Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

UCyril Lucaris—Indoda Eyayilazisa IBhayibheli

UCyril Lucaris—Indoda Eyayilazisa IBhayibheli

 UCyril Lucaris—Indoda Eyayilazisa IBhayibheli

Kwakusehlobo lika-1638. Abadobi eSea of Marmara eduze neConstantinople (i-Istanbul yanamuhla), inhloko-dolobha yoMbuso WaseTurkey, bashaqeka lapho bebona isidumbu sintanta emanzini. Lapho besihlolisisa, baqaphela ngokwesaba okukhulu ukuthi lesi sidumbu esiklinyiwe kwakungesomfundisi omkhulu waseConstantinople, inhloko yeSonto Lobu-Orthodox. Lokhu kwaba ukufa okulusizi kukaCyril Lucaris, isikhulu esivelele sesonto sangekhulu le-17.

ULUCARIS akazange aphile isikhathi eside ngokwanele ukuze abone iphupho lakhe—ukukhululwa kwenguqulo yemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki ngesiGreki esivamile—ligcwaliseka. Kanti elinye iphupho likaLucaris alizange lifezeke—elokubona iSonto Lobu-Orthodox libuyela “evangelini elilula.” Yayingubani le ndoda? Iziphi izithiyo eyabhekana nazo kuleyo mizamo?

Washaqiswa Ukuntuleka Kwemfundo

UCyril Lucaris wazalwa ngo-1572, eCandia (manje okuyi-Iráklion) eyayithathwe iVenice, eCrete. Njengoba ayenamatalenta amahle, wafunda eVenice nasePadua e-Italy wabe esehamba kulo lonke lelo zwe namanye. Ethukutheliswe ukudonsisana kwamaqembu phakathi esontweni futhi ekhangwe izinhlangano zezinguquko eYurophu, kungenzeka ukuthi wavakashela eGeneva, ngaleso sikhathi eyayingaphansi kwethonya elinamandla lenkolo kaCalvin.

Lapho evakashele ePoland, uLucaris wabona ukuthi ama-Orthodox alapho, abapristi namalungu avamile ngokufanayo, ayesesimweni esidabukisa kakhulu ngokomoya ngenxa yokuntula imfundo. Emuva e-Alexandria naseConstantinople, wayemangazwe ukuthola ukuthi ngisho namapulpiti—lapho kufundelwa khona imiBhalo—ayekhishiwe kwamanye amasonto!

Ngo-1602, uLucaris waya e-Alexandria, lapho alandela isihlobo sakhe, iNzalamizi uMeletios, kulokho kwengamela. Wabe eseqala ukubhalelana izincwadi nezazi zaseYurophu zemfundiso yenkolo ezihlukahlukene ezithanda izinguquko. Kwenye yalezo zincwadi, waphawula ukuthi iSonto Lobu-Orthodox lalisenemikhuba eminingi eyiphutha. Kwezinye izincwadi, wagcizelela isidingo sokuba isonto likhiphe izinkolelo-ze, lifake “ivangeli elilula” esikhundleni sazo futhi lincike egunyeni lemiBhalo kuphela.

ULucaris wamangazwa nawukuthi igunya elingokomoya  loFata beSonto lalibhekwa njengelilingana namazwi kaJesu nawabaphostoli. Wabhala: “Ngeke ngisakwazi ukukubekezelela ukuzwa abantu bethi amazwi esiko labantu anesisindo esilinganayo nemiBhalo.” (Mathewu 15:6) Wanezela ukuthi, ngokombono wakhe, ukukhulekela izithombe kwakuyinto embi kakhulu. Wathi ukukhulekelwa ‘kosanta’ kwakuwukuhlambalaza uMlamuleli, uJesu.—1 Thimothewu 2:5.

Ukuthengiswa Kwesihlalo Sobunzalamizi

Leyo mibono, kanye nokuzonda kwakhe iSonto LamaRoma Katolika, kwenza uLucaris wazondwa futhi washushiswa amaJesuit nayilabo beSonto Lobu-Orthodox ababethanda ukuba kuhlanganwe namaKatolika. Naphezu kwalokho kuphikiswa, ngo-1620, uLucaris wakhethwa njengenzalamizi yaseConstantinople. Ngaleso sikhathi, ubunzalamizi beSonto Lobu-Orthodox babungaphansi koMbuso WaseTurkey. Uhulumeni waseTurkey wawungayisusa kalula nje inzalamizi futhi ubeke enye lapho ukhokhelwa imali.

Izitha zikaLucaris, ngokuyinhloko amaJesuit ne-Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Ibandla Lokusakaza Ukholo) yopapa eyayinamandla futhi yesabeka, zaqhubeka zimnyundela futhi zimakhela ugobe. Incwadi ethi Kyrillos Loukaris ithi: “Ephishekela le njongo amaJesuit asebenzisa zonke izindlela—ubuqili, inhlebo ethunazayo, ukuthopha, futhi okukhulu kunakho konke, ukufumbathisa, okwakuyisikhali esiphumelela kunazo zonke sokuzizuzela ugazi ezikhulwini [zaseTurkey].” Ngenxa yalokho, ngo-1622, uLucaris wadingiselwa esiqhingini saseRhodes, futhi uGregory wase-Amasya wathenga isikhundla sakhe ngezinhlamvu zesiliva ezingu-20 000. Nokho, uGregory wahluleka ukukhipha isamba ayesithembisile, ngakho u-Anthimus wase-Adrianople wasithenga leso sikhundla, kodwa wasiyeka kamuva. Okumangalisayo ukuthi uLucaris wabuyiselwa esihlalweni sobunzalamizi.

ULucaris wayezimisele ukusebenzisa leli thuba elisha ukuze afundise abefundisi nabantu bobu-Orthodox ngokunyathelisa inguqulo yeBhayibheli namapheshana emfundiso yenkolo. Ukuze afeze lokhu, wahlela ukuba umshini wokunyathelisa ulethwe eConstantinople ngaphansi kwesivikelo senxusa eliyiNgisi. Nokho, lapho lo mshini ufika ngo-June 1627, izitha zikaLucaris zamsola ngokuwusebenzisela izinjongo ezingokombangazwe, futhi ekugcineni zabangela ukuba wonakaliswe. Kwase kuzodingeka ukuba uLucaris asebenzise imishini yokunyathelisa yaseGeneva.

INguqulo YemiBhalo YamaKristu

Ukuhlonipha okukhulu kukaLucaris iBhayibheli namandla alo okufundisa kwandisa isifiso sakhe sokwenza amazwi alo atholakale kubantu abavamile. Waqaphela ukuthi abantu abavamile babengasaluqondi ulimi olwalusetshenziswe emibhalweni yesandla yokuqala ephefumulelwe yeBhayibheli lesiGreki. Ngakho incwadi yokuqala uLucaris ayala ukuba yenziwe kwakuyinguqulo yemiBhalo YamaKristu YesiGreki ngolimi lwesiGreki sosuku lwakhe. UMaximus Callipolites, indela eyayifundile, waqala lo msebenzi ngo-March 1629. Abaningi enkolweni yobu-Orthodox babebheka ukuhumusha imiBhalo njengento embi ngokwesabekayo, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi umbhalo ungase ungaqondakali kanjani kubafundi uma ungahunyushwa. Ukuze ashweleze kubo, uLucaris wenza ukuba umbhalo wokuqala nendlela yamuva yokuhumusha kunyatheliswe kuqondane, wabe esenezela amazwi ambalwa nje okuphawula. Ngenxa yokuthi uCallipolites washona ngemva nje kokuletha umbhalo wesandla, uLucaris wawufunda ngokwakhe lowo mbhalo ngaphambi kokunyatheliswa kokugcina. Leyo nguqulo yanyatheliswa ngemva nje kokushona kukaLucaris ngo-1638.

Naphezu kwezinyathelo zokuqapha ezathathwa uLucaris, leyo nguqulo yasolwa kakhulu ababhishobhi abaningi. Ukuthanda kukaLucaris iZwi likaNkulunkulu kwaba sobala ngokwengeziwe esanduleleni saleyo nguqulo yeBhayibheli. Wabhala ukuthi imiBhalo, ngolimi olukhulunywa abantu, ‘iyisigijimi esimnandi, esisamukela sivela ezulwini.’ Wayala abantu “ukuba balazi futhi bazijwayeze konke okuqukethwe [iBhayibheli]” futhi wathi ayikho enye indlela yokufunda ‘ngezinto eziphathelene nokholo olunembile ngaphandle kokusebenzisa iVangeli laphezulu elingcwele.’—Filipi 1:9, 10.

ULucaris wabasola ngokuqinile labo ababenqabela ukutadishwa kweBhayibheli, kanye nalabo ababenqabela ukuhunyushwa kombhalo wokuqala, ethi: “Uma sikhuluma noma sifunda singaqondi, kufana nokujikijela amazwi ethu emoyeni.” (Qhathanisa neyoku-1 Korinte 14:7-9.) Ephetha isandulela, wabhala: “Lapho nonke nifunda leli Vangeli laphezulu nelingcwele ngolimi lwenu,  zigcineleni inzuzo eniyithola ngokulifunda, . . . futhi kwangathi uNkulunkulu angayikhanyisa ngokwengeziwe indlela yenu kulokho okuhle.”—IzAga 4:18.

I-Confession of Faith

Ngemva kokuqala umsebenzi wokuhunyushwa kweBhayibheli, uLucaris wathatha esinye isinyathelo esidinga isibindi. Ngo-1629 wanyathelisa incwadi ethi Confession of Faith eGeneva. Kwakungamazwi akhe ezinkolelo ayenethemba lokuthi ziyokwamukelwa iSonto Lobu-Orthodox. Ngokwencwadi ethi The Orthodox Church, leyo ncwadi ethi Confession “yenza ubupristi nemiphakathi engcwele yemfundiso yobu-Orthodox ingabi nangqondo, futhi ikhala ngokuhlonishwa kwezithombe nokukhulekelwa kosanta ithi kuyizindlela zokukhulekela izithombe.”

I-Confession ineziphakamiso ezingu-18. Isiphakamiso sayo sesibili sithi imiBhalo iphefumulelwe uNkulunkulu futhi igunya layo lidlula elesonto. Sithi: “Sikholelwa ukuthi imiBhalo Engcwele siyinikwe uNkulunkulu . . . Sikholelwa ukuthi igunya lomBhalo Ongcwele lingaphezu kwegunya leSonto. Ukufundiswa uMoya Ongcwele kuyinto ehluke kakhulu kunokufundiswa umuntu.”—2 Thimothewu 3:16.

Isiphakamiso sesishiyagalombili neseshumi zithi uJesu Kristu uwukuphela koMlamuleli, umPristi Ophakeme, neNhloko yebandla. ULucaris wabhala: “Sikholelwa ukuthi iNkosi yethu uJesu Kristu ihlezi ngakwesokunene sikaYise futhi lapho iyasikhulumela, yiyo kuphela enesikhundla sompristi ophakeme nomkhulumeli wangempela nongokomthetho.”—Mathewu 23:10.

Isiphakamiso se-12 sithi isonto lingaduka, lamukele ngephutha amanga njengeqiniso, kodwa ukukhanya komoya ongcwele kungase kulisindise ngenxa yokuzikhandla kwezikhonzi ezithembekile. Esiphakamisweni 18, uLucaris ubambelela ekutheni isihlanzo simane siyinto ecatshangelwayo: “Kusobala ukuthi indaba eqanjiwe yeSihlanzo akumelwe ivunyelwe.”

Ingxenye esekugcineni ye-Confession inemibuzo  eminingana nezimpendulo. Lapho, uLucaris uqale agcizelele ukuthi imiBhalo kufanele ifundwe yiwo wonke umuntu othembekile futhi kuyingozi ukuba umKristu angalifundi iZwi likaNkulunkulu. Ube esenezela ukuthi izincwadi ezingatshazwayo kufanele zigwenywe.—IsAmbulo 22:18, 19.

Umbuzo wesine uthi: “Kufanele sizibheke kanjani iZithombe?” ULucaris uyaphendula: “Sifundiswa yimiBhalo Engcwele Neyaphezulu, esho ngokusobala ukuthi, ‘Ungazenzeli isithombe, noma into efana nanoma yini yasezulwini phezulu, noma esemhlabeni ngaphansi; ungazidumisi, ungazikhonzi; [Eksodusi 20:4, 5]’ njengoba kufanele sikhulekele uMdali noMenzi wezulu nomhlaba kuphela, hhayi izinto ezidaliwe, futhi kunguYe kuphela okumelwe simdumise. . . . Ukukhulekela noma ukukhonza [izithombe], njengoba kunqatshelwe . . . emBhalweni Ongcwele, siyakulahla, funa sikhohlwe sidumise imibala, ikhono nezidalwa kunoMdali noMenzi.”—IzEnzo 17:29.

Nakuba uLucaris ayengakwazi ukuqonda wonke amaphutha ngokugcwele ngenkathi yobumnyama obungokomoya ayephila kuyo, * wenza imizamo encomekayo yokwenza iBhayibheli libe negunya emfundisweni yesonto nokufundisa abantu ngezimfundiso zalo.

Ngemva nje kokukhululwa kwe-Confession, laqubuka kabusha igagasi lokuphikiswa kukaLucaris. Ngo-1633, uCyril Contari, umbhishobhi omkhulu wesifunda saseBeroea (manje okuyi-Aleppo), isitha sikaLucaris esasisekelwa amaJesuit, wazama ukuthenga isihlalo sobunzalamizi kuhulumeni waseTurkey. Nokho, lolo zungu lwabhuntsha lapho uContari ehluleka ukukhokha imali. ULucaris waqhubeka esesikhundleni. Ngonyaka olandelayo u-Athanasius waseThessalonica wasikhokhela cishe izinhlamvu zesiliva ezingu-60 000 leso sikhundla. ULucaris waphinde wagudluzwa. Kodwa kungakapheli nenyanga waphinde wabizwa wabuyiselwa. Ngaleso sikhathi uCyril Contari wayeseziqongelele izinhlamvu zesiliva ezingu-50 000. Kulokhu uLucaris wadingiselwa eRhodes. Ngemva kwezinyanga eziyisithupha, abangane bakhe baphumelela ukumbuyisela.

Nokho, ngo-1638, amaJesuit nama-Orthodox ayebambisene nawo basola uLucaris ngokuvukela uMbuso WaseTurkey. Kulokhu inkosi yezwe yayala ukuba abulawe. ULucaris waboshwa, futhi ngo-July 27, 1638, wagitshezwa isikejana kwaba sengathi uyadingiswa. Lapho isikembe sesisolwandle, waklinywa. Isidumbu sakhe sangcwatshwa ogwini, kamuva sembiwa saphonswa olwandle. Satholwa abadobi futhi kamuva sangcwatshwa abangane bakhe.

Esikufundayo

Esinye isazi sathi: “Akufanele kushaywe indiva ukuthi injongo eyinhloko [kaLucaris] yayiwukufundisa nokuthuthukisa izinga lemfundo labefundisi nomhlambi wakhe, lelo ngekhulu leshumi nesithupha nasekuqaleni kweleshumi nesikhombisa leminyaka lalehle lafinyelela ezingeni eliphansi kakhulu.” Kunezithiyo eziningana ezavimbela uLucaris ukuba afinyelele umgomo wakhe. Wagudluzwa esihlalweni sobunzalamizi izikhathi ezinhlanu. Ngemva kweminyaka engu-34 efile, isigungu sabefundisi saseJerusalema saqalekisa izinkolelo zakhe njengeziwukuhlubuka esontweni. Sathi imiBhalo “akufanele ifundwe yinoma ngubani nje, kodwa yilabo kuphela ababheka ezintweni ezijulile zomoya ngemva kokwenza ukucwaninga okufanele”—okusho ukuthi, abefundisi okuthiwa bafundile kuphela.

Isigaba esibusayo sabefundisi saphinde sayicindezela imizamo yokwenza iZwi likaNkulunkulu litholakale nasemhlambini waso. Sasilithulisa ngobudlova izwi elalikhomba amanye amaphutha ezinkolelo zaso ezingasekelwe eBhayibhelini. Saba isitha esibi kunazo zonke senkululeko yenkolo neqiniso. Ngokudabukisayo, lesi isimo esisekhona ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene ngisho nanamuhla. Kuyisikhumbuzo esisangulukisayo salokho okwenzekayo lapho amacebo ashoshozelwa abefundisi ephazamisa inkululeko yokucabanga nokukhuluma.

[Umbhalo waphansi]

^ par. 24 Kuyi-Confession yakhe, usekela uZiqu-zintathu, izimfundiso zokudalelwa kanye nokungafi komphefumulo—konke okuyizimfundiso ezingasekelwe eBhayibhelini.

[Amazwi acashunwe esihlokweni ekhasini 29]

ULucaris wenza imizamo encomekayo yokwenza iBhayibheli libe negunya emfundisweni yesonto nokufundisa abantu ngezimfundiso zalo

[Ibhokisi/Isithombe ekhasini 28]

ULucaris ne-Codex Alexandrinus

Elinye lamagugu oMtapo Wezincwadi WaseBrithani yi-Codex Alexandrinus, umbhalo wesandla weBhayibheli wangekhulu lesihlanu C.E. Emakhasini ayo okuqala okungenzeka ayengu-820, kuye kwalondolozwa angu-773.

Nakuba uLucaris ayeyinzalamizi yase-Alexandria, eGibithe, wayenomtapo omkhulu wezincwadi. Lapho eba inzalamizi eConstantinople, wahamba ne-Codex Alexandrinus. Ngo-1624 wayinika inxusa laseBrithani elaliseTurkey njengesipho senkosi yamaNgisi, uJames I. Yanikezwa lowo owayilandela, uCharles I, eminyakeni emithathu kamuva.

Ngo-1757 uMtapo Wezincwadi Wasebukhosini WeNkosi wanikwa isizwe saseBrithani, futhi le codex enhle manje kukhangiswa ngayo kuyiJohn Ritblat Gallery eMtatsheni Wezincwadi WaseBrithani omusha.

[Imithombo]

Gewerbehalle, Vol. 10

From The Codex Alexandrinus in Reduced Photographic Facsimile, 1909

[Umthombo Wesithombe ekhasini 26]

Bib. Publ. Univ. de Genève