Dlulela kokuphakathi

Dlulela kuyi-menu yesibili

Dlulela ohlwini lokuphathi

OFakazi BakaJehova

IsiZulu

Phaphama!  |  No. 6 2017

 EZASENDULO

U-Alhazen

U-Alhazen

KUNGENZEKA ukuthi awukaze uzwe ngo-Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. Emazweni asentshonalanga waziwa ngo-Alhazen, okuyindlela yesiLatini yokubhala igama lakhe lesi-Arabhu elithi al-Hasan. Ngisho noma ungamazi, maningi amathuba okuthi uyazuza emsebenzini awenza. Kuye kwathiwa “ungomunye wabantu ababalulekile nababa negalelo kwezesayensi.”

U-Alhazen wazalelwa eBasra, manje ese-Iraq, cishe ngonyaka ka-965 C.E. Wayethanda ukufunda ngesayensi, izibalo, ezokwelapha, umculo, ukusebenza kwamehlo nezinkondlo. Kungani kufanele simbonge?

IDAMU LOMFULA INAYILE

Kunendaba osekuyisikhathi ixoxwa ngo-Alhazen. Imayelana nezinhlelo zakhe zokulawula uMfula iNayile azenza eminyakeni engaba ngu-1 000 ngaphambi kokuba lowo msebenzi wenziwe e-Aswân ngo-1902.

Kuthiwa u-Alhazen wayehlela ukwenza idamu eMfuleni iNayile ukuze anciphise izikhukhula nesomiso okwakudlangile eGibhithe. Lapho umbusi waseCairo uCaliph al-Hakim ezwa ngalezo zinhlelo, wabiza u-Alhazen ukuba eze eGibhithe azokwakha lelo damu. Nokho, lapho u-Alhazen ewubona umfula, wabona ukuthi lo msebenzi wawungaphezu kwamandla akhe. Esaba ukuthi lo mbusi owayedume kabi wayezomjezisa, u-Alhazen wazenza uhlanya kwaze kwaba yilapho lo mbusi efa ngemva kweminyaka engu-11 ngo-1021. Phakathi nesikhathi ayevalelwe ngaso esibhedlela sezinhlanya, u-Alhazen wakwazi ukwenza ezinye izinto ayezithanda.

INCWADI I-BOOK OF OPTICS

U-Alhazen wathi ephuma kuleso sibhedlela wayesebhale ingxenye enkulu yemiqulu engu-7 yencwadi yakhe i-Book of Optics, okuthiwa “ingenye yezincwadi ezibaluleke kunazo zonke emlandweni wesayensi.” Kule ncwadi wachaza ngalokho ayekuthole lapho ecwaninga ngokukhanya, ukuthi ukukhanya kuhlukana kanjani kube nemibala ehlukahlukene, ukuthi kwenzekani lapho kushaya esibukweni nalapho kusuka kwenye into kuya kwenye. Waphinde wacwaninga ngendlela iso elibona ngayo, ukwakheka kwalo nendlela elisebenza ngayo.

 Kwathi kufika iminyaka yawo-1200 incwadi ka-Alhazen ayeyibhale ngesi-Arabhu yayisihunyushelwe olimini lwesiLatini, futhi eminyakeni eminingi ngemva kwalokho, izifundiswa zaseYurophu zaziyisebenzisa. Ngakho lokho u-Alhazen akubhala mayelana nokwakheka kwezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezingilazi, kwasetshenziswa abenzi bezibuko baseYurophu ukuze benze isibonakude nesibonakhulu.

IGUMBI ELIMNYAMA LOKWENZA IZITHOMBE

Indlela amakhamera asebenza ngayo, isekelwe kulokho u-Alhazen akuthola lapho enza igumbi elimnyama lokuqala lokwenza izithombe. Leli gumbi lalinembobo encane eyayingenisa ukukhanya, lokhu kukhanya kwakwenza isithombe sanoma yini engaphandle sibonakale odongeni olungaphakathi kodwa sasivela sibheke phansi futhi siphendukezelwe.

U-Alhazen wenza lokho okungenzeka kwaba igumbi elimnyama lokuqala lokwenza izithombe

Ngeminyaka yawo-1800, kwabe sekufakwa okuthile kuleli gumbi okwenza ukuba leso sithombe sikwazi ukugcinwa unomphela. Waba yini umphumela? Kwenziwa ikhamera. Amehlo ethu kanye nawo wonke amakhamera esimanje, asebenza ngendlela efanayo negumbi elimnyama lokwenza izithombe. *

INDLELA ENGOKWESAYENSI YOKWENZA IZINTO

Into ephawuleka kakhulu ngomsebenzi ka-Alhazen ukuthi wayecophelela futhi elandela izindlela ezithile lapho enza ucwaningo. Lokho kwakuyinto engavamile ngesikhathi sakhe. Wayephakathi kwabacwaningi bokuqala abenza izindlela zokuthola ubufakazi bokuthi into ethile ababeyicabanga mayelana nesayensi yayinjalo ngempela yini.

Isayensi yanamuhla isekelwe esishweni esithi: “Veza ubufakazi balokho okukholelwayo.” Abantu abaningi bathi u-Alhazen “unguyise wezindlela ezisetshenziswayo namuhla emkhakheni wesayensi.” Ngenxa yalokho, sinezizathu eziningi zokumbonga.

^ isig. 13 Emazweni aseNtshonalanga, ukufana okukhona phakathi kwendlela igumbi elimnyama lokwenza izithombe elisebenza ngayo nendlela iso elisebenza ngayo, kwaze kwaqondwa lapho kuchazwa uJohannes Kepler ngeminyaka yawo-1600.