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Yini Abayithola EJizreyeli?

Yini Abayithola EJizreyeli?

 Yini Abayithola EJizreyeli?

SEKUNGAMAKHULU eminyaka indawo yomuzi wasendulo waseJizreyeli ingamanxiwa. Yake yaba ngevelele emlandweni weBhayibheli. Manje, njengoba ingasenayo inkazimulo yakuqala futhi imbozwe inhlabathi, isiphenduke igquma. Eminyakeni yamuva nje abavubukuli baye baqala ukuhlola izinsalela zaseJizreyeli. Yini eyembulwa yila manxiwa ngokuphathelene nokulandisa kweBhayibheli?

IJizreyeli EBhayibhelini

Njengoba yayisengxenyeni yasempumalanga yeSigodi SaseJizreyeli, iJizreyeli yayikwenye yezindawo ezivunde kakhulu zezwe lasendulo lakwa-Israyeli. Ngaphesheya maqondana naleso sigodi ukuya ngasenyakatho kunegquma laseMore lapho abakwaMidiyani bakanisa khona bezilungiselela ukuhlasela uMahluleli uGideyoni namabutho akhe. Ukuya kancane ngasempumalanga kunomthombo waseHarodi, ezansi kweNtaba iGilibowa. Kwakulapha lapho uJehova anciphisa khona ibutho likaGideyoni elaliyizinkulungwane laba amadoda angu-300 kuphela ukuze abonise amandla akhe okukhulula abantu bakhe ngaphandle kwebutho elinamandla. (AbAhluleli 7:1-25; Zakariya 4:6) ENtabeni iGilibowa eseduze nalapho, uSawule, inkosi yokuqala yakwa-Israyeli, wanqotshwa amaFilisti empini emangalisayo, okwathi phakathi nayo kwabulawa uJonathani namanye amadodana amabili kaSawule, noSawule wazibulala.—1 Samuweli 31:1-5.

Ukulandisa kweBhayibheli okuphathelene nalo muzi wasendulo waseJizreyeli kunikeza izimo ezingafani ngokuphawulekayo. Kusitshela ngokusetshenziswa kabi kwamandla nokuhlubuka kwababusi bakwa-Israyeli nangokuthembeka nentshiseko yezinceku zikaJehova. KwakuseJizreyeli lapho iNkosi u-Ahabi—umbusi wombuso wasenyakatho wezizwe eziyishumi zakwa-Israyeli engxenyeni yokugcina yekhulu leminyaka B.C.E.—yakha khona ikomkhulu layo, nakuba inhloko-dolobha engokomthetho yayiyiSamariya. (1 AmaKhosi 21:1) KwakuseJizreyeli lapho kwavela khona izinsongo enkosikazini ka-Ahabi engeyabezizwe zisongela ngokubulala umprofethi kaJehova u-Eliya. Le nkosikazi yayithukutheliswe ukuthi u-Eliya wayebulele ngokungesabi abaprofethi bakaBali, ngemva kokuba enze ukuhlola eNtabeni iKarmeli kokuthi ubani onguNkulunkulu weqiniso.—1 AmaKhosi 18:36–19:2.

Kwabe sekwenziwa ubelelesi eJizreyeli. Kwabulawa uNaboti, umJizreyeli. INkosi u-Ahabi yayihahele isivini sikaNaboti. Lapho le nkosi iyala ukuba inikezwe leyo ndawo, ngokwethembeka uNaboti wathi: “Makube kude nami ngenxa kaJehova ukuba ngikunike ifa lawobaba.” Le mpendulo esekelwe ezimisweni yamphatha kabi kakhulu u-Ahabi. Ibona ukunyukubala kwenkosi, iNdlovukazi uJezebeli yahlela ukuba kuqulwe icala-mbumbulu, isola uNaboti ngokuhlambalaza. UNaboti ongenacala walahlwa yicala futhi wakhandwa ngamatshe waze wafa, futhi inkosi yathatha isivini sakhe.—1 AmaKhosi 21:1-16.

Ngenxa yaleso senzo esibi, u-Eliya waprofetha: “Izinja ziyakumudla u-Izebeli ngasogangeni lwaseJizreyeli.” Lo mprofethi waqhubeka wathi:  “Owakwa-Ahabi ofela emzini izinja ziyakumudla . . . Kepha akubangakho onjengo-Ahabi owazithengisa ukwenza okubi emehlweni kaJehova, edudwa ngu-Izebeli umkakhe.” Nokho, ngenxa yokuthi u-Ahabi wazithoba lapho u-Eliya ememezela isahlulelo sikaJehova, uJehova wathi leso sijeziso sasingeke senzeke u-Ahabi esaphila. (1 AmaKhosi 21:23-29) Ukulandisa kweBhayibheli kuyaqhubeka kuthi ngezinsuku zalowo owalandela u-Eliya, u-Elisha, uJehu wagcotshwa waba yinkosi yakwa-Israyeli. Lapho engena eJizreyeli egibele ihhashi, uJehu wayala ukuba uJezebeli aphonswe ngefasitela lasesigodlweni sakhe, futhi wanyathelwa amahhashi. Kamuva, kwatholakala ukuthi izinja ezidla udoti zazishiye ugebhezi lwekhanda lakhe, izinyawo nezintende zezandla zakhe kuphela. (2 AmaKhosi 9:30-37) Isenzakalo sokugcina seBhayibheli esihlobene ngokuqondile neJizreyeli senzeka ngemva kokubulawa kwamadodana angu-70 ka-Ahabi. UJehu wanqwabelanisa amakhanda awo aba izinqwaba ezimbili ezinkulu esangweni lomuzi waseJizreyeli, okwathi ngemva kwalokho wabulala namanye amadoda aholayo nabapristi ababehilelekile embusweni ohlubukayo ka-Ahabi.—2 AmaKhosi 10:6-11.

Yini Eye Yatholwa Abavubukuli?

Ngo-1990 kwaqalwa umsebenzi wokuvubukula indawo yaseJizreyeli owawenziwa ngokubambisana. Ababa nengxenye kulo msebenzi kwakuyi-Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University (eyayimelelwe uDavid Ussishkin) ne-British School of Archaeology yaseJerusalema (eyayimelelwe uJohn Woodhead). Izisebenzi zokuzithandela eziphakathi kuka-80 no-100 zasebenza kuleyo ndawo izikhathi ezingu-7 (isikhathi ngasinye sithatha amasonto ayisithupha) phakathi kuka-1990-1996.

Indlela yesimanje yesayensi yemivubukulo iwukuhlola ubufakazi ngokwabo kuleyo ndawo, ngaphandle kokubhekisela emibonweni ecatshangelwe kusengaphambili nakuzinkolelo-mbono. Ngakho-ke, kumvubukuli ohlola amazwe aseBhayibhelini, ukulandisa okungokomBhalo akukhona okungumnqamula-juqu endabeni. Kufanele kucatshangelwe ngokucophelela yonke eminye imithombo nobufakazi obubonakalayo. Nokho, njengoba uJohn Woodhead esho, abukho obunye ubufakazi basendulo obulotshiwe ngokuphathelene neJizreyeli ngaphandle kwezahluko ezimbalwa eBhayibhelini. Ngakho ukulandisa kweBhayibheli nokulandelana kwezenzakalo ngokohlelo lwezikhathi kufanele kube ingxenye yokuhlola. Yini eye yambulwa imizamo yabavubukuli?

Lapho kuvumbululwa izingange nezitsha zobumba, kwaba sobala zisuka nje ukuthi lawo manxiwa ayengawakudala esikhathi esibizwa ngokuthi iNkathi Yensimbi, okuwenza aqondane ngqó nesikhathi seJizreyeli yaseBhayibhelini. Kodwa lapho kuqhutshekwa kuvubukulwa, kwaba nezinto eziningi ezamangaza. Eyokuqala kwakuwubukhulu bendawo nezingange zakhona ezinkulu kakhulu. Abavubukuli babelindele indawo enezingange ezilingana cishe nezaseSamariya yasendulo, inhloko-dolobha yombuso wakwa-Israyeli. Nokho, lapho kuqhutshekwa kumbiwa, kwaba sobala ukuthi iJizreyeli yayinkulu kakhulu. Yayingamamitha angu-300  ubude namamitha angu-150 ububanzi ngasezingangeni zayo, futhi ingqikithi yendawo phakathi nezingange zayo yinkulu ngokuphindwe kathathu kweyanoma imuphi omunye umuzi owatholakala kwa-Israyeli kusukela ngaleso sikhathi. Yayizungezwe umsele owomile, ojule ngamamitha angu-11 ukusuka ezingangeni. NgokukaProfesa Ussishkin, kwakungakaze kube nomsele onjalo ezikhathini zeBhayibheli. Wathi: “Asitholi lutho olunye olunjalo kwa-Israyeli kuze kube isikhathi sabaBelwa Izimpi Zenkolo.”

Esinye isici ebesingalindelekile kwakuwukungabi khona kwezakhiwo ezinkulu enkabeni yalo muzi. Inhlabathi eningi ebomvu eyalethwa phakathi nokwakhiwa kwalo muzi yasetshenziselwa ukwenza indawo ephakeme—enjengendawo enkulu yesikhulumi—ngaphakathi kwale ndawo ebiyelwe. I-Second Preliminary Report ephathelene nokuvubukula eTel Jezreel ithi indawo ephakeme evelele ingase ibe ubufakazi bokuthi iJizreyeli yayingesona isigodlo senkosi nje kuphela. Yathi: “Singathanda ukuveza ukuthi iJizreyeli kungenzeka yayiyisikhungo esiyinhloko sempi yebutho lama-Israyeli lasebukhosini ngesikhathi samakhosi angama-Omride [u-Omri nenzalo yakhe] . . . lapho izinqola zempi namahhashi asebukhosini kwakugcinwa futhi kulungiswe khona.” Uma kucatshangelwa ubukhulu bale ndawo ephakeme, kanye nendawo ebiyelwe ngokwayo, uWoodhead uthi lokhu kungenzeka kwakuwuhlobo oluthile lwendawo yokumasha kubukiswa ngamandla amasosha ebutho elikhulu kunawo wonke lezinqola eMpumalanga Ephakathi ngaleso sikhathi.

Izinsalela zesango lomuzi ezembiwa ziyisici esikhethekile esikhanga abavubukuli. Zibonisa indawo yokungena eyisango okungenani elinamagumbi amane. Nokho, njengoba amatshe amaningi kule ndawo aye onakaliswa emakhulwini eminyaka, okuye kwatholakala kwenza kube nzima ukufinyelela esiphethweni esiqinisekayo. UWoodhead uthi lezi zinsalela zikhomba esangweni elinamagumbi ayisithupha alingana nalawo atholakala eMegido, eHasori naseGezeri. *

Okwatholwa ngokwesayensi yemivubukulo kukhomba ekubeni khona isikhathi esifushane kwalo muzi osendaweni ekahle, kokubili ngokwempi nangokokuma kwezwe. UWoodhead ugcizelela ukuthi iJizreyeli, umuzi omkhulu ovikelekile yindawo eyaba khona ngesikhathi esithile kuphela—yasetshenziswa amashumi ambalwa nje eminyaka. Lokhu kuphambene kakhulu nezinye izindawo eziningi eziyinhloko zaseBhayibhelini zakwa-Israyeli, njengeMegido, iHasori nenhloko-dolobha iSamariya, ezakhiwa ngokuphindaphindiwe, zandiswa futhi kwahlalwa kuzo izinkathi ezihlukahlukene. Kungani le ndawo enhle yashesha kangaka ukuyekwa ukusetshenziswa? UWoodhead ucabangela ukuthi u-Ahabi nohlanga lwasebukhosini bacishe babangela ukuwa kwezomnotho ngenxa yokusaphaza kwabo ingcebo yezwe. Lokhu kwaba sobala ebukhulwini obeqile nasekuvikelweni ngokuqinile kweJizreyeli. Umbuso omusha owawuphethwe uJehu cishe wawufuna ukumkhohlwa ngokuphelele u-Ahabi, ngakho wawushiya lo muzi.

Bonke ubufakazi osebuvubukuliwe kuze kube manje bufakazela ukuthi iJizreyeli yayiyisikhungo esikhulu sakwa-Israyeli ngeNkathi Yensimbi. Ubukhulu bayo nezingange zayo kuyavumelana nencazelo yeBhayibheli yokuthi yayiyindawo eyinhloko yesigodlo sika-Ahabi noJezebeli. Izimpawu zokuhlalwa kwayo isikhashana phakathi nalesi sikhathi zihambisana nokulandisa kweBhayibheli ngokuphathelene nalo muzi: Waba ngovelele ngokushesha phakathi nokubusa kuka-Ahabi, kwabe sekuthi, ngokuyala kukaJehova, ngokusobala wehliswa ngokuhlazisayo lapho uJehu “ebulala bonke abaseleyo bendlu ka-Ahabi eJizreyeli, nabo bonke abakhulu bakhe, nabazana naye, nabapristi bakhe, waze wangamshiyela noyedwa owasalayo.”—2 AmaKhosi 10:11.

 Ukulandelana Kwezenzakalo EJizreyeli

UJohn Woodhead uyavuma: “Kunzima kakhulu ngokwesayensi yemivubukulo ukuthola isisekelo esiqinile sokubeka isikhathi.” Ngakho njengoba abavubukuli behlola imiphumela yeminyaka engu-7 yokuvubukula, baqhathanisa lokho abakutholile nalokho abakuthola kwezinye izindawo ezavubukulwa. Lokhu kuye kwaholela ekuhlolweni kabusha nasempikiswaneni. Ngani? Ngenxa yokuthi kusukela ekuvubukuleni komvubukuli wakwa-Israyeli uYigael Yadin eMegido phakathi kwawo-1960 nasekuqaleni kwawo-1970, kwabhekwa njengokuqinisekiswe abaningi emkhakheni wokuvubukula ukuthi wayethole izingange namasango omuzi kwangesikhathi esisukela esikhathini seNkosi uSolomoni. Manje, izingange, izinto zobumba kanye namasango athokalaka eJizreyeli enza abanye bazingabaze lezi ziphetho.

Ngokwesibonelo, izinto zobumba ezatholwa eJizreyeli zifana nsé nalezo zendawo eyavubukulwa eMegido, uYadin azihlobanisa nombuso kaSolomoni. Isimo sesango nobukhulu balezi zindawo ezimbili kuthi akufane, uma kungekhona ukuthi kufana ncimishí. UWoodhead uthi: “Bonke ubufakazi buhlehlisela indawo yaseJizreyeli emuva esikhathini sikaSolomoni noma kuletha isikhathi salezi zici zakwezinye izindawo [eMegido naseHasori] esikhathini sika-Ahabi.” Njengoba iBhayibheli liyihlobanisa ngokucacile indawo yaseJizreyeli nenkathi ka-Ahabi, ukubheka njengokunengqondo ngokwengeziwe ukwamukela ukuthi lezi zindawo ezivubukuliwe zibonisa isikhathi sokubusa kuka-Ahabi. UDavid Ussishkin uyavuma: “IBhayibheli lithi uSolomoni wakha iMegido—alisho ukuthi wakha lawo masango ngokuqondile.”

Ungaziwa Umlando WeJizreyeli?

Ingabe lokhu okutholwe ngemivubukulo kanye nempikiswano eqhubekayo kwenza ukulandisa kweBhayibheli okuphathelene neJizreyeli noSolomoni kungatshazwe? Empeleni, impikiswano yesayensi yemivubukulo inethonya elincane kakhulu eliqondile ekulandiseni kweBhayibheli. Isayensi yemivubukulo ihlola umlando ngezisekelo ezihlukile kulezo zokulandisa kweBhayibheli. Iphakamisa imibuzo ehlukile futhi igxile kokuhlukile. Umuntu angafanisa umfundi weBhayibheli nomvubukuli nabantu abahamba cishe ezindleleni eziya ohlangothini olufanayo. Omunye uhamba ngemoto emgwaqweni, omunye uhamba emzileni wezinyawo. Izinto abagxila kuzo nabakhathazeka ngazo zihlukile. Nokho, umbono wabo ngokuvamile uyaphelelisana kunokuba uphikisane. Ukuqhathanisa lokho okushiwo yilaba ababili abasohambweni kungaholela ekuqondeni okuthakazelisayo.

IBhayibheli linomlando olotshiwe wezenzakalo nabantu basendulo; isayensi yemivubukulo izama ukuthola ukwaziswa okuphathelene nalezi zenzakalo nabantu ngokuhlola noma yimuphi umkhondo osengatholakala enhlabathini. Nokho, lezi zinsalela ngokuvamile ziba yizingxenye ezincane kakhulu futhi zingachazwa ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene. Ngokuphathelene nalokhu, encwadini yakhe ethi Archaeology of the Land of the Bible—10,000−586 B.C.E., u-Amihai Mazar uyaphawula: “Umsebenzi wasemkhakheni wemivubukulo . . . ngokwezinga elikhulu uwubuciko kanye nenhlanganisela yekhono elitholwa ngokuqeqeshwa nokuchwephesha. Azikho izindlela ezingaguquguquki ezisetshenziswayo ezingaqinisekisa impumelelo, futhi imicabango eguquguqukayo nenobuhlakani enikezwa abaqondisi bakulo mkhakha inegunya. Ubuntu, italenta nengqondo ehluzekile yomvubukuli kubaluleke ngendlela efanayo nokuqeqeshwa akutholile kanye nezinto angazisebenzisa.

Isayensi yemivubukulo iye yaqinisekisa ukuba khona kwesikhungo esikhulu sasebukhosini nesempi eJizreyeli, isikhungo esaba khona isikhathi esifushane ngokumangalisayo phakathi nenkathi engokomlando eqondana nokubusa kuka-Ahabi—njengoba nje kulandisa iBhayibheli. Kuye kwaphakanyiswa eminye imibuzo eminingi eshukumisayo abavubukuli abangase bacwaninge ngayo eminyakeni eminingi ezayo. Nokho, amakhasi eZwi likaNkulunkulu, iBhayibheli, ayaqhubeka ekhuluma ngokucacile, esinika indaba ephelele ngendlela abavubukuli abangasoze benza ngayo.

[Umbhalo waphansi]

^ par. 13 Bheka isihloko esithi “Imfihlakalo Yamasango” kuyi-Nqabayokulinda ka-August 15, 1988.

[Izithombe ekhasini 26]

Ukuvubukula kwesayensi yemivubukulo eJizreyeli

[Isithombe ekhasini 28]

Isithombe esasikhulekelwa abaseKhanani esatholakala eJizreyeli