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Ingabe IBhayibheli Linombhalo Ofihlekile?

Ingabe IBhayibheli Linombhalo Ofihlekile?

 Ingabe IBhayibheli Linombhalo Ofihlekile?

CISHE ngemva kweminyaka emibili kubulewe uNdunankulu wakwa-Israel uYitzhak Rabin ngo-1995, umlobi wephephabhuku wathi ngosizo lobuchwepheshe be-computer, wayethole isibikezelo saleso senzakalo sifihleke embhalweni wokuqala weBhayibheli wesiHeberu. Lo mlobi, uMichael Drosnin, wabhala ukuthi wayezame ukuxwayisa undunankulu esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka ngaphambi kokubulawa kwakhe kodwa kwaba nhlanga zimuka nomoya.

Manje kunezinye izincwadi nezihloko eziye zanyatheliswa ezithi lo mbhalo ofihlekile unikeza ubufakazi obuphelele bokuthi iBhayibheli liphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu. Ingabe ukhona umbhalo onjalo? Ingabe kufanele umbhalo ofihlekile ube isisekelo sokukholelwa ukuthi iBhayibheli liphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu?

Ingabe Musha Lo mqondo?

Umqondo wombhalo ofihlekile osembhalweni weBhayibheli awumusha. Uyisici esiyinhloko enkolweni yobuCabala noma inkolo eyimfihlakalo engokwesiko yamaJuda. Ngokothisha abafundisa ubuCabala, incazelo elula yombhalo weBhayibheli awukona lokho okushiwoyo ngempela. Bakholelwa ukuthi uNkulunkulu wasebenzisa izinhlamvu ngazinye zamagama ombhalo weBhayibheli wesiHeberu njengezimpawu, okuthi lapho ziqondwa ngokufanele zembule iqiniso elengeziwe. Ngokombono wabo, uhlamvu ngalunye lwesiHeberu nendawo yalo embhalweni weBhayibheli lwabekwa uNkulunkulu ngenjongo ethile.

NgokukaJeffrey Satinover, umcwaningi walo mbhalo weBhayibheli, la maJuda enkolo eyimfihlakalo akholelwa ukuthi izinhlamvu zamagama esiHeberu ezasetshenziswa ekulobeni ukulandisa kokudala okukuGenesise zinamandla amakhulu ayimfihlakalo. Uyabhala: “UGenesise, ngamafuphi nje, awuyona nje incazelo, uyilo kanye ithuluzi lokudala ngokwako, umklamo osengqondweni kaNkulunkulu obonakaliswe ngokoqobo.”

Urabi wenkolo yobuCabala wangekhulu le-13, uBachya ben Asher waseSaragossa, eSpain, wabhala ngokuphathelene nokwaziswa okuthile okufihlekile akwembulelwa ngokufunda uhlamvu lwama-42 lwengxenye ethile kaGenesise. Le ndlela yokweqa izinhlamvu zamagama ngokwenqubo ethile ngenjongo yokuzama ukuthola isigijimi esifihlekile iyisisekelo sombono wanamuhla wombhalo ofihlekile weBhayibheli.

 Ama-computer “Embula” Umbhalo Ofihlekile

Ngaphambi kwesikhathi sama-computer, abantu babengakwazi kahle ukuhlola umbhalo weBhayibheli ngale ndlela. Nokho, ngo-August 1994, iphephabhuku elithi Statistical Science lanyathelisa isihloko lapho u-Eliyahu Rips waseHebrew University yaseJerusalema nabacwaningi akanye nabo basho izinto ezesabisayo. Bachaza ukuthi ngokukhipha zonke izikhala eziphakathi kwezinhlamvu zamagama nangokusebenzisa inqubo yokweqa inani elilinganayo lezinhlamvu zamagama embhalweni wesiHeberu kaGenesise, babethole amagama orabi abaziwayo abangu-34 alotshwe ngendlela efihlekile embhalweni, kanye nokunye ukwaziswa, njengezinsuku zabo zokuzalwa noma zokufa, eduze kakhulu namagama abo. * Ngemva kokuhlola ngokuphindaphindiwe, laba bacwaningi banyathelisa isiphetho sabo sokuthi ukwaziswa okubhalwe ngokufihlekile kuGenesise ngokwezibalo akukhona ukuthi kwamane kwaqondana nje—kuwubufakazi bokuthi kuwukwaziswa okuphefumulelwe okwabhalwa ngenhloso ngombhalo ofihlekile kuGenesise ezinkulungwaneni zeminyaka edlule.

Esebenzisa le ndlela, umlobi wephephabhuku, uDrosnin wenza okwakhe ukuhlola, efuna ukwaziswa okuyimfihlo ezincwadini ezinhlanu zokuqala zeBhayibheli lesiHeberu. NgokukaDrosnin, wathola igama likaYitzhak Rabin lifakwe embhalweni weBhayibheli ngenqubo yokweqa izinhlamvu zamagama ezingu-4 772. Njengoba ayenze umbhalo weBhayibheli waba imigqa enezinhlamvu zamagama ezingu-4 722 ngamunye, wathola ukuthi igama likaRabin (elifundeka lapho ufunda uya phansi) laliqondana nomugqa (kaDuteronomi 4:42, ovundlile) uDrosnin awuhumusha ngokuthi “umbulali oyobulala.”

UDuteronomi 4:42 empeleni ukhuluma ngombulali oye wabulala ngokungenhloso. Ngakho, abaningi baye bayigxeka indlela kaDrosnin exhomeke kulokho ayekhetha ukukwenza, bethi indlela yakhe engeyona engokwesayensi ingasetshenziswa ekutholeni izigijimi ezifanayo kunoma yimuphi umbhalo. Kodwa uDrosnin washaya phansi ngonyawo, wakhipha le nselele: “Uma labo abangiphikisayo bengathola isigijimi esikhuluma ngokubulawa kukaNdunankulu kubhalwe ngokuyimfihlo encwadini [yendaba eqanjiwe] i-Moby Dick, ngizobakholelwa.”

Ubufakazi Bokuphefumulelwa?

UProfesa Brendan McKay, we-Department of Computer Science e-Australian National University, wayamukela inselele kaDrosnin futhi wenza ucwaningo olunzulu lwe-computer embhalweni wesiNgisi we-Moby Dick. * Esebenzisa leyo ndlela echazwe uDrosnin, uMcKay uthi wathola “izibikezelo” zokubulawa kuka-Indira Gandhi, uMartin Luther King, Jr., uJohn F. Kennedy, u-Abraham Lincoln nabanye. NgokukaMcKay, wathola ukuthi i-Moby Dick nayo “yaprofetha” ngokubulawa kukaYitzhak Rabin.

Lapho bebuyela embhalweni wesiHeberu kaGenesise, uProfesa McKay nayesebenza nabo baye bayibekela inselele nalapho imiphumela yokuhlola kaRips nalabo asebenza nabo. Baye bamsola ngokuthi imiphumela yakhe yayingesona isigijimi esifihlekile esiphefumulelwe kodwa yayixhomeke kakhulu endleleni yabacwaningi—ukufakwa kokwaziswa okwenziwa ngokuxhomeke kakhulu kubacwaningi. Isaqhubeka inkulumo-mpikiswano yezazi ngokuphathelene naleli phuzu.

Olunye udaba luphakama lapho kuthiwa izigijimi ezinjalo zombhalo ofihlekile zafihlwa ngenhloso embhalweni wesiHeberu “omisiwe” noma “wakuqala.” URips nabacwaningi akanye nabo bathi benza ukucwaninga kwabo “ngombhalo omisiwe nowamukelekayo kaGenesise.” UDrosnin uyabhala: “Wonke amaBhayibheli akhona manje olimi lwesiHeberu sakuqala anezinhlamvu ezifana ncamashí.” Kodwa ingabe kunjalo? Kunokuba kube nombhalo “omisiwe,” kusetshenziswa izinhlelo ezihlukahlukene zeBhayibheli lesiHeberu namuhla, ezisekelwe emibhalweni yesandla yasendulo ehlukahlukene. Nakuba isigijimi seBhayibheli sifana, imibhalo yesandla ehlukahlukene ayinazo izinhlamvu zamagama ezifana ncimishí.

Izinguqulo eziningi zanamuhla zisekelwe kuyi-Leningrad Codex—umbhalo wesandla ophelele wesiHeberu wamaMasorete, omdala kunayo yonke—owakopishwa cishe ngonyaka ka-1000 C.E. Kodwa uRips noDrosnin basebenzisa umbhalo ohlukile, iKoren. UShlomo Sternberg, urabi wobu-Orthodox nesazi sezibalo sase-Harvard University, uchaza ukuthi i-Leningrad Codex “ihluke kuyi-Koren eyasetshenziswa uDrosnin ngezinhlamvu zamagama ezingu-41  kuDuteronomi kuphela.” IMiqulu Yasolwandle Olufile ihlanganisa izingxenye zombhalo weBhayibheli ezakopishwa eminyakeni engaphezu kuka-2 000 edlule. Indlela amagama abhalwe ngayo kule miqulu ivame ukuhluka ngokuphawulekayo emibhalweni yamaMasorete yakamuva. Kweminye imiqulu, kunezinhlamvu zamagama ezithile ezafakwa ngokukhululekile ukuze zakhe umsindo wonkamisa, njengoba izimpawu zonkamisa zazingakasungulwa. Kweminye imiqulu, kwasetshenziswa izinhlamvu zamagama ezimbalwa. Ukuqhathanisa yonke imibhalo yesandla yeBhayibheli ekhona kubonisa ukuthi incazelo yombhalo weBhayibheli ayishintshanga. Nokho, kubonisa ngokusobala nokuthi indlela amagama abhalwe ngayo nenani lezinhlamvu zamagama kuyahlukahluka emibhalweni ehlukahlukene.

Ukufuna lokhu okuthiwa isigijimi esifihlekile seBhayibheli kuxhomeke embhalweni ongashintshi nakancane. Ukushintshwa kohlamvu olulodwa lwegama kuyoyona ngokuphelele inqubo elandelwayo—kanye nesigijimi uma kuwukuthi sikhona. UNkulunkulu uye walondoloza isigijimi sakhe ngeBhayibheli. Kodwa akazange agcine uhlamvu ngalunye lwegama lungashintshile, njengokungathi wayekhathazeka ngokweqile ngezinto eziwubala ezinjengokushintsha kwendlela amagama abhalwa ngayo phakathi namakhulu eminyaka. Lokhu akubonisi yini ukuthi akazange afihle isigijimi esiyimfihlo eBhayibhelini?—Isaya 40:8; 1 Petru 1:24, 25.

Ingabe Siyawudinga Umbhalo WeBhayibheli Ofihlekile?

Umphostoli uPawulu wabhala ngokucacile ukuthi “yonke imiBhalo iphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu futhi inenzuzo yokufundisa, yokusola, yokuqondisa izinto, yokuyala ekulungeni, ukuze umuntu kaNkulunkulu afaneleke ngokugcwele, ayihlomele ngokuphelele yonke imisebenzi emihle.” (2 Thimothewu 3:16, 17) Isigijimi esicacile nesiqondile esiseBhayibhelini akunzima kakhulu ukusiqonda noma ukusisebenzisa, kodwa abantu abaningi bakhetha ukusishaya indiva. (Duteronomi 30:11-14) Iziprofetho ezibekwe ngendlela engafihlekile eBhayibhelini zinikeza isisekelo esiqinile sokukholelwa ukuthi liphefumulelwe. * Ngokungafani nombhalo ofihlekile, iziprofetho zeBhayibheli azixhomekile kumuntu futhi ‘aziveli kunoma iyiphi incazelo yomuntu ngokwakhe.’—2 Petru 1:19-21.

Umphostoli uPetru wabhala ukuthi “akubanga ngokulandela izindaba ezingamanga eziklanywe ngobuciko ukuthi sanijwayelanisa namandla nokuba khona kweNkosi yethu uJesu Kristu.” (2 Petru 1:16) Umbono wombhalo weBhayibheli ofihlekile usukela enkolweni eyimfihlakalo yamaJuda, esebenzisa izindlela ‘eziklanywe ngobuciko’ ezifihla noma zisonte incazelo esobala yombhalo weBhayibheli ophefumulelwe. Yona ngokwayo imiBhalo YesiHeberu iyilahla ngokungagunci le ndlela eyimfihlo.—Duteronomi 13:1-5; 18:9-13.

Yeka indlela esijabula ngayo ngokuba nesigijimi nomyalo ocacile weBhayibheli, ongasisiza ukuba sazi uNkulunkulu! Lokhu kungcono kakhulu kunokuzama ukufunda ngoMdali wethu ngokucinga izigijimi ezifihlekile eziwumphumela wencazelo yomuntu nokucatshangelwayo okutholwa ngosizo lwe-computer.—Mathewu 7:24, 25.

[Imibhalo yaphansi]

^ par. 9 Olimini lwesiHeberu, izinombolo zingamelelwa nayizinhlamvu zamagama. Ngakho-ke, lezi zinsuku zatholakala ngezinhlamvu zamagama ezisembhalweni wesiHeberu, akutholwanga izinombolo.

^ par. 13 IsiHeberu siwulimi olungenabo onkamisa. Onkamisa bafakwa umfundi ngokomongo. Lapho umongo unganakwa, incazelo yegama ingashintshwa ngokuphelele ngokufaka imisindo ehlukile yonkamisa. IsiNgisi sinonkamisa abaqondile, okwenza ukucwaninga okunjalo kwamagama kube nzima kakhulu futhi kulinganiselwe.

^ par. 19 Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe ngokuphefumulelwa kweBhayibheli neziprofetho zalo, bheka incwajana ethi Incwadi Yabo Bonke Abantu, enyatheliswa i-Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.