikhuthazo. Cabanga nje ngezinkulungwane ezinjengomama, obaba, odadewethu, abafowethu nezingane kulabo abaye balahlekelwa imikhaya yabo ngokufa. (Marku 10:30) Cabanga ukuthi bangakanani abaye bazibonakalisa bengabangane bangempela ezikhathini zosizi. *IzAga 18:24.

Akusona isimo sokugxeka kodwa uthando lobuzalwane olubonakalisa abalandeli bakaJesu, ngoba wathi: “Bonke bayokwazi ngalokhu ukuthi ningabafundi bami, uma ninothando phakathi kwenu.” (Johane 13:35) Ngakho masibonise uthando, sigxile ezimfanelweni ezinhle zamaKristu esikanye nawo. Ukwenza kanjalo kuyosisiza sigweme izici zomCynic.

[Imibhalo yaphansi]

^ par. 8 Kungenzeka nokuthi igama elithi Cynic livela kwelithi Ky·noʹsar·ges, okuyigama lendawo yokuvivinya umzimba yase-Athens lapho kwakufundisa khona u-Antisthenes.

^ par. 27 Bheka isihloko esithi “Ibandla LobuKristu—Umthombo Wosizo Oluqinisayo” kuyi-Nqabayokulinda ka-May 15, 1999.

[Isithombe ekhasini 21]

UmCynic owaziwa kakhulu, uDiogenes

[Umthombo]

From the book Great Men and Famous Women